|1 (2019)||Еconomic and bioenergy efficiency of application of different preparati-ons and growth regulators at growing soybean in the conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Еconomic and bioenergy efficiency of application of different preparati-ons and growth regulators at growing soybean in the conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDK 631.1:631.815:620.93:633.34 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0078
Artemenko S. F., Kovtun O. V. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 191–198.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
Soybean is the leading legumes in the world, the area under soybean ranked fourth, second only to wheat, rice and maize. Soybeans grow over 40 countries with a total area of over 100 million hectares. Such a spread of soya is due to the unique chemical composition, which determines the universality of its use as an important food, technical, fodder and agrotechnical culture.
After the cultivation of soya in the soil remains 60–90 kg/hectare of biofixed nitrogen, it clears the field from weeds, therefore, it is a good predecessor for various crops. At that, for the formation of 100 kg of seeds, this culture needs 7,2–10,0 kg of nitrogen, 1,7–4,0 kg of phosphorus and 2,2–4,4 kg of potassium. The present amount of macro-element of phosphorus in our soils is not enough and it is necessary to ensure the needs of soybeans throughout the growing season.
In the Erastivska research station of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAASof Ukraine in 2011–2015 researcheshave been conducted to ground not only agricultural but also economic and energy aspects of growing soybeans with the effective use of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus with incrustation of seeds and foliar fertilization of soybeansin the concrete soil and climatic conditions of NorthernSteppe.
The soil research site is ordinary little humus heavy loamy chernozem. Characterizing the weather conditions during the period of the research should be noted that 2011, 2013 and 2015 were quite favorable in relation of moisturing, and 2014 were drought in different degree, uttery drough appeared 2012.
The complicated local character of the weather conditions, in a certain way, allowed to more fully study the impact of the measures developed.
According to the results of the researches, positive effect of sunflower seeds treatment and plant nutrition has been established, namely: application of 200 g/t of water-soluble phosphorus-containing preparation Antistress for incrustation of soybean seeds, in combination with the pretreatment, ensured the formation of high productivity – 2.58 t/ha. At the same time, the lowest cost was noted, and profitability was at the level of 167 %. Induced feeding with Antistress (1.5 l/ha) slightly inferior to economic indicators – the cost increased by 5%, and profitability decreased by 13 percentage points. Regarding energy indicators of soybeans it is established that maximum accumulation of gross energy is formed on variants with the use of a pretreatment granivite and a preparation Antistress for seeds treatment and its application into the phase of the third triangular leaf. The highest coefficient of energy efficiency 6.9 was obtained with the use of an anti-stress and antistress agent for seed treatment
Keywords: soy, costs of production, cost, profit, profitability, total energy expenditures, energy consumption, energy efficiency coefficient.
|№ 1 (2018)||Productivity and efficiency of growing grain and leguminous plants in short crop rotations||Annotation|
Productivity and efficiency of growing grain and leguminous plants in short crop rotations
UDC 631.1:631.582:633.15:633.34 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0025
Artemenko S. F., Kovtun O. V. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 180–193.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The main task of agriculture is to ensure human needs in food products and animal feed in high quality. The important and real and the most effective way to solve this problem is to expand production of high-energy cereals and grain legumes crops by increasing of the cultivated areas and improvement of the basic elements of technology of cultivation of these crops. In the area of domestic agricultural production solve the problem of ensuring of reliable balance of food and feed grains is inextricably linked to the stabilization of the production of barley. This culture playing a positive role not only in increasing the productivity of livestock industry and improving its economic situation but also interested in the production of winter barley. One of the main grain reserves to increase the productivity of these crops is the introduction of scientifically based crop rotation, cultivation adaptive technology that combines innovative achievements in perspective tillage system, fertilization and protection. The successful combination of these basic elements allows to receive high yields of grain with appropriate resource savings.
In the Erastivska research station of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe zone of NAAS of Ukraine in 2008–2015 researches have been conducted to ground not only agricultural but also economic aspects of expediency of application of different ways of basic tillage, systems of fertilising in short-rotation crop rotation using the soybean, corn and barley in the concrete soil and climatic conditions of Northern Steppe. In terms of significant climate change area under crops of winter barley are growing rapidly. Crops of winter barley is almost at the level of winter wheat and greater that grain productivity of spring barley.
The experiment was laid on the background of two ways basic tillage: mould board ploughing and chiseling. We have studied the saturation of crop rotations by soybean: in two-field crop rotation i was 50%, in three-field crop rotation it was 33%, in four-field crop rotation it was 25 and 50%, and by corn in two-field crop rotation it was 50%, in three-field crop rotation it was 33%, in four-field crop rotation it was 25 and 50% respectively. In the three- and four-field crop rotations in order to decrease herbicide load an interrupt rotation of corn and soybeans by one field of barley is envisaged. The systems of fertilization in crop rotation were studied by the scheme: control – no fertilizer, fertilizer use under planned yield according to the results of soil diagnostic for corn – N90Р60К30, for barley – N60Р50К30, for soybeans – N30Р60К20 and use of fertilizers in recommended doses: for corn – N60Р45К30, for barley – N40Р40К30, for soybeans – N40Р60. Fertilizers introduce in autumn under the basic tillage. Before earning their basic tillage into soil by heavy disk harrows.
For weed control using the complex of agrotechnical measures (crop rotation, tillage system basic afterplanting weed control methods) and chemical (herbicide harness the use of 2 l/ha of soybeans and corn, and if necessary insurance herbicides recommended for these crops)
The soil place research – ordinary chernozem little by humus. Characterizing the weather conditions during the period of the research should be noted that 2008 and 2011 were quite favorable in respect moisture, and 2009, 2010, 2013, 2014, 2015 in different degrees dry, very dry was 2012.
The complex nature of the local weather conditions definitely allowed to more fully explore the impact of measures designed performance and features of formation of grain crops in short-rotation crop rotations.
Economic evaluationof the resultsof experimentscarried outaccording to generally acceptedmethods. Basic economicindicators:cost price andprofitabilityof grainproductionwere determinedto evaluate the effectivenessof cornand soybeansgrowing inshort-rotation crop rotation.
In all short-rotations crop rotations more competitive crop rotation system was recommended fertilizer. It was noted increase in grain yield with less fertilizer, while expenditure growth was lower than in options where they are used for the diagnosis of soil. Chisel plowing in all variants was economically more advantageous compared to plowing, due to lower fuel costs during the execution of the main cultivation.
The biggest cost of products grown in the three-field crop rotation received when entering the field of spring barley, which significantly reduced the grain yield of 1 hectare of crop rotation area. In four-field crop rotation at saturation corn and soybeans and 50% for the use of recommended doses of fertilizer provided somewhat better grain production costs.
The highest indicators of profitability of grain production (123,4 and 121,6%) it was got due to thesaturation of short-rotation two-field (soybean – corn) and four-field crop rotations by corn up to 50% by growing of cultures without chemical fertilizers application.
Experimental data in the study of the efficiency of basic tillage methods and the use of fertilizer in short-rotation crop rotations of corn with soybeans show in condition of low moisture of Northern Steppe promising implementation of the recommended and balanced system of fertilization, which involves the use in moderate doses of fertilizers on background chisel deep plowing with effective system of protection from weeds with the introduction in short-rotation crop rotation at least 50% area of rotation under corn which increases productivity and economic efficiency of crop rotation as a whole.
In favorable weather conditions for humidification for the Northern Steppe of Ukraine in the fall, it is advisable to introduce into triple and four-field crop rotation after a predecessor such as soy high-yielding varieties of winter barley instead of spring that provides a significant increase in the productivity of crop rotation and economic efficiency.
Keywords: plowing, chisel plowing, fertilizer system, short rotation,winter barley, spring barley, soybeans, corn, costs of production, cost, profit, profitability.
|№ 2 (2017)||Directions of improvement of competitive production of corn grain in Dnipropetrovsk region||Annotation|
Directions of improvement of competitive production of corn grain in Dnipropetrovsk region
Key words: yield, corn, intensification, innovation, hybrids, production costs, prime cost, price, economic effectiveness.
Dnipropetrovsk region is the traditionally corn-growing region of Ukraine. Here in the period from 1990 to 2016 were concentrated an average of about 9.4% of its crops. In recent years, in the farms of the region, there was also a significant expansion of the area occupied by grain corn: from 118.6 thousand hectares in 1990 to 339.2 thousand hectares in 2016.
It should be emphasized that thanks to the introduction of high – productive hybrids and the activation of innovation activity in the technology of growing this crop in the Dnipropetrovsk region, for the first time was obtained the record total yield of its grain – over 1 million tons. In particular, in 2011 this indicator made up 1,314 thousand tons, in 2013 the absolute maximum – more than 1,315.5 thousand tons was harvested, and in 2015 and 2016 – respectively 1,115.8 and 1,197.6 thousand tons. Such the indicators confirm the real possibilities of increasing the volumes of production of this important grain-growing culture in a specific region of Ukraine.
The effective factor determining the level of productivity and effectiveness of corn production is the scientifically substantiated level of concentration of its crops. It has been proved that the highest yield (4.92 t/ha) and profitability (4,809 UAH/ha) have farms with a corn area of over 500 ha. This, in turn, confirms the fact that corn is more rationally grown in large-scale agrarian enterprises. Such farms are equipped with modern advanced technologies, adherence to scientifically substantiated crop rotation, rhythmic production and rational consumption of material and technical and labor resources, etc.
The generalization of agro-technological, economic research and forecast calculations conducted in the State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and its experimental stations for 2017 allows us to predict the production cost of a ton of corn grain at a yield of 3.0 to 6.0 tons per hectare in the range of 3,136 up to 2,209 UAH per ton. An analysis of the level of profitability (unprofitableness) of grain production of this crop shows that the price of corn grain sales should not be less than 3,500–3,700 UAH per ton, in order to provide the average producer the opportunity to carry out an expanded reproduction of production.
With an increase of yields to the level of 5.5–6.0 t/ha, the profitability of its production can grow to 45.0–52.2%, and as a result, more favorable conditions for expanded reproduction of production will be created. At the same time, let us also note that the further development of corn grain production will also contribute to strengthening the country's energy security.
As a source of renewable energy and economically sound raw material, maize has special place in solution the problem of providing the state with alternative types of fuel and energy resources of its own production, in particular bioethanol.