|1 (2019)||The influence of pesticides of different pu-rpose on the recovery of winter wheat in conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
The influence of pesticides of different pu-rpose on the recovery of winter wheat in conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.11’’324’’:632.95(251.1)(1-17)(477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0068
Yavdoschenko M. P., Pedash T. M., Sudak V. M., Gyrka T. V. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 120–126.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 VolodymyraVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
In recent years one of the promising directions of ecologization of the chemical method of plant protection is the creation and introduction into production of immunity inducers – preparations based on compounds with the ability to increase the resistance of plants against pathogens and phytophages. Such substances are plant growth regulators, which differ from pesticides with non-biocidaland bioregulatory action, safe for the environment, humans and animals,and are used in the minimum rates of consumption.
The great potential of this approach to plant protection is still insufficiently disclosed, and the feasibility and feasibility of combining the use of pesticides and growth regulators have been poorly understood.
The purpose of our research was to observe the effectiveness of the multicomponent plant growth regulator Reastim against the disease of winter wheat under the conditions of the steppe zone of Ukraine and the possibility of combining plant spraying with the growth regulatortogether with fungicide Soligor.
The research was conducted in 2014–2016 in the crop rotation of the plant protection laboratory at the Synel’nykoveSelection and Research Station of the Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the natural background of disease.
The spraying of crops against winter wheat diseases was carried out by fungicide Soligor EC425 and the growth regulator Reastim once at the beginning of the exit of the plants into the tube and ear staining phase, as well as twice in both of these phases alone, in tank mixes with the growth regulator recommended norms. Observations on the development of diseases were carried out during the entire vegetation, and the main records of powdery mildew – during the flowering period on the Geshell’s scale, septoriosis spots and brown rust – during the period of milk ripeness of the grain on the scale, respectively, Geshell and Peterson.
Analysis of weather conditions showed, that they differed, both in temperature conditions and in the amount of precipitation during the winter wheat vegetation, so it was possible to obtain reliable data on the influence of chemical agents on major diseases. Favorable weather conditions for the development of powdery mildew were in 2014 and 2015, brown rust in 2014, yellow rust in 2016, and septoriosis in 2014 and 2015. The largest harvests were achieved in 2015.
The results of the research have shown the effectiveness of the “Reastim” against winter wheat diseases at the level of 30.1–84.6%, and the Soligor – 39.0–99.5%.
The harvest of grain when sprayed by Reastim (average for three years) amounted to 5.74–5.87 t/he, which is 0.14–0.27 t/he higher than control, but 0.30–0.40 t/he below variants with Soligor. The highest harvest was obtained with the application of Soligor at the outlet of plants in the tube and two spraying – 6,19 and 6,23 t/he. Joint application of SoligorandReastim in the ear eruption phase contributed to an increase in harvests for all years of research at 0.41–0.63 t/he.
Summarizing the results of the research, it can be highlighted, that one or two-time spraying of crops by Soligor (the output of plants in the tube and earing), depending on the phytosanitary state of winter wheat crops, protects them from diseases and increased harvest by 0.63 and 0.67 t/he. The growth regulator Reastim showed insignificant fungicidal effectiveness against diseases and increased the harvestonly by 0.14–0.27 t/he. Joint usage of fungicide with the growth regulator was only feasible in theearing phase.
Key words: winter wheat, fungicide, growth regulator, powdery mildew, rust, septoriosis, root rot, harvest.
|№ 1 (2018)||Integrated control of weeds when growing winter wheat on summer fallow||Annotation|
Integrated control of weeds when growing winter wheat on summer fallow
UDК 631.581:632.51:633.11 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0017
Sudak V. М., Gorbatenko А. І., MatyukhaV. L. Grain Crops, 2018, 1 (1), 123–131.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
Years-long research aimed at studying the quantitative and mass dynamics and weed species composition and determining the effectiveness of various cultural weed control methods when growing winter wheat on summer fallow was conducted under stationary conditions, on ordinary chernozem (northern steppe), in the field experiment of the Institute of Cereal Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
It has been found that maintenance of the arable land by leaving it fallow for a season is accompanied by an increase in the regenerative capacity of the sow thistle and field bindweed, the appearance of such non-typical weeds for unirrigated farming as dandelion, warmot and pickpocket as well as growth of the common ragweed and pig weed in the fields. Exclusion of the under-winter ploughing system from the technology of preparing a summer fallow leads to the weed seeding and reduction of time intervals between cultivation and infestation in winter wheat crops, which requires one-time application of total herbicides (on stubble) on a summer fallow land or bulk shielding of the soil surface with post-harvest plants.
A smaller number of annual gramineous weeds and fallen sunflower on early fallows compared to autumn fallows was recorded, which is due to dehydration of the upper untilled layer of soil where the main part of seeds is located. Cleavers grass, which starts vegetating early and tolerates shading well and therefore is highly harmful for winter crops, was present on the stubble early fallow. In comparison with other variants of the experiment, ploughing of the autumn fallow contributed to the more intensive germination of late spring weeds because of the better warming of the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer and the decrease in physiological toxicity of post-harvest residues due to their more thorough mixing in the soil environment.
According to our observations, the sow thistle grew and developed better on a sunflower fallow than on a stubble one, especially in wet years. In droughty weather, it often fell into a state of deep conservative dormancy and weakly recovered in the second half of the summer. The regenerative potential and adaptation of the perennial to mechanical control measures increase with decreasing the depth of root cutting in the spring to 8-10 cm and lengthening the time intervals between cultivations to more than 20 days after the weed reaches the shooting stage, i.e., the bud-formation stage. With the beginning of the shooting stage, the sow thistle quickly restores the depleted reserves of inulin (reserve nutrient) in its roots and increases its ability to survive. The field bindweed reacts weakly to the fallow precursor. It is characterized by drought tolerance, has a high regenerative capacity and infests the fallow until winter wheat is sown. The methods of regulation of levels of the fallow infestation with perennials provide for an increase in the number of cultivations and the use of spring-tooth harrows which destruct the roots and shoots of plants very well due to vibration effect of spring teeth.
The struggle with the amaranth and pig weed became much more complicated when nitrogen fertilizers introduced for fertilization were not fully used by the previous crop (spring barley) and stimulated the growth of annual weeds on the fallow; in wet weather, their seeds sprouted throughout the entire period of fallowing.
A high abundance (20-30 pcs/m2) of dicotyledonous annual species, the dangerous babies’-breath in particular, is observed under unfavorable conditions for weed seed sprouting in autumn and sufficient soil moisture during spring tillering of grass after soil mulching. Chemical weeding is necessary when the economic threshold of harmfulness of wild species is exceeded (more than 10% of the total biomass of agrophytocenosis).
With the involvement of all by-products of crop rotation in the circuit, the cultivation of winter wheat on summer fallow (surface spring tillage) requires mandatory fertilization of plants in the spring with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 45-60 kg d.r./ha (low supply of soil with nitrates) or 30 -45 kg d.r./ha (normal supply of soil with N-NO3). Optimization of nitrogen nutrition of wheat significantly increases its competitiveness in relation to weeds and ensures an average yield of food grain at the level of 5.52-6.66 t/ha.
Key words: weeds, fallow, winter wheat, soil cultivation, herbicides, grain yield.
|№1 (2017)||Phytosanitary status of winter wheat crops depending on tillage and sowing systems||Annotation|
Phytosanitary status of winter wheat crops depending on tillage and sowing systems
Keywords: winter wheat, soil tillage, seeding, weeds, pests, diseases.
Based on the results of production testing and introduction the soil tillage and sowing systems of winter wheat are presented the features of developing and propagating the hazardous organisms in wheat plantings under the influence of studied factors are determined.
|№1 (2017)||Resistance of corn hybrids to lepidop-terous pests in Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Resistance of corn hybrids to lepidop-terous pests in Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Keywords: hybrids, corn, European corn borer, Bollworm, pest-resistance.
Corn – is a unique crop as a raw material for feed, food and processing industry. Unfortunately, the productive potential of corn hybrids, apart from process flow disruption and abiotic stress factors is limits by hazardous organisms, which caused annual crop losses more than 30%.
The goal of our research was to investigate the resistance of corn hybrids to Bollworm (Helicover-paarmigeraHb.) and European corn borer(OstrinianubilalisHb.) in conditions Northern Steppe of Ukraine.
Researches on adaptive detection for resistance to lepidopterous pests of corn samples were performed in SE Experimental Farm “Dnipro”of SI the Institute of Grain Crops (Dnipropetrovs’k region) on a natural infectious background for the 2011–2015. During the investigations were carried outa comparative resistance assessment to pests of 56 corn hybrids of different maturity groups (about 23–35 samples yearly).
Corn, in experimental plots, grows according to traditional technology. Entomological surveillance carried out by the conventional methods.Weather conditions, during the years of researches,were quite varied, allowing to make a full assess of their impact on the resistance of hybrids to damage by pests.The obtained results shows that the largest damage of corn by the Bollworm for years of research was in 2012 and amounted to 22,0–85,6 %; in 2014, exactly the opposite, was the smallest– 0–7,9 %, in other years – 1,1–51,3 % depending on the hybrid.
In 2011, distinguished with partial resistance to pest damage the hybrids COB 329 CB, Krasyliv 327 MB, Chemerovets’kyi 260 CB and Monica350 MB; in 2012 – Baturyn 287 MB and Orzhytsia237 MB; in 2013 – Anshlag, Whitecorn, Krasyliv 327 MB and Baturyn 287 MB. In 2014 ten maize hybrids had no damage scoops. In 2015 ten corn hybrids were not damaged by Bollworm. The samples, which had the least damages were – DN Svitiaz’, Garant, Orzhytsia 237 MB, Podil’s’kyi 274 CB and DN Julia.Unlike the previous years, level of development the European corn borerfor years of researches was not significant, negligible damage bypest (up to 1,1 %) was observed in 2011 on hybrids Pochaivskyi 190 MB, Nemyriv and Sokolov 407 MB; in 2012 (up to 0,5 %) – Bystrycia 400 MB, Novyi, Chemerovets’kyi 260 CB, Solonians’kyi 298 CBand Zbruch; in 2013 (up to 0,8 %) – Kvitnevyi 187 MB and DN Argo. It may be assumed, that in conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine observed thedepressive position ofevolvement thelepidopterous pest. But the danger of spread the phytophaganremains real and requires annual monitoring.
As can be seen from the above, the minimal damage of cornplants by the European corn borer in the Northern Steppe zone of Ukraine made it impossible to assess the resistance of corn hybrids to the pest. At the same time due to significant damage by the Bollworm it has been able to identified the hybrids, which have shown partial resistance for several years – Orzhytsia 237 MB, Baturyn 287 MB, Podil’s’kyi 274 CB, COB 329 CB, Krasyliv 327 MB and Garant.
|№10 (2016)||Innovations on grain-crops protection||Annotation|
Innovations on grain-crops protection
Keywords: innovations, scientific-technical production, grain-crops protection, pest organisms.
There are innovations on grain-crops protection from pest organisms. The main directions of the Institute of Plant Protection NAAS innovation activity on this problem are elaboration the technologies of creation of resistant plants’ varieties, elaboration the effective methods of forecastting of crops’ phytosanitary situation, determination of the role of agrotechnical method of the crops protection, the optimization of chemical method of the crops protection, elaboration of the biological measures of plant protection from insect pests and diseases, elaboration of effective measures of crops protection and grain reserves from quarantine pest organisms.
|№10 (2016)||Pests identifying in grain stocks and determination of the maximum multiplicity of their treatments with wide usage drugs||Annotation|
Pests identifying in grain stocks and determination of the maximum multiplicity of their treatments with wide usage drugs
Keywords: species composition pests of grain reserves , winter wheat, insecticides.
In recent time the trend was to increase the number of pests of grain stocks in connection with the neglect of preventive measures on disinfection of premises, and incorrect selection of methods and techniques of grain storage. Therefore there is a need to clarify the patterns of distribution, species and quantitative composition of insect pests of grain depending on the type of granaries, conditions and ways of grain storage and to obtain information on the rotation of drugs used to protect grain from pests.
Species composition of pests is established by using the identification keys of insects.
To determine the maximum possible number of treatment it is used drugs: aktellik 500 EC, k.e. is 6 g/t; karate 050 EC, k.e. – 0,1 ml/t; prostor, k. e. – 5 ml/t.
During 2011-2014 the quantitative and species composition of grain pests isn't changed. Only in the farms which are neglected by preventive measures of protection, it is seen their sharp increasing. It is established that plant pests were absent during the storage of various grain crops in synthetic bags, and the fumigation holding in granaries, and cooling in winter. There were obtained different results for the storage of grain in bulk and early treatment of the empty granaries with wet or spray method.
Comparison of the obtained data on the distribution of grain pests of the stocks, depending on climatic zone shows that the number of collar weevil and rhopalocera khruschak with movement to the Northern Ukraine is reduced in 1,5–2 times.
According to the results of studies to determine the maximum possible number of treatment of the grain mass from pests with the drug aktellik 500 ES, k. e. (primos-methyl, 500 g/l) are found that, since the third generation of the experimental insects, its effectiveness were reduced in almost all versions at 20–33 %. Only in the variant with the grain capturecam, a significant reduction in the effect of the drug was observed from the 4th generation.
Drug containing two active substances (prostor), showed fairly steady effectiveness over the first three generations of insects. A significant reduction of the agent is installed with the fourth generation of pests.
Thus, during the years of research in selected samples the grain insects are met 7 most common types of pests: granary and rice weevils, rhopalocera small flour khruschak, grain kapturnek, south gate moth, grain moth. The shipment of grain in polyethylene bags into the fumigation storage accommodation with their cooling in winter provides reliable storage of grain reserves.
If it is necessary the processing of grain and not loaded storage accommodation against the plant pests with the same drug, without compromising its effectiveness, it is advisable to spend no more than three times. The drug aktellik 500 ES, k. e. should be used twice. Pyrethroid karate 050 ES, k. e. (lambda-cyhalothrin, 50 g/l) effectively acted almost all kinds of pests, however, starting with the second generation, there was only a slight increase in the effectiveness of the drug by 1–2 %, its action was reduced to 12–23 % from the third generation.
|№9 (2015)||Chemical nuprid 600 TN in the system of the industrial plantation protection of strawberries from soil pests in the forest-steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Chemical nuprid 600 TN in the system of the industrial plantation protection of strawberries from soil pests in the forest-steppe of Ukraine
Keywords: planting strawberry, root system, soil pests, chemical s, technical efficiency.
During 2009–2014 it was conducted an indepth study at the insectary of the Department of the plant protection and quarantine and the experimental farm of of educational-scientific production complex (NNVK) Uman national University of horticulture and the TOV "AGRANA FRUT LUKA" (Vinnitsa region). They concerned the study of biology and harmfulness of the main soil pests (cockchafer, turnip moths, different species of click beetles), as the most numerous species in agrobiocenoses of industrials plantations of strawberries, as the berry culture requires effective and environmentally reasonable protection.
During the period of 2012–2014 supported by the TOV "AGRANA FRUT LUKA" we con-ducted a research to examine the technical efficiency of the chemical nuprid 600 TN (Imidacloprid, 600 g/l) of the company Nufarm GmbH & Co KG" (Austria), who also belongs to derived chlorine, but has a more modern preparative form and can be recommended as an integral component that is attached to clay (earth) "mash" and used when planting strawberry plants.
It was found out that addition of the nuprid 600 TN (80 ml per 10 l of water) to the "mash", whereinto the root system of strawberry plants is immersed just before planting them into the soil, is an effective event with a long lifespan to reduce the number of soil pests (larvae of may beetles and click beetles, caterpillars, turnip moths) and damage of plants during their vegetation in young plantations of berry crops.
We discovered a significant reduction in the number of larvae of the cockchafer, click beetles (wireworms) and caterpillars of turnip moths.
Technical efficacy of the chemical increased depending on the norms of its consumption and performed the result about 79,3–98,6%. The efficiency was the highest when the flow rate of the chemical was 80 ml per 10 l of water.
Following the consumption rate of the chemical at 80 ml per 10 l of water technical efficiency of pesticide against larvae of the cockchafer, click beetles (wireworms) and the turnip moth within 30–40 days after treatment has reached 97,4; 93,5and 98,6% correspondingly. There have been almost 100% of strawberry plants survival.
The duration of protective action of the chemical nuprid 600 TN using it in this way against soil types was lasting 6 months after application.
This event can be recommended ukrainian gardeners in order to protect strawberry plants from soil pests in techical plantations of this crop.
|№9 (2015)||Protection of the industrial apple orchard from the green apple aphid in the conditions of steppe Ukraine||Annotation|
Protection of the industrial apple orchard from the green apple aphid in the conditions of steppe Ukraine
Keywords: integrated system protection, green apple aphid, pesticides, insecticides, apple variety Idared, apple variety Snow kalvil.
Considerable damage to the apple plantations in the conditions of ukrainian steppe are applied by the sucking pests. The green apple aphid (Aphis pomi Deg.) is especially dangerous, its harmfulness to the garden becomes quite noticeable in recent time.
There is urgent need at present there to update and supplement materials concerning the biology of this dangerous phytophage in apple orchards and the development of effective methods for reducing its severity. It determined the relevance of the research topic and the feasibility of solving a number of issues in favour of intensive commercial cultivation of apple fruit in Ukraine.
The research was conducted during 2013–2014 in the industrial garden of the farming "Vidrodzhennya" (Dnipropetrovsk region) in conditions of steppe Ukraine.
Analysis of the dynamics of apple tree colonization by green apple aphids showed that aphid population in agrobiocenosis is not constant and varies during the vegetation period, reaching its maximum in August.
The highest aphid population of shoots was registered in August 2013 – 55 colonies and September – 42 colonies per 100 shoots. In 2014 these figures were lower: 41 and 34 colonies accordingly.
Fruit trees are involved in a rapid development during their lifetime. One of the most significant parameters of the fruit tree vegetative growth and their physiological state is an annual increase of shoots. With increasing length of annual shoots consiquently grows a number of leaves that affect photosynthetic productivity, and this, in turn, increases the productivity of apple tree. Therefore, annual shoot growth should be about 25–40 cm in order to obtain high fruit yield.
Leaf area of fruit trees is one of the criteria to ensure high yield in the current year and the fruit buds for the next one. In a highly productive apple plantations the area of leaf cover charac-terizes the photosynthetic capacity of trees. It should reach sizes of 40–50 thousand m2/ha or more and maintain at this level during the whole productive period.
It is established that in the presence of aphid colonies area of the leaf blade and therefore the size of the assimilation surface of the tree is reduced.
Yield as the main indicator of the productivity of fruit plantations, largely depends on the population of pests and weather conditions. So, the control productivity level of apple in 2015 was 8,25 t/ha, which is 2.1 times less compared to 2014, In cases where apple trees were infested with green apple aphids, the yield was 2.1–28,7 % lower.
Our research on evaluating the effectiveness of insecticides in regulating populations of green apple aphid demonstrate the feasibility of chemical protection of industrial trees in the garden.
When using chemicals Akhtar 25 WG, Biskaya 240 OD, Calypso 480 SC, konfidor, v. r. k., mospilan, r. p., bi-58 new, k.e. and biological drug vertimek 018 EC, k.e. against green apple aphid in apple industrial garden zenos compared with the control (without insecticide treatments), the yield increase is 21,1 to 24,5 %.
|№9 (2015)||Features of corn seeds pathogen depending on his condition||Annotation|
Features of corn seeds pathogen depending on his condition
Keywords: seeds, corn, hybrids, microflora, methods of improving the quality of seeds.
The development of seed morfobiologichesky accompanied by complex physical and chemical-governmental processes that take place in it since the formation and the onset of full maturity. They describe the features of the transition seeds from one state to another. Under the influence of changing flora and important biochemical and physiological indicators seeds – respiration rate, acidity, similarity, longevity. In turn microflora development largely depends on the seed, especially on the level of damage. It is known that damaged seed vigor breathes rapidly loses nutrients and is not qualitative; there is destabilization of its total mass.
The features of microorganisms on seed corn in the process of harvesting and postharvest handling found the impact of different types of fungi and bacteria on its sowing and yield qualities. The technical and technological measures to improve the quality of seeds on being finalized and preprocessing.
Seed treatment in terms corn plant in selected samples dominated by species of Fusarium, here you can see and isolated colonies of fungi of the genus Penecilium. Among bacteria the predominant bacteria Pseudomonas. Purification and separation of the seed surface microflora characterized by minimal performance. So, embankment seeds fundamental group unit of pathogenic organisms are primarily damaged seeds, which are available on the surface of fungi of the families Penecilium, Aspergilius, Fusarium.
For disinfection of bacterial and fungal diseases, it is advisable to handle damaged seed pro-tectants as one of the most effective measurestion a reduction of pathogenic organisms. Especially, effective in lesions seed treatment fungal infection that is confirmed by the determination of its similarity laboratory method. According to table in experiments by seed treatment whole seed germination was increased to 1,5–2,0%, and damaged – by 15,0–16,1%. However, even such a radical measure does not ensure receipt of certified seeds in the case of its damage during harvesting and moving – laboratory germination was 90%, with cold test its indicators were lower by 14,0% and field – 11,1% compared to the whole.
|№8 (2015)||Micoflora of winter wheat seeds as a source of root rot infection in conditions of northern Steppe||Annotation|
Micoflora of winter wheat seeds as a source of root rot infection in conditions of northern Steppe
Well known that as a source of root rot infection, except soil and plant residues, may be also seeds. Literary data indicates that the seed can be transmitter of fungi infection mainly of the genus Helminthosporium, Fusarium and Alternaria. About the Ophiobolus, Pythium and Cercosporella root rot, it was established – pathogens of these diseases are not transmitted by seeds.
The meaning of seed infection in root rot restoration of varies in different climatic zones.
Therefore the purpose of our study was to determine the proportion of seed infection in root rot restoration in conditions of northern Steppe of Ukraine.
To determine the total micoflora and germinative capacity of seeds in 2008–2010 in the laboratory of plant protection of the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone were analyzed the seeds of five varieties of winter wheat (Ukrainka odes’ka, Zamozhnist’, Kuyal’nyk, Zira, Liona) by the biological method according to the conventional tech-niques. The seeds were grown in a moist chamber in the paper rolls for 7 days at temperatures of 20–25°C. To identify and compare each of superficial and internal infection the one variant of seed (variety Kuyal’nyk) we previously treated with medical alcohol.
As shown the laboratory analysis of samples the germinative capacity of seeds in variants of experiment were as follows: 2008 – 80,7–91,0%; 2009 – 86,7–94,7%; 2010 – 85,0–92,3%.
Rainy weather during the ripening and harvesting period in 2008 and 2010 contributed to the spread the seed diseases of winter wheat. So, it affection depending on the variety in 2008 was 34,7–56,3%, 2009 – 27,0–51,3%, in 2010 – 37,0–58,0%.
Over the years of research on the affected seeds the most quantitative were spore formation of fungi genus Alternaria – ranging from 18,7% on kernels of variety Ukrainka odes’ka in 2009 to 61,3% – Liona in 2010.
Species of Fusarium were determined, depending on the variety, on the 0,7–10,7% of affected kernels. At least amount (0,0–2,0%) in seeds were presented fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana, the pathogen of Helminthosporium root rot.
On some samples were affected the coleoptile (within 0,3-4,0%), indicating the superficial type of affecting by the Helminthosporium or delicate superficial affecting by the Fusarium.
The obtained data indicates that after disinfection the germinative capacity of seeds decreased for 1,2 and affection – for 3,5 times. On seeds treated with medical alcohol, compared with the variant without disinfection, affection by the Alternaria species decreased for 4,2 times, and fungi of the genus Fusarium is increased for 1,7 times. The fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not determined.
Based on the above stated, we can conclude that the germinative capacity of seeds, affection and composition of seed micofloraof winter wheat depends on the characteristics of the variety and weather conditions, settled during the ripening and harvesting period. Its stablished that from the epiphytic and endophytic micoflora of winter wheat seed the largest proportion took Alternaria sp. But literature data suggest that this genus of fungus on wheat grain as a factor of root rot development have no practical significance.
Thus, in conditions of northern Steppe of Ukraine, during the years of researches, the winter wheat seed as a source of root rot infection had no significant importance.– Р. 105–108.