|2 (2019)||Content and consumption of soluble carbohydrates in plants of different winter wheat varieties depending on the sowing time in the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Content and consumption of soluble carbohydrates in plants of different winter wheat varieties depending on the sowing time in the northern Steppe of Ukraine
Astakhova Ya. V., Gasanova I. I., Solodushko M. M. Grain Crops, 2019. 3 (2). 251–257.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str.,
Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
According to research conducted at the SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences in the Northern Steppe conditions it was found, that at the time of the termination of autumn vegetation a large amount of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves of plants, regardless of its forecrop, was accumulated in common winter wheat varieties Lastivka Odes’ka and Golubka Odes’ka, compared to the durum wheat (variety Burshtyn). Thus, at the variety Lastivka Odes’ka for the time of the termination of autumn vegetation their content at growing in the bare fallow depending on the sowing time was 26,4–27,7 %, at the variety Golubka Odes’ka – 27,0–28,7 %, and at the wheat durum Burshtyn – only 21,5–22,2%. At growing after the spring barley, similar values of common wheat varieties were 21,5–25,6 and 22,9–25,9 %, respectively, and values of durum wheat were 18,9–19,3 %. In the tillering nodules the total content of soluble carbohydrates was much higher than in the leaves, but both in the bare fallow and after the spring barley little depended from the varieties. Thus, according to the fallow forecrop the amount of sugars in the tillering nodes of plantis of variety Lastivka Odes’ka depending on the sowing time was 37,0–39,7 %, at the variety Golubka Odes’ka – 36,2–41,4 and at the variety Burshtyn – 34,3–36,3%, after the stubble forecrop according to the varieties – 35,4–36,4, 33,5–36,4 and 32,3–36,4%.
It was found, that the formation of new shoots, nodal roots and leaves after the termination of the active autumn vegetation of winter cereal crops, due to the temperature regime, in the favorable weather days more intensively occurred in the crops of optimal and late sowing times, compared with the early sowing time. It testifies,that winter wheat plants at sowing times of September 22 and October 7 were in unstable dormant state and also lost more sugars. At winter wheat growing in the bare fallow the consumption of carbohydrates in the leaves of the crops of optimal and late sowing times, depending on the varieties, amounted to 36,3–51,4 % of the total amount of autumn, compared to 33,3–43,3 % during the early sowing time. At the same time, at the time of spring vegetation resumption, in crops of early sowing time, where the autumn winter wheat growth and development were better, due to disappearance due to winter damage of shoots and leaves, in some cases a decrease in vegetative mass was observed.
Keywords: winter wheat, variety, plants, soluble carbohydrates, sowing time, predecessor.
|2 (2019)||Different fertilizer systems impact to rice yield in drip irrigation conditions||Annotation|
Different fertilizer systems impact to rice yield in drip irrigation conditions
Dudchenko K. V., Petrenko T. M., Flinta O. I., Datsuk M. M. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (2). 258–266.
Institute of Rice NAAN,11 Studencheskaya Str., p. Antonіvka, Skadovskiy district, Kherson region, 75705, Ukraine
A rice crop area in Ukraine was about 30 thousand ha before 2014 year. The value of this indicator decries to 10–12 thousand ha. The demand of rice groats increases.
According to the existing technology of rice growing taking into account the requirements of environmental protection occurs in conditions of flooding and is possible only in rice irrigation systems. Under such conditions, increasing the volume of rice production is possible by increasing the sown area of culture. A constraining factor is the significant cost of building new rice irrigation systems.
There is another way of resolving the problem – growing aerobic rice. Scientists from many countries of the World have studied the possibility of growing rice without flooding, mainly because of fresh water scarcity. Watering is carried out by sprinkling or drip irrigation. Using the technology of drip irrigation, rice can be grown in areas without any irrigation systems. The territory with different types of soils and relief can be used for rice growing if it is satisfaction on irrigation water source.
Potential areas for rice growing in the south of Ukraine are about 255 thousand hectares, including 180 thousand hectares in Kherson region, 35 thousand hectares in Mykolaiv region, and 40 thousand hectares in Odessa region. Gross harvesting of rice can reach 850 thousand tons if crop rotation is saturated of rice no more than 50%. The share of domestic consumption will be 20 thousand tons, and 600 thousand tons can be exported.
The rice growing technology in drip irrigation condition and its elements are to be developed for ensue this type of rice cultivation in Ukraine.
The experiment which consist 3 factors: factor A rice varieties (Premium, Consul, Marshal), Factor B fertilizer types for nutrition (urea, ammonium nitrate), factor C fertilizer types and ways of their using was done for research the different fertilizer systems impact to rice yield in drip irrigation conditions. The experiment lot square is 42 m2.
The research was done on Institute of rice territory. The drip irrigation system square is 35 ha. Cowing norm is 6 million grains/ha, with spacing 7,5 cm. An irrigation water source is closed irrigation system for sprinkler irrigation machine. Drop strips are located in 0,7 m. Rice irrigation norm is 10,9 thousand m3/ha. The nutrition was done by fertigation. Norm of nutrition was N30-40.
The type of soil of research field is dark chestnut salinity soil. Humus content on the plowing layer is 2,2%. Ground water level is not more than 2 meter during a year.
The research of rice fertilizer systems in drip irrigation shows the most effective nutritionfertilizer is urea, which ensures rice yield increase to 27%comparatively with ammonium nitrate.
The highest values of rice yield of all tested variates were fixed on the variant №8 (before sowing 400 kg/ha of ammonium sulfate + simple superphosphate 100 kg/ha; with sowing sulfamofos 100 kg/ha) with nutrition of urea. The highest yield of Premium variety is 7,17 t/ha, Consul variety is 6,68 t/ha, Marshal variety is 8,16 t/ha.
An indicator of productive bruising, an average on the research is of Premium variety 6,22, of Marshal variety 6,73, of Consul variety 7,87. The highest value of the indicator of straw:grain ratio of Premium rice variety is 1,48 with nutrition of urea. The highest value of the indicator of other tested rice varieties (Marshal – 0,89, Consul – 0,77) were observed with nutrition of ammonium nitrate.
The most effective fertilizer system for rice varieties Premium, Consul, Marshal, from an economic point of view is variant № 5 – before sowing urea 174 kg/ha + sulfamofos100 kg/ha; with sowing simple superphosphate100 kg/ha) with nutrition of urea. The level of profitability of the variant is Premium variety 17,14 %, Consul variety – 14,62%, Marshal variety – 15,99%. Analysis of economic efficiency indicators evidences – if rice yield is less than 8,0 t/ha rice growing in drip irrigation conditions isn’t cost-effective.
Key words: rice, fertilizer system, drip irrigation, economic efficiency.
|2 (2019)||Survival rate of plants and grain productivity of buckwheat depending on agrotechnical measures of cultivation||Annotation|
Survival rate of plants and grain productivity of buckwheat depending on agrotechnical measures of cultivation
UDC 633.12: 631.559: 631.5
TkalichI.D., GyrkaA. D., TkalichYu. I., BochevarO. V., SydorenkoYu. Ya. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 267–277.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str.,
It is established that the harrowing of buckwheat crops with medium harrows can be carried out after seeding, on germinated seedlings and before budding stage. By correctly setting the harrowing time and their multiplicity, we can clean off the buckwheat crops from weeds by 77–90%, thereby increase the grain yield for almost 31%. Growing buckwheat with 45 cm space between the rows leads to an increase in grain yields compared to the 15 cm space between the rows, but the choice of sowing method must be made taking into account the possibilities of farms and their economic feasibility.
The experiments were carried out at «Svitanok» LLC (Novomoskovs’kyi district, Dnipropetrovs’k region) during 2010–2012. The soil of the experimental plots – ordinary, middle loamy chernozem. The humus content in the arable layer varies from 4.0 to 4.2%. The gross content of nutrients in the arable layer of chernozem varies within the following limits: nitrogen – from 0.23 to 0.26%, phosphorus – from 0.11 to 0.16%, potassium – from 2.0 to 2.5%.
The results of the research show that the growth and development of buckwheat plants largely depends on the density of their planting in the crop and placement on the area. Increasing the seeding rate from 2.5 to 5.0 million of germinated seeds/ha and expanding the row spacing from 15 to 45 cm reduces the area of nutrition, increases the density and uneven placement of plants in the row. This increases competition between plants, leads to a decrease in their survival during the growing season by 5.8–19.8 and 6.1–15.7%, respectively, and productivity. The overall survival of buckwheat depending on the timing of harrowing is: during the sprouting – 44,2–52,8%, in the stage of 1–2 leaves – 48,6–59,6%, budding – 51,2–63,6%, in stage of 1–2 leaves and budding – 43.2–50.0%.
Narrowing of space between the rows within the same seeding rate increases the field germination of seeds and survival of plants by 3.4–4.5 and 2.4–2.9%, respectively, due to a more even distribution of them over the feeding area.
Harrowing on germinated seedlings leads to a significant liquefaction of crops due to the uprooting, damaging and covering the plants with soil by the harrow teeth. The greatest loss of plants (27.4–35.6%) is observed during harrowing of BZSS-1 harrows on germinated seedlings, smaller (18.7–26.7%) – in phase of 1–2 leaves and the smallest (18.0–22, 4%) – at the beginning of budding stage. In the case of double harrowing of buckwheat in the phase of 1–2 leaves and at the beginning of budding, 32.7–45.3% of plants perished, which should be taken into account when established the seeding rate, depending on the number and terms of harrowing crops.
With increasing seeding rate, weediness of buckwheat crops in both sowing methods is reduced by 1.5–3.4 times. Moreover, if such crops are harrowed before the emergence of seedlings, the number of weeds decreases by 1.5–1.9 times, if after – by 2.6–3.6 times.
The positive effect of harrowing on the buckwheat yield depends on the seeding rate. Both sowing methods (seeding rate of 2.5–3.0 million germinated seeds/ha) yielded high grain yield (1.53–1.83 t/ha) during harrowing after sowing and in the phase of 1–2 leaves or budding, which depended on the time of the emergence of the weeds. Harrowing in these variants on germinated seedlings and in three terms caused considerable damage to the buckwheat plants, which is two years out of three, as a result – a decrease in grain yield by almost 26–31%.
Three-time harrowing of sowing at 15 cm space between the rows before germination, in the phase of 1–2 leaves and budding, based on the sowing rate of 4 million germinated seeds/ha, provided a grain yield of 1.74 t/ha, almost the same as in the best variants in 45 cm space between the rows with a sowing rate of 2.5–3.0 million germinated seeds/ha (1.81–1.83 t/ha).
Wide-row buckwheat crops produced the higher grain yields than cropswith 15 cm space between rows, only in the case of inter-row cultivation. On average, during the years of research, the exclusion of inter-row cultivations from growing system of wide-row crops has led to a decrease in grain yields compared to the narrow-row crop (seeding rate of 2.5–3.0 million germinated seeds/ha) by 0.20–0.21 t/ha.
Key words: buckwheat, harrowing, sowing methods, seeding rates, grain yield.
|2 (2019)||Influence of fertilizers on species composition of weeds in buckwheat crops at short-term rotation||Annotation|
Influence of fertilizers on species composition of weeds in buckwheat crops at short-term rotation
UDC 632.51: 633.12
Vavrynovych O. V., Kachmar O. Yo. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 278–285.
Institute of Agriculture of Сarpathian Region of NAAS, 5 Grushevskogost., v. Obroshyne, Pustomytydistrict,
According to research conducted at the Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region during 2016–2018, the influence of fertilizer systems on the formation of potential and actual weediness of buckwheat crops and the removal of the main nutrients of vegetative vegetation in short rotation. The data on the dynamics of seed pools of soil exponents in soil and the decrease of crop yield from the presence of weeds are given. The important role of fertilizer in reducing crop losses due to the presence of weeds is substantiated.
Buckwheat is of great economic importance, is an important cereals and melliferous culture, serves as a source of vegetable protein, which is more valuable in amino acid composition than cereals. Realization of potential productivity of buckwheat, increase of its level of productivity are possible under conditions of rigid observance of scientifically grounded technologies of cultivation, including placement in rotation, differentiated, depending on soil conditions, basic tillage, application of optimal doses of mineral fertilizers, measures of germanium.
Our observations found that in the buckwheat crops the smallest seed stock of the vegetative species was formed by the application of N60P60K60– 22700 pc/m2, slightly lower amount was on the variant with the introduction of N30P30K30 + by-products – 26,8 thousand pc/m2. Potential is the part of the weed seed that can germinate during the growing season. Observation of the dynamics of this process showed that in the first 30–60 days of accounting, 33 and 25% of the seed bank of the total number for the entire growing season were realized. Over the next period, the percentage of germination decreased.
In the buckwheat crops at the beginning of the growing season, when applying mineral fertilizers in the standard N60P60K60, the highest amount of vegetative vegetation was observed – 219 pcs/m2, which is 12% higher than on the control. The most common weeds in the tillering phase were the white quinoa (Chenopodium albumL.), the field sparrow (SpergulaarvensisL.), the common flathead (Echinochloacrusgalli (L.) P. Beauv), mouse blue (Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.). Before harvesting the crop, the vegetation population in the same variant decreased significantly to 163 pc/m2, with the lowest weed mass of 138 g/m2. The predominant weed species during this period were: flat eared (Echinochloacrus-galli(L.) P. Beauv), common fungi (Capsellabursapastoris (L.) mouse blue (Setariaglauca (L.)Beauv.), white swan (Chenopodium album L.).
Analyzing the peculiarities of buckwheat and weeds competitiveness, we found that the lowest competitiveness was on the variants without fertilizers – the ratio of masses of culture and weeds was 2,1. Culture resistance to weeds in crops increased significantly with the introduction of N60P60K60, the coefficient of competitiveness was 4,1, the ratio of weeds in the crop and without it decreased by 0,34 times. Plowing of winter wheat with the addition of N30P30K30 formed these indicators at 3,0 and 0,42. Thus, increasing mineral nutrition increases the competitiveness of buckwheat against weeds and reduces the harmfulness of weed components. Also, increasing or decreasing the mass of vegetative vegetation leads to a change in crop yield.
In our studies, it was found that, in buckwheat crops, the removal of mineral substances by weeds depended, first of all, on the mass they formed on one hectare of sowing. It acquired the smallest values in the version without fertilizer (control) – 148,4 kg/ha. It was slightly higher on the variant with the introduction of by-products and mineral nutrition – 166,6 kg/ha. The use of mineral fertilizers in the standard N60P60K60 increased nutrient yield by 16% compared to the control (172,1 kg/ha). Thus, the higher mineral fertilizer backgrounds improved the nutritional conditions and the level of nutrient absorption of not only the cultivated crop but also the weeds.
An important indicator of the overall negative impact of the vegetation group on the crop is the harmfulness (decrease in yield) – the property of weeds to suppress the growth and development of cultivated plants, reducing their yield and worsening its quality. The calculations showed that the highest yield of 2,03 and 1,78 t/ha (at the control of 1,47 and 1,17 t/ha) formed in buckwheat crops under the traditional fertilizer system, both with and without plant protection. Fertilizer plays an important role in reducing crop losses. The decrease in yield from the presence of weeds on variants with the introduction of N60P60K60 was accordingly 12,2%, when using by-products + N30P30K30 –14,3%. Thus, weeds in buckwheat crops occupy all the free ecological niches, compete with it for living space and food and reduce crop yields.
Keywords: buckwheat, crop rotation, fertilizer, potential weediness, current weediness, weeds.
|2 (2019)||Alternative varieties of winter barley for growing in conditions of South of Mykolaiv region||Annotation|
Alternative varieties of winter barley for growing in conditions of South of Mykolaiv region
Andreychenko L. V., Lavrishina O. Ye. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 286–292.
State Institution Nikolaev Agricultural Experimental Station of the Institute of Irrigated Agriculture NAAS, 17 Central Str., Landfill village, Vitovsky district, Mykolaiv region, 57217, Ukraine
The results of variety trial of varieties of winter barley in conditions of south of Nikolaev area during 2014–2019 are presented. Soil of an experimental plot is chernozem southern weakly eroded clay loamy on loess’s, content of humus (for Тurin) is a 2,4 %, acidity – near to neutral (рН off 6,8), it is noted by high contents potassium, average – phosphorus and it is not enough provided by nitrogen. Climate of Black Sea region –continental, is characterized sharp and repeated by fluctuations annual and month temperature of air, greater spare of heat and aridity. Agrotechnics in experiment was generally accepted for southern Steppe of Ukraine. The object of research served as recognized in the south of Ukraine varieties of winter barley Dostoynyiy, Devyatyiy val, Aborigen, Snigova koroleva.
Weather conditions were generally characteristic of area and location of researchs, however, slightly different by year. The autumn drought was observed in 2016 and 2018 vegetative years, which caused problem of getting timely and even stands.
Despite improvement in moisture conditions in October-November 2016, main limiting factor for normal winter development was heat deficit (average monthly air temperature in October was lower by 1.3 °, in November – by 0.5 °). There was a too early transition of average daily temperatures through + 5 ° towards decrease, as a result of which there was a slowdown of growth processes in barley plants, barley sprouts were very sparse and weak, which led to their partial winterkilling. In 2014, 2015, reserves of productive moisture in fields intended for sowing winter crops were formed at level of sufficient and optimal indicators: at sowing time of barley, reserves of productive moisture in soil ranged from 25–40 mm in plow horizon and 63–115 mm in meter horizon of soil. In 2017, there was a joint effect of spring and summer drought; in 2016 2017, 2018 recorded droughts during grain formation period. Air temperature in all months of vegetation, without exception, was above average long-term. Precipitation was unevenly distributed, most of them occurring in winter, during critical phases of winter crops growth and development (April – May), they were insufficient.
Grain yield for an average of six years ranged from 3.43–3.86 t/ha, protein content reached 12.5–13.6%. The most favorable year for crop was 2019, when grain yield, depending on variety, was 4.09–4.70 t/ha. In favorable weather conditions of vegetation period 2016–2017 productivity was 2.79 t/ha with a variation from 2.57 to 3.02 t/ha. On average to experience, vegetation period of plants from sowing to ripening lasted from 241 to 248 days, that is, varieties showed themselves as middle duration cultivars. In terms of height, varieties were characterized mainly as medium-sized, loss of plants after wintering was at level of 4–13%, and in 2017, as a result of severe frosts, this indicator for Aborigen variety was 35%, for other varieties – 17–19%. A significant increase in productivity compared with standard variety was obtained when growing the short-stemmed variety Snigova koroleva. Due to low winter hardiness, variety Aborigen was significantly inferior in grain size and yield to other studied varieties.
|2 (2019)||Agrotechnical and economic efficiency of growing of love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus paniculatus L.) for green forage in the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Agrotechnical and economic efficiency of growing of love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus paniculatus L.) for green forage in the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDK 633.3: (477) (251.1) (1–17)
Dudka M.I. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 293–304.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str.,
Among the representatives of the world flora in plant growing are increasingly used species of amaranth family, grain and vegetative mass of which is rich in protein. The publication presents the results of research for the technology of development of love-lies-bleeding growing (Amaranthuspaniculatus L.) for green forage in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine. The purpose of the research was to provide a comparative assessment of the forage productivity of love-lies-bleeding and traditional late spring crops, to investigate the influence of sowing method and seeding rates, fertilizers, harvesting time on the yield of green forage, to determine the expediency and efficiency of growing of crop on green forage and compatible agrophytocenoses at once cut and two hay cutting use of crops.
The research were carried out during 1987–2013 at the Erastivska Research Station of the State Institute of Cereal Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Soil of the experimental site is common chernozem low in humus, humus content in the arable layer is 4.0 %.
It has been established that is the high-yielding crop. The content of digestible protein in dry above-ground mass of love-lies-bleeding is significantly higher than in maize and millet. But amaranth is inferior to these crops in energy nutrition of above-ground mass. In 100 kg of dry matter of its vegetative mass at harvesting in the flowering stage contains 50.0 kg of feed units and 7.9 kg of digestible protein. The collection of nutrients per unit area is usually significantly dependent on the growing conditions and productivity of its crops.
The highest yields of green and dry matter and the collection of feed units and digestible protein the sowings of love-lies-bleeding are provided by continuous row sowing (15 cm) and wide – row sowing (45 cm) methods and seeding rates of 1.25 kg/ha. The use of complete mineral fertilizer (N60P60K30) provided the yield of green forage of 7.50 t/ha, dry matter collection of 1.37, feed units of 1.24, digestible protein of 0.225 t/ha compared to the control (without fertilizers). The use of a higher dose of fertilizer (N90P90K30) had tendency to increase the yield, but its increase was at the level of experiemental error. At usage of amaranth sowings for green forage for one hay cutting, it should be harvested in the large flowering stage at a minimum cut height (5 cm), and for two hay cutting – at the beginning of flowering stage of plants, using the cut height in the first hay cutting of grass stand with a minimum of 15 cm.
The highest yield of green forage (42.38 t/ha), the collection of feed units (6.89 t/ha) and digestible protein (0.67 t/ha) were obtained during the growing of compatible agrophytocenoses of love-lies – bleeding with the maize at the level profitability of 155.2 % and energy ratio of 10.68. In sum for two hay cuttings (main and aftecrop), the highest yield of green forage (50.10 t/ha), collection of feed units (8.41 t/ha) and digestible protein (0.89 t/ha) provided the compatible sowing of love-lies-bleeding with sorghum-Sudan-grass hybrid at a profitability level of 194.2% and an energy ratio of 12.03.
Key words: love-lies-bleeding, sowing method, seeding rate, mineral fertilizers, harvesting time and cutting height, compatible agrophytocenoses, productivity.
|2 (2019)||Influence of mineral fertilizers and predecessors on the water consumption and productivity of winter wheat||Annotation|
Influence of mineral fertilizers and predecessors on the water consumption and productivity of winter wheat
Tsvey Ya.P.1, Ivanina R.V.1,Senchuk S.M.2 Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 305–311.
1Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet NAAS,
2Bila Tserkva Research-Selection Station IBC&SB
The article presents the results of research on the influence of legume precursors and mineral fertilizers on water consumption and winter wheat productivity for more than 40 years of using organic and mineral fertilizers in crop rotation. Research methods – long-term field and analytical. The features of soil moisture accumulation and its uptake by winter wheat plants, depending on their predecessors and fertilization system, are shown. Research data on the influence of legume predecessors, doses of nitrogen fertilizers and fertilizers
fond of crop rotation provision on grain yield and its quality are presented. Bean precursors and fertilizers have been found to have improved water consumption and significantly increased winter wheat productivity. It was found that increasing the dose of nitrogen fertilizer for winter wheat from 60 to 90 kg/ha in both rotation chains was ineffective.It was found that soil moisture during spring tillage and the use of moisture by winter wheat plants during the growing season were significantly dependent on their predecessors and fertilization system. For the clover predecessor, spring moisture reserves in the 1.5 m soil layer were higher than for the spring vetch by 11–23 mm. The most moisture in the soil was accumulated on the control without fertilizers: for the predecessor of clover – 230 mm, spring vetch – 207 mm. The application of mineral fertilizers reduced the soil moisture reserves in the spring compared to the control without fertilizers by 14–26 mm at absolute value in the clover chain – 204–211 mm, spring vetch chain – 193 mm, which may be a consequence of its more intensive use by predecessor crops.
The most effective used of soil moisture by winter wheat crops were observed at apply N60Р60К60 in the clover chain. Winter wheat consumed 212 m3 of moisture per one tone of crop yield, which is 136 m3 less than in the control without fertilizers and 47 m3 less than in the same variant with spring vetch predecessor. This suggests that the introduction of perennial legumes in the crop rotation and the 40-year practice of applying organic and mineral fertilizers created a high fond of effective soil fertility, which provided winter wheat crops with an advantage to better use of soil moisture for forming yield unit.
Fertilization system and legume predecessors significantly affected winter wheat productivity. The yield of winter wheat grain was significantly higher for the clover predecessor than for the spring vetch predecessor. On control without fertilizers in the clover chain, the yield of winter wheat grain exceeded its productivity in the spring vetch chain by 1.25 t/ha, for the application under winter wheat N60Р60К60 – by 1.32, N90Р60К60 – by 0.38 t/ha. Higher volumes of biological nitrogen accumulation by clover created better soil nitrogen conditions for winter wheat, which provided it with a higher yield compare to spring vetch predecessor.
The most effective in the rotation chain with clover it was determined the application of fertilizers for winter wheat at a dose of N60Р60К60. Against the fond of 40 years application of N43Р43К43 + 8.3 tones of manure per 1 ha of crop rotation area and directly under winter wheat N60Р60К60, grain yield was 6.76 t/ha, exceeding the control without fertilizers by 1.99 t/ha. The application for winter wheat of N60Р60К60 after the predecessor spring vetch was accompanied by a decrease in grain yield per 1.32 t/ha. The inefficient in the both crop rotation chains was found an increase of nitrogen fertilizer dose for winter wheat from 60 to 90 kg/ha: in the chain with clover the grain yield decreased by 0.88 t/ha, the chain with spring vetch – slightly increased – by 0.08 t/ha.
When growing winter wheat after clover a high efficiency was achieved by applying alternative fertilization of crop rotation (N43Р43К43 + by-products per 1 ha of crop rotation area), with the application directly under winter wheat of N60Р60К60 + straw: grain yield – 6.60 t/ha exceeding control without fertilizers by 1.83 t/ha.
Enhanced nitrogen nutrition of winter wheat plants created by the application of nitrogen fertilizers and legumes has a positive effect on grain quality. The protein content in the winter wheat grain grown after the clover predecessor was significantly higher than that after the spring vetch predecessor. Thus, in the control of non-fertilizers, the protein content in winter wheat grain grown after the clover was 11.4%, after spring vetch – 11.0%; for application of fertilizer dose N60Р60К60 – 11,9% and 11,5% respectively; N90Р60К60 – 12.1% and 11.8%. The cultivation of winter wheat after clover was accompanied by an increase in the protein content of the grain by 0.3–0.4% compared to its predecessor spring vetch.
After both leguminous predecessors, winter wheat responded well to an increase the doses of nitrogen fertilizer. Due to mineral nitrogen fertilizers applied under winter wheat at a dose of 60–90 kg/ha protein content in the grain in comparison with the control without fertilizers increased in the chain with clover by 0.5–0.7 %, in chain with spring vetch – by 0.5–0,8 %.
The best indicators of grain quality were obtained under the cultivation of winter wheat after clover with the application for this crop of N90Р60К60 against the fond of 40 years application of N65Р43К43 + 8.3 tones of manure per 1 ha of crop rotation area: protein content in grain – 12.1 % with excess to control without fertilizers – per 0.7 %.
Key words: fertilizers, predecessors, water consumption, productivity, winter wheat.
|2 (2019)||Features of wintering of winter barley plants, depending on the timing of sowing in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Features of wintering of winter barley plants, depending on the timing of sowing in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDK 633.16 “324” 631.53.04. (251.1) (1-17) (477)
Zavalypich N.O. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 312–317.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, VolodymyrVernadskyi Str.,
Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The questions of winter barley growing technology in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine, where special attention is given to agrotechnical techniques, namely the sowing times and seeding rate, are considered.
According to the results of the research, a significant influence of sowing time and seeding rates in the conditions of autumn growing season on the growth and development of winter barley and resistance to unfavourable winter conditions was established.
The average for 2016–2018 hydrothermal conditions of winter period were favorable, which caused winter barley wintering depending on the state of its development in sowing times and seeding rates within 89–95% of plants. The highest plant survival rate was observed for sowing times on September 30 and October 10 and was on the level of 95% and 94%, respectively. At a later sowing time (October 20), plant survival rate decreases by 4.5%.
The amount of soluble carbohydrates at the time of termination of autumn vegetation is one of the main indicators characterizing the winter – hardiness of the winter plants.
It was proved that winter barley plants at different sowing times had different amount of carbohydrates in the tillering nodes at the time of the termination of autumn vegetation (31.0%) at the sowing time on September 30, at the seeding rate of 4.5 million pieces / ha, which was by 1.3% and 3.3% more, respectively, compared to the sowing time on September 20 and October 10, respectively. Sowing in optimal times provides better conditions of water supply and temperature regime for the passage by plants of the I and II hardening phase. At the sowing time on October 20, at the time of the termination of autumn vegetation, the plants did not form the tillering nodes and entered the winter in the phase of 1–2 leaves. The influence of seeding rates on carbohydrate accumulation at tillering nodes was also noted. Increasing seeding rates from 4.5 to 6.0 million pieces/ha of germinate seeds resulted in a reduction in the amount of carbohydrate accumulated.
The results of the conducted research show that the highest survival rate of winter barley plants was observed in the end of the third decade of September and the beginning of October, namely from September 30 to October 5.
Key words: winter barley, carbohydrates, winter-hardiness, plant survival rate, sowing time, seeding rates.
|1 (2019)||System factors for controlling the grain yield of corn in diverse crop rotations of the Steppe zone||Annotation|
System factors for controlling the grain yield of corn in diverse crop rotations of the Steppe zone
UDC 633.15:631.559/.582 (477.63) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0058
Desyatnyk L. M., Shevchenko M. S., Shvets N. V., Khyzhnyak A. A. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (1). 37–44.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str.,
Market stimulation and giving priority to the production of maize grain caused a significant restructuring of agrotechnological systems, which are associated with a high rate of change in the structure of crop areas, a radical focus on soil protection methods of soil cultivation and the problem of the use of alternative organic fertilizers.
Principal scientific solution requires the replacement of traditional organic fertilizers - manure on the residues of agricultural crops or sideral organics. Over the past 30 years, the use of manure has decreased from 7.3 t/ha of arable land to 0.2 t/ha, which excludes the renewable resource of organic matter from the balance of humus.
In the radical transformation of the organo-mineral fertilizer system, the main cultivation of the soil becomes a new value, which substantially changes the positional arrangement of nutrients in the arable layer. As you know, the availability of nutrients for plants to a large extent depends on the nature of the compatibility of their distribution in the rhizosphere of agricultural crops. Different vertical or plane positioning of fertilizers in the soil in the conditions of limited scope of their application will allow to effectively adjust the cost recovery for the formation of power regimes.
High functional value of natural fertility and payback of fertilizers will provide the expected result only in the case of optimization of soil-ecological directions.
The organic fertilizer system on the basis of seed crops, plant residues and manure allowed to raise the grain yield of corn by 0.11–0.36 t/ha, but yielded to the effectiveness of mineral fertilizers and their combination with manure.
Direct application of maize to manure did not provide a full effect on the yield of this crop, since in
the short period the processes of humification and nitrification did not go through the full cycle and did not obtain available forms for plant nutrition.
Its regulatory significance as regards the effectiveness of fertilizer use has also been shown by the methods of basic soil cultivation. This tendency has become especially persuasive in the dry conditions of the Rosivska state agricultural research station. Thus, the introduction of N60P40K30 in the background of deep plowing plow provided an increase of 1.20 t/ha of grain, while flatly different cultivation caused a decrease in the growth to 1.0 t/ha.
The analysis of experimental data obtained in stationary 5, 7 and 8-way crop rotations in the southern and northern parts of the Steppe zone was carried out. The influence of predecessors on the yield of corn grain during its placement in crop rotation after winter wheat, sunflower and spring barley has been studied. The agrobiological role of long and rotary plowing, chisel cultivation and No-till system in growing corn is established. The efficiency of the sideral and byside organic matter, manure, mineral fertilizers in different combinations and places of the rotational scheme is determined. To reveal the adaptive dependence of corn agrobiocenoses on soil-climatic conditions of cultivation.
In the multi-factor model of agriculture, which includes crop rotation, basic soil cultivation and application of various types of fertilizers, it has been established that corn cultivation has a wide range of productive reaction within the range of 2.73–6.35 t/ha. In this case, the disadvantages of the crop rotation factor can be partially offset by the main cultivation of soil and the integrated introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers. The best agrobiophysical conditions for the growth and development of corn are due to the deep-grazing cultivation and the application of 30 t/ha of manure at the same time N90P60K60.
Key words: crop rotation, corn, tillage, manure, mineral fertilizers, predecessors, yield, grain.
|1 (2019)||Efficiency of cultivation of hard winter wheat of variety Kontynent in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Efficiency of cultivation of hard winter wheat of variety Kontynent in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine
Melnyk T. V. 1, Yarchuk І. І. 1,Masliiov S. V.2 Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 45–51.
1 Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
2 LuhanskNationalAgrarianUniversity, 68 Slobojanska Str., Starobilsk, Luhanskyi region, 92703,Ukrainе
The grain of hard wheat (Triticum durum) is extremely important for the processing and food industry in Ukraine, the need of which is one million tons per year. The immaturity of technology of its cultivation prevents the expansion of the cultivated lands. This imperfection leads to the economic inexpediency of its cultivation.
Therefore it was assigned to improve the technological methods for cultivation of hard winter wheat, which can increase yields and make its cultivation economically better.
The studies were conducted (2013–2014) on the experimental field of the educational farm “Samarskyi” of Dniprovsk State Agrarian and Economical University (Dnipropetrovsk region) on the usual black thinhumous average loamy soil. The reference area is 33 m2, it is a threetime repeatability, the placement of the plots is systematic. Weather conditions during the research years were mainly typicalfor the Steppe zone.
It was established that the highest yield of the hard winter wheat in the fallow land, both on low, and on high grounds of the mineral nutrition in average for 4 years was received during seeding on September 17 and with the seeding rate 4,5 min. p/ha – 5,66 and 6,21 t/ha, accordingly.
The greatest yield capacity of wheat after the spring barley, both on a low and on a high nutritional background the plants of the hard winter wheat was formed when sowing on September 10 at a seeding rate of 6.5 million p/ha. Such a high rate is explained by the unfavorable conditions of the stubble previous crop, by the low bushiness of plants.
At different sowing dates, the norm of seeding has to be different. At the late term of sowing the seeding rate changes upwards, due to the low bushiness of plants and, conversely, at the early term of sowing on condition of sufficient moisture content of the soil, the seeding rate has to be corrected towards its reduction.
The maximum yield after the stubble previous crop was lower than the maximum yield of steam crops by a third (27.9 %). The low yield of hard winter wheat after spring barley caused extremely low economic indicators. In such a way a payout of production expenses was only 1.62 UAH. The economic indicators of growing of hard winter wheat, after the worst previous crop – spring barley, indicate a low efficiency of use of stubble previous crop.
Key words: hard winter wheat, previous crops, sowing terms, seeding rates, mineral fertilizers, crop productivity, economical indicators of cultivation.