|1 (2019)||Effect of maximum and minimum dose of herbicide harness on the seed germination of parent forms of corn hybrids||Annotation|
Effect of maximum and minimum dose of herbicide harness on the seed germination of parent forms of corn hybrids
UDC 633.15:632.954 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0057
Aldoshyn А. V., Kravets S. S., Svinitskyi L. M. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 31–36.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
Effect of herbicide Harness 90 e.c.was studied on seeds of registered and prospective parent components of corn of different subspecies: siliceous (Zea mays indurateSturt.), odontoid (Zea mays indentataSturt.), siliceous-odontoid (Zea mays semidentataKulesh.), saccharine (ZeamayssaccharataKoern.). In the experiments, the seeds of 18 parent components (14 self-pollinating lines and 4 hybrids) were used. The herbicide Harness 90 e.c. was applied by presowing spraying of the soil using its maximum (3,0l/ha) and minimum (2,0 l/ha) dosesaccording to the manufacturer's recommendations for loamy soils and soils with high humus content. It was found that the maximum dose of the herbicide more negatively affects the seeds germination of parent components of corn hybrids compared to the minimum dose. The specific reaction of the seeds of parent components to the maximum and minimum doses of the herbicide Harness 90 e.c. was noted.The parent components studied were divided into three groups according to the reaction to the contrast doses of the herbicide Harness 90 e.c. Specific doses were identified and recommendations were made for the application of Harness 90 e.c. in the crops of the parent components of each group.
The results indicated significant effects of weather conditions on the system «corn seeds – herbicide Harness». The maximum dose of this preparation (3,0 l/ha) is characterized by more negatively affects the seeds germination of parent components of corn hybrids compared to the minimum dose (2,0 l/ha). The presence of different response of corn genotypes to herbicide Harness was established.
According to the revealed features of the seeds reaction of the parent components to the herbicide Harness we recommend to use this preparation in the seed on the areas of corn breeding and hybridization as follows:
1. In the cultivation of parent components of corn hybrids included in the first group (DK 633/325 MV, DK 3070 MV, Cross 289 С) of which seeds didn’t reduce or not significantly reduced germination under the influence of both minimum and maximum doses of the herbicide Harness apply from 2,0 to 3,0 l/ha, depending on the degree of crop weediness.
2. In the cultivation of parent components of corn hybrids included in the second group (DK 744 M sterile, Cross 250 M, DK 680 MVZS, Cross 255 M, DK 315 M sterile, Cross 254 M, SE 414), of which seeds didn’t reduce germination under the influence of the minimum dose of the herbicide Harness and significantly reduced germination under the influence of the maximum dose, use 2,0 l/ha.
3. In the cultivation of parent components of corn hybrids included in the third group (DK 959 MV, DK 239 MV, DK 2323 MV, DK 8141 MV, DK 2064 MV, BSM-5, DK 2442 MV, DK 5002 SVZM), of which seeds significantly reduced germination under the influence of both minimum and maximum doses of the preparation, we don’t recommend to use the herbicide Harness.
Keywords: parent components, self-pollinating line, hybrid, herbicide, Harness 90 e.c., dose of application, field germination.
|2 (2018)||Energy-saving drying of corn seed and its technic and economic efficiency||Annotation|
Energy-saving drying of corn seed and its technic and economic efficiency
UDC 633.15:631.53.026 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0029
Kyrpa M. Ya. 1, Kulyk V. O. 1, Yova O. V. 2 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 226–231.
1 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2 LTD «Agrosfera», 64 Zarichna Str., Oleksandrivka vilage, Dniprovs'kyj district, Dnipropetrovs'ka region, 52041, Ukraine
In the process of post-harvest processing of corn seeds, drying of wet swaths is the most responsible and energy-consuming process. Quality and value of the product – seed and its competitiveness on the market of seeds depend on it. Today, the problem of energy saving is becoming increasingly relevant due to the significant increase in energy prices, which cost about 90 % of all drying costs. The purpose of the work is based on the determination of the technical and economic efficiency of drying corn swaths using such types of fuel as corn cobs, diesel and gaseous. The main costs of the drying process, which include the cost of fuel, electricity and wages, are established. According to the duration and volume of drying, labor costs amounted to 40.3 thousand UAH in case of use of corncobs and 28.7 thousand UAH – traditional types of fuel. Electricity costs varied depending on the type of fuel system of the dryer. So, when using a heat generator for burning biomass, the cost of electricity was higher by UAH 6528-9798 for the entire drying period compared with fuel systems for diesel and gaseous fuels.The cost of consumed fuel for the entire drying period was: diesel – 509.3 thousand UAH; gaseous – 269,3 thousand UAH; cobs of swaths – 37,7 thousand UAH. It is established that due to the use of the pockets of cobs, the cost of drying is reduced by 60–80 % relative to other traditional types of fuel, while the negative effect on the technological process of drying is not observed – its duration, dynamics and uniformity of drying of swaths. After drying in the energy-saving complex, the seed and yield properties of the seeds were at the control level or exceeded it.
Key words: corn cobs, chamber dryer, energy saving drying, fuel types, technical and economic indicators.
|№ 1 (2018)||Biological life of seeds and economic suitability of grain crops, depending on the peculiarities of its treatment and storage||Annotation|
Biological life of seeds and economic suitability of grain crops, depending on the peculiarities of its treatment and storage
UDC 631.364.6 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0004
Kirpa N.Ya., Bazileva Yu. S.,Loy O. Yu. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1). 29–37. SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The organization of seed production of any culture is closely connected with the establishment of proper storage of seed. The smallest period of time is allocated for storage of the seeds of the current year of use, in particular winter crops – wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale),
etc. In such a short period of time, the seeds do not even have time to pass the stage of post-harvest ripening, especially, if you collect it wet and in low temperature. Post-harvest maturation can be accelerated by drying, active ventilation, pre-sowing heating.
The aim of the research is to find out what the biological durability and economic suitability of the seeds is and to establish ways to extend the shelf life of the grain by the example of corn.
Various storage regimes of the cereal masses were established by analysis, in the dry state, cooled and by the method of sealing. In the experiments, the features of the effect of moisture, temperature and oxygen content in the grain mass on the germination were elucidated. We considered two methods of storing seeds: in paper bags – under conditions of free moisture-gas exchange with the environment and polyethylene – under conditions of limited moisture-gas exchange.
Analysis of the results of studies showed that the longevity of seeds depends on a complex of biotic and abiotic factors, the main ones being: moisture and temperature of the grain, access to oxygen, the level of damage to the grain mass by microflora during storage. Depending on the combination of these factors, the shelf life of the seeds is significantly extended or, conversely, markedly reduced. In addition to the main factors, the biological properties and physiological characteristics of the crop, the conditions for growing it, the timing of the onset of full ripeness, and the technology of post-harvest processing influence the seeds' longevity.
In the course of our studies, it was found that, when stored in the cooling regime, seed germination remained practically unchanged, but the dynamics of germination underwent noticeable changes (Table 5). For example, at a temperature of 8–10 and 3–5 °C, the seeds germinated, reaching the conditioned values (germination not lower than 92%) already on day 4, and the maximum – on day 7. When stored at low temperatures (-1 – -3 °C), the dynamics of seed germination slowed down: germination on day 4 was 83–92%, and at 7 – 89–95%. In this case, seeds with lower moisture values were more stable when stored at low temperatures.
In addition to studying the influence of the main factors – moisture, temperature and storage methods, we also investigated the effect of grain size on the storage time. On the example of winter wheat and corn, it is established that large seeds, with a larger mass of 1000 grains, are more stable and do not lose high germination for a long time.
Other technical and technological factors that cause active respiration, aging and rapid loss of germination are also traumas in the stages of harvesting and post-harvest seed treatment, the content of impurities in the grain mass, infection with diseases, the degree of primary germination, and the like.
In order to mitigate the negative impact of the above-mentioned technical and technological factors in industrial seed production, as a rule, chemical treatment and dressing of seeds with various preparations is used. Chemical treatment of maize seeds can be carried out in advance, during post-harvest processing. But recently, due to the unstable realization, the seeds are dressed just before sowing. Therefore, in order to study the effect of etching, we considered the following options: first – storage and seeding of NOT etched seeds; the second is the dressing and storage of seeds; the third is the storage and dressing of seeds before sowing. During storage and sowing of NOT etched seeds (the first variant), the field germination and yield of maize hybrids decreased significantly. In the case of seed dressing and storage for a long time, its laboratory germination somewhat decreases due to the toxic effects of the preparations on the fetus. It was revealed that in the third variant the field germination of seeds increased by 3–8%, and the yield by 0.24–0.95 t/ha (4.1–19.4%) compared to the second one, where the seeds were stored with etched seeds.
Based on the results of the research, factors that significantly affect the biological durability and economic suitability of seeds are established. On the type of storage technology (GOST 2240-93), the period of the economic life of the seed is nearly 3 years, the biological durability – 15 years or more, depending on the biological properties of cultural, technical and technological factors of its cultivation, harvesting and postharvest processing of seeds. To prolong recommended based on the following factors shelf life of the seeds of maize: grain moisture 9–10%, the temperature is 3–10 °C, storage in a sealed condition, moisture limited gas exchange. If these conditions are met, the seeds do not lose their conditioning germination (at least 92%) for 4–5 years or more. To determine the germination of seeds that were stored at a low temperature (-1– -3 °C), the germination period should be increased to 10 days.
Key words: seeds of grain crops, long-term storage, biological durability, economic suitability, longevity factors.
|№ 1 (2018)||Influence of ground herbicides proponet for easy nutrition of family compounds of hybrides of corn||Annotation|
Influence of ground herbicides proponet for easy nutrition of family compounds of hybrides of corn
UDC 633.15: 632.954 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0005
Kravets S. S., Aldoshin A. V., Lyashenko N.O., Bernatsky M. M. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 38–43.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str.,Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The specific reaction of seeds of parent components of maize hybrids, different on a genetic basis, on doses of soil herbicide is proposed. Specific doses that can be applied to each of the parent components studied were determined.
Studies aimed at identifying the selective action of herbicides have proven that within the same species there are representatives with different herbicide resistance. Data on different varietal reactions of maize on herbicides have been confirmed in the works of many scientists.
Lack of recommendations for the application of herbicides, in the cultivation of parent components, often leads to an uncontrolled decline in the yield of seeds due to the adverse effects of herbicides on corn plants, and sometimes even until complete culling of seed crops.
The results obtained by us testify to the presence of significant influence of weather conditions on the system "corn plant – herbicide Proponit". The maximum dose of this drug (3.0 l / ha) is characterized by a more negative effect on the similarity of the seeds of parent components of maize hybrids than the minimum (2.0 l/ha). The presence of different reactions of maize genotypes to propionate herbicide was established. The most vulnerable to the action of the herbicide was a subspecies of sugarcorns.
According to the revealed features of herbicide Proponit we recommend the use of this drug in the seed in the areas of reproduction and hybridization of maize as follows:
1. In the cultivation of parent components of the maize hybrids included in the first group (DK232MV, DK 296S sterile, Cross 253S sterile, DK 272C sterile, DK239MV, etc.), whose seeds did not decrease or did not significantly reduce the similarity under the influence of the minimum, and the maximum dose of Proponit, apply from 2.0 to 3.0 liters per hectare, depending on the degree of perturbing sowing.
2. In the cultivation of parent components included in the second group (DK744SVZM, Cross 239M sterile, DK233MVSV, Cross 267 Steril, DK253ZSZM, etc.), whose seeds did not reduce the similarity under the influence of the minimum dose of Proponit and significantly reduced the similarity under the influence of the maximum dose, apply 2.0 l / ha.
3. In the cultivation of parent components of the hybrids of maize, included in the third group (DK 2 / 427zS, DK 247MV, DK 411M sterile, DK 6496 with M, SV, DK 257zM, SV, etc.), whose seeds significantly reduced the similarity, as under by the influence of the minimum and maximum dose of the drug, use herbicide Proponit is not recommended.
Key words: parent component, self-pollinated line, hybrid, herbicide Proponit, dose of introduction, field similarity.
|№1 (2017)||Specificities of aerodynamic separation of single-component seed mixtures (by way of corn example)||Annotation|
Specificities of aerodynamic separation of single-component seed mixtures (by way of corn example)
Key words: corn, seed mixture, fraction, aerodynamic separation, technical-technological signs.
Seed material which is harvested and has after-harvesting treatment has form of the multicomponent mixture. So, after harvesting, it is separated by mechanical way, it is divided into separate components (fractions) and received a single-component mixture with different size, weight, specific weight and quality.
Separation is carried out by different ways: bolting of mixtures and sieving on trieurs, treatment on the gravitational tables, on electromagnetic and optical separators, winnowing in the air stream. The last method is according to the aerodynamic separation, which is recommended to use for sorting-calibration of the single-component mixture and definition the most full-blown fractions in it.
The aim of the work was to establish specificities of aerodynamic sorting – calibration process of single-component, to define its influence for output and quality of corn seeds.
The researches were carried out with single-component mixture of corn hybrid seeds, which was cleared at the corn-treatment plant. It was researched such hybrids of Institute cereal crops NAAN: Ushynskiy 167 SV, Piatyhatskiy 270 SV, Borozenskiy 277 MV, Solonianskiy 298 SV, Zbruch. The process of aerodynamic separation-calibration was modeled on the laboratorial classifier KSP‑1.Due the process of separation it was chosen 3 fractions: light, heavy and medial with different output and weight of 1000 seeds. It was defined seed quality: germinability, growing power by the “cold” test, weight, specific weight, capacity, linear size by the valid methods.
In our researches a single-component seed mixture, for stabilization of process aerodynamic division, provi-sionally, was separated on the sieves with outcomes 7–9 mm, and received two fractions (triage, pass) which were separated in air stream severally. These researches shown that the efficiency of separation seed mixture depends on direction of air stream, which can be ascending and horizontal.
The quality of fractions, received in process of aerodynamic separation-calibration, was different, depending on corn hybrids. In all researched hybrids only due separation of hybrid Ushynskiy 167 SV it was received heavy fraction with higher germinability of seed in 3–6 % in comparing with light one. In other hybrids the regularity was not defined. It is defined instability of process aerodynamic separation of single-component seed mixture is explained by changing place of a seed in air stream and aerodynamic resistance of a seed. Sieve separation influenced more on quality seed fractions by sign of seed width. Seed germinability of the triage fraction from the sieve 7–9 mm was in 6–15 % higher than in the pass fraction.
Aerodynamic separation of the single-component seed mixtures is unstable process as in the ascending (vertical) as in the horizontal air stream. The reasons of destabilization are: considerable spontaneity of mixture distribution in air stream, changing windage indexes in it, according to its place and attitude, and also speed and density of air.
Especially it is difficult to carry out aerodynamic separation of seeds with complex shape and with significant different quality, particularly in corn. The hybrids seeds in air stream were allocated in depend on shape, size, capacity, weight of 1000 seeds. And indexes of specific surface and weight (density) had less influence. It was not defined a reliable rectilinear connection between fractions and germinability of seeds in majority of researched hybrids.
Taking noted it is not rationally to carry out aerodynamic separation of single-component mixture of seeds, for example, a corn, with aim its sorting-calibration. This method is recommended to use for clearing seeds with following its deeper sieve and gravitational separation on corresponding machines. – Р. 45–50.
|№1 (2017)||Temperature condition of soil in a time of sowing of sorghum and reaction on him of different sorts and hybrids||Annotation|
Temperature condition of soil in a time of sowing of sorghum and reaction on him of different sorts and hybrids
Keywords: sorghum, hybrid, seed, temperature, germination, likeness
Over the past 40 years aridity of the climate in the Southern Barrens significantly increased. Due to changes in weather conditions, it was necessary to find out what crops spring crops more resistant to drought conditions. One of them may be sorghum, which is better than other crops tolerate lack of moisture.
Especially important in the area of southern steppe with its hot and dry spring is to get timely and valuable stairs. These difficult conditions at sowing sorghum should be taken into consideration and conduct a search operation on adaptation. First, you need to set – hybrid seeds are less responsive to the low temperature of the soil at an earlier sowing or fair brings Alternating heating and cooling the soil during germination.
To this end we have made in 2013. Laboratory experiments testing different sorghum hybrids seed breeding institutions to determine its exposure to changes in temperature conditions during germination. Provedene testing we found that seeds of different varieties and hybrids of sorghum marked uneven reaction to the low temperature at the time of sowing.
For 18 days the temperature 8 ºS number of germinated seeds in all varieties and hybrids increased by 1–10 pc., But the relationship between its originators remained the same as 8 days. This seed selection "Alta Seeds", Crimean Agro-Technological University and VNDISiS "Slavic field" even after 18 days was noted very low germination – 78–83 %. Note relatively high seed germination hybrids Dash-E, Sprint-W, Swift and Aztec selection "Richardson Seed" and grade Eritrea – Henichesk research station Institute crops – 92–96 %. Worst respond to low temperature hybrids 726 Alta Seeds, 752 Alta Seeds and W20 Alta Seeds – 18 days proklyunulosya only 78–80 % of seeds. Besides similarities, we should note the speed as the formation of roots and shoots, and their growth in different varieties and hybrids. For 18 days, the longest roots were mainly varieties and hybrids, created Henichesk research station, "Euralis semens" and "RAGT simens", – 0,31–0,47 cm. Low temperatures inhibit growth of roots especially in seed breeding hybrids " alta Seeds "and VNDISiS" Slavic field "– for 18 days were long, 0,19–0,33 cm.
Increased ambient temperature after 8 days to 14 °C impetus to a significant increase in the number of germinated seeds – at 3,10 percent absolute. The seeds, which had a low germination temperature 8 °C, the rate increased by 7–13 percent absolute temperature increases to 14 °C. This is especially true breeding hybrids "Alta Seeds", VNDISiS "Slavic field" and the Institute of maize and sorghum Moldova. However, even under these conditions germination of seeds of these hybrids was low – 87–90 %, the acein others it reached 92–94 %.
When germination temperature of 8 °C for 8 days over 75–88 % of seeds sprouted, but it was only naklyunulosya and root length of 1–2 mm. This reaction is observed varies hybrid seeds of various origins at low temperatures.
Most were cold-resistant varieties and hybrids of Ukrainian selection. Thus, 8 days proklyunulosya 79-88 % of seeds of varieties and hybrids breeding Breeding and Genetics Institute and 84–89 % – RC Institute crops. Also very high similarity was in selection of seed hybrids "Richardson Seed", "Ahroplazma" and "RAGT simens" – 81–85 %, although its figures were slightly lower than the varieties and hybrids of Ukrainian selection. Poor at 8 ° C prorostalo seed breeding hybrids "Alta Seeds" and Crimean Agro-Technological University – 75–81 %.
In general, the production needs for sowing conditions for soil heating to 10 ° C using better seed varieties and hybrids breeding and research station Henichesk firm "Richardson Seed" and "RAGT simens".
|№10 (2016)||Ecological and economic grounding of territorial location of grain production: the methodical aspects||Annotation|
Ecological and economic grounding of territorial location of grain production: the methodical aspects
Keywords: grain crops, location, losses due to soil erosion, soil fertility, ecological and economic efficiency.
Location and specialization plays an important role in increasing of the efficiency of grain production. The purpose of the article is to give an overview of methods of ecological and economic grounding of grain production location, which is the basis for further definition of the ways for improvement of grain farming location and increase of ecological and economic efficiency of the branch.
In modern science, there are many methodical approaches, which allow to estimate the effectiveness of the plant growing production, including grain. Thus, the criterion of economic efficiency of rational location of grain production is to increase the production of high quality
products at minimum expenses of living and materialized labor. For estimating of the economic efficiency of location and specialization of grain production, a number of indicators are used. These are productivity, product quality, the proportion of a particular culture in the sown areas structure, the output of feed units per 1 hectare of grain feed cultures, the production volume per capita or per 1 hectare of agricultural grounds, the value of gross and marketable products per 1 hectare of agricultural grounds, per 1 UAH of fixed and circulatingfunds, per 1 average annual worker; cost price of products; the volume of profit per 1 UAH of production expenses and per 1 hectare of crops; profitability, etc.
Some scientists also recommend to use the combined reliability rating of location efficiency, which is calculated as the ratio of the yield index to cost index.
It is reasonable to use the integrated index of comparative assessment of grain production efficiency, which is calculated as the ratio of the yield index to product of cost and laboriousness indexes. Another index is defined as the ratio of product of yield index and price index to the product of cost and laboriousness indexes.
In multivariate comparisons it is expedientalso to use the method of multidimensional comparative analysis based on Euclidean distance method.
In modern science the methods of economic-mathematical modeling, including Markowitz model, and cluster analysis methods are also widely used for evaluating the effectiveness of grain production location.
Methodical approaches used to determine the effectiveness of the location of grain and its prognostication for the future should necessarily take into consideration the ecological aspects such as peculiarities of the territory relief, the degree of soil erosion and soil fertility, the level of soil-protective efficiency of grown plants, etc.
Making of decisions in relation to adjustments of grain crops placement by this method should be based on a preliminary ecological and economic assessment of sown areas structure, which is grounded on the calculation of direct and indirect losses due to soil erosion and products shortfall. Economic evaluation of damage from erosion is carried out on two criteria such as the value of resulted expenditures and conditionally net income losses.
In modern conditions in relation to expansion of the use of computer technology and automated data processing methods the task of constructing of economic-mathematical models of optimization of the sown areas structure acquires a great importance. These models take into acco-unt the erosion control measures and are based on the applying of simplex method. Task definition is to determine the optimal composition of crop rotation that will provide maximum ecological and economic benefits according to available land, labor, material and financial resources of production, production parameters such as output of feed, protein, prices, cost, ecological capabilities such as soil damage, its distribution depending on the degree of erosion on slopes, accumulation of symbiotic nitrogen, etc.
The modern economic and mathematical methods in automated mode allow taking into account a large number of limiting factors and indicators, to get more reliable results of optimization of crop rotation structure and territorial location of agricultural cultures, including grain crops, and to obtaine the highest level of ecological and economic efficiency of their cultivation.
|№10 (2016)||Basic priorities of rational development of production of grain corn on Dnipropetrovs’k Oblast||Annotation|
Basic priorities of rational development of production of grain corn on Dnipropetrovs’k Oblast
Keywords: corn, hybrids, yield capacity, intensification, productive charges, cost, price, profit, economic efficiency.
A production of grain corn is the important constituent of all grain growing of the Dnep-ropetrovsk area. Her modern value and, in particular, providing of reliable grain-feed balance do not have an alternative. This culture largely determines not only economic position of stock-raising but also grain growing industry on the whole.
Dnipropetrovs’k Oblast is a traditionally sowing a corn area of Ukraine, about 7% of her sowing are here concentrated.
In the last years in the farms of area there was considerable expansion of areas busy under a grain corn: from 192,9 thousands hectare in 2000 to 296,6 thousands hectare in 2015. Thus it should be noted that due to an input in the production of high productivity hybrids and making more active of innovative activity in technologies of growing of this culture record gross collection of her grain – over 1 million tons is first got in the Dnepropetrovsk area. In particular, in 2011 this index made 1314 thousand tons, and an absolute maximum – more than 1315,5 thousand tons is collected in 2013.
Problem of creation of necessary pre-conditions for the increase of efficiency of production of grain corn in the Dnepropetrovsk area is this complex task. This task is related to the sphere of the rational use of the landed resources, introductions of new high productivity hybrids, saving energy of technologies, by introduction to the production ecologically of safe means of production and principled change of economic relations in a village.
It is a circle of questions without that we will not be able to start going the main instrument of concrete work, that are modern innovative technologies growing of corn, that form the greatest productivity of this culture. In particular, it is well-proven experimental researches, that such tech-nologies, as a rule, to a full degree depend on timely implementation of all complex of measures, both organizational (material well-being by combustible and lubricating materials, special technique, high-quality seed of the districted hybrids, by full strength by personnel) and agronomical and technical (quality of preparation of soil, observance of terms of sowing, bringing of sufficient amount of fertilizers and timely till of sowing, and others like that).
Generalization of the agronomical, technological, economic researches and prognosis calculations, conducted in Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine and his experimental stations by the state on beginning 2016 year, allows to do the prog-nosis of productive cost of ton of grain corn at the yield capacity from 3,0 to 6,0 a ton from a hectare in limits from 2662 to 1919 UAH for a ton. At the increase of yield capacity to the level 5,5–6,0 a ton from a hectare, profitability of her production can grow to 36,0–42,1% and, as a result, more favourable conditions will be created for the extended reproduction.
Consequently, the got results of complex agronomical and technological, economic and power researches testify that in the modern terms of menage rational application of intensive saving energy technologies and optimization of hybrid composition at growing of grain corn in the condi-tions of the Dnepropetrovsk area are one of reserves of increase of the productivity and competi-tiveness of production of grain of this culture.
|№9 (2015)||Standardization of grain – a new scientific-practical direction of activity in agricultural institute of steppe zone||Annotation|
Standardization of grain – a new scientific-practical direction of activity in agricultural institute of steppe zone
Keywords: standardization in agriculture, activity of Technical Committee, quality and methods of testing of grain and grain products.
The base of variety in economic activity, including production, attendance, trade, control of production quality and services is holding the definite requirements and rules. Requirements are determined by force of standardization, its aim is – elaboration of normative-technical documents, first of all, standards.
Standard establishes rules, general principals, allowances, which are based on generalization of achievements of science and technics, practical experience. They have to satisfy the demand of interested sides if there aren’t any contradictions between them.
Effective regulations and also legal steps of standardization in Ukraine are introduced by Ukrainian law “About Standardization” (№ 1315-VII on June, 5 2014 year).
Works by standardization of agricultural production in Ukraine are coordinated by TC 41 “Grain crops and products of their handling” for a long time. During of its activity it was worked up a series of standards DSTU for grain, pulse plants, groats and oil products. However, because of objective and subjective reasons of activity TC 41 was suspended.
It has negative consequences in a field of grain standardization in Ukraine. So, Ministry of Agro politics and Food proposed to resume activity of TC standardization for grain products on base of SE Agricultural Institute of Steppe Zone as a leading scientific establishment by problems of grain production. (An Order of Ministry of Economic Development and Trade about formation TC on 27.11.2014 by № 1414). According to the Order, Technical Committee (TC) “Grain crops and products of their handling” got a registration number 170. The leading scientific establishments and educational institutions of system NAAS and MES of Ukraine, representatives of departments, associations, enterprises, and partnerships with different forms of property entered into composition of it by their own initiative. They apply with growing, storing, keeping, handling, distribution and control quality of grain, pulse plants, groats and oil crops. TC 170 tightly contributes and coordina-tes its activity with other TC of agricultural profile.
The work of TC 170 is organized in that way. Secretariat executes the main role; it works on a base of Agricultural Institute of Steppe Zone. Its main task is to organize activity of TC 170, to complete work plans, to concede and coordinate standards, to give reports on time and formation about results of activities, to take part in a work of other TC and in actions by standardization also in international ones.
TC 170 is consists of 3 sub-committees: SC-1 (Food-feeding and technical grains), SC-2 (Products of handling grains), and SC-3 (Seeds of oil crops). The objects of standardization of sub-committees are grain and oil raw material, indexes of quality and methods of testing of production, rules of accepting crops, technological processes of growing, storing, keeping, handling, using and delivery of grain and products of its handling for food and nonfood aims and for the trade.
Standardization belongs to those types of intellectual activity, which have important practi-cal meaning and establish progressive, economical, well-founded and safe regulations in any sectors of production and among the subjects of economic management.
Requirements to production and indexes of its quality are established, the methods of its testing are determined in a field of agro-industrial production with help of standardization.
Standardization is realized by force of elaboration of standards by corresponding Technical Committees. TC 170 “Grain crops and products of its handling” is established for standardization of grain and grain products. It works on a base of Scientific Establishment (SE) Agricultural Institute of Steppe Zone. It’s determined a staff, a structure and main tasks of TC 170. About Committee work you can learn in Mass Media – e-mail: email@example.com: web-site:www.institut-zerna.com.
|№9 (2015)||Effect of elements of the cultivation technology on the productivity of peas under conditions of left-bank Partially-wooded steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Effect of elements of the cultivation technology on the productivity of peas under conditions of left-bank Partially-wooded steppe of Ukraine
Keywords: peas, fertilizers, inтoculation of seeds, elements of crop structure, assimilating surface, crop capacity.
The researchers conducted at the experimental field of the Poltava SARS named after M. I. Vavilov of Institute of Pig Breeding and AIP on typical low-humus and hard loam black soil during 2011–2013 found out that seed inoculation had a positive effect on the formation of pea symbiotic apparatus.
The use of this agro-technical method increased the number of nodules and their weight per plant to control by 10 nodules and 56 mg, respectively.
Conditions of the formation of a pea symbiotic apparatus were the most favorable when sowed inoculated seeds on the background of mineral fertilizers Р70К82. In this variant, the signifi-cation of number and weight of nodules were the highest. The application of mineral nitrogen had a negative influence on the size of a symbiotic apparatus.
The results of studies showed that the application of mineral fertilizers, using before a sowing seed inoculation and the combination of these agricultural methods improved conditions of the leaf surface area formation increased the intensity of accumulating the organic mass of pea plants.
On the backgrounds of mineral fertilizing, which were studied, the area of leaf surface of plants, their phytomass and total dry matter weight increased relatively to the control variant on 5,3–8,3 thousand m2 per ha, 3,0–6,5 and 0,9–1,7 g respectively.
In the variant with the application of microbiological preparation of the complex action Rizogumin the leaf surface area formed by plants was 32,8 thousand m2 per ha, their phytomass and a mass of absolutely dry matter were 16,6 and 4,2 g, respectively.
The combination of the application of mineral fertilizers and a before sawing seed inoculation promoted to the increase of the intensity of an aboveground plant part growth, accumulating organic matter by pea plants, as it is evidenced by the increase of significations of the area of plants leaf area surface, their phytomass and mass of absolutely dry matter comparatively to the control variant, respectively on 8,7–10,1 thousands m2 per ha, 5,5–9,0 g and on 1,7–2,7 g.
The most favorable conditions for formatting the assimilation surface, the growth of the aboveground part and accumulating absolutely dry matter by pea plants were created on the back-ground of mineral fertilizing N20Р70К82.
After flowering and fertilization the processes of the formation occur in plants, during which it is carried out formatting all parts of the grains, and also it is carried out the accumulation of dry matter in grain and its qualitative transformation during the ripening.
Their intensity was highest in variant with the combination of seeds inoculation and the mineral fertilizer application with the dose of active substance N20Р70К82, where the signification of indexes of grain number from one plant were 17,2 and weight of 1000 grains – 234,6 g, respectively. In average it was formed 4,3 beans on the plants.
In the variants with the application of different doses of mineral fertilizers, the number of beans and grains in them varied within the confines of 3,5–3,9 and 13,3–14,5 grains, respectively, and 1000 grains had weight 236,9–245,9 g.
The before sawing seed inoculation increased the number of seeds on the plants relatively to the control on 2 seeds, weight of 1000 seeds – on 10,2 g. In average it was formed 3,4 beans on the plants. At the combination of agrotechnical methods, which were studied, the number of beans was 3,7–4,3, grains in them 14,6–15,9, and weight of 1000 seeds was 248,8–256,2 g.
The grain yield is an integral indicator of the plant productivity which determines the correlation of all quantitative traits with environmental conditions. In average over 3 years of stu-dies the highest their significations (2,78 t per ha) were noted at the combination of the before sawing seed inoculation by Resogumine and the application of fertilizer with the dose of active substance N20Р70К82.
The grain yield increasing at applying mineral fertilizers was 0,31–0,46 t per ha. The seed inoculation increased the grain yield of peas on 0,20 t per ha, and at the combination of agrotech-nical methods which have been studied, the significations of this index increased on 0,46–0,69 t per ha relatively the control variant.