|1 (2019)||Technogenic level of arable farming and associative variability of weeds in agrocenoses||Annotation|
Technogenic level of arable farming and associative variability of weeds in agrocenoses
UDK 631.5:631.51 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0064
Shevchenko M. S.1, Shevchenko S. M.2, Derevenets-Shevchenko K. A.1, Shvets N. V.1 Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (1). 83–92.
1 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
2Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
On the basis of multiyear field time and stationary experiments on the study of the effectiveness of herbicides, the distribution of weeds and the impact of agricultural factors, features of the transformation of their species composition were established. It was established that the high regulatory capacity against the botanical composition of weeds was determined by herbicides, the structure of sown areas, the phytocoenic density of crops and the intensity of soil cultivation.
The most characteristic of the newest cycle of development of agriculture was the universalization and growth of phytotoxic action of herbicides up to 90–97% and the transition to minimizing soil cultivation. The theoretical conclusion about necessity of constant correction of phytotoxic spectrum of herbicides and differentiation of cultivation of soil in crop rotation is made.
It is established, according to which agro-ecological scenario can develop the situation in the herbological, herbicidal and agro-system agriculture. In the conditions of intensive diversification of agrarian production and concentration of markets, the new meaning is filled with the concept of crop rotation and system alternation of crops. At the forefront is no longer the dependence of the productivity of culture from the predecessor, and the permissibility of saturation with their toxicants herbicide origin. Avoid the uncontrolled spread of herbicides should be a scientifically grounded alternation of pesticide-containing (corn, sunflower) and phytocoenocisal-resistant (winter wheat) crops.
To overcome the negative effects of herbicides on crops in crop rotation, it is necessary to introduce into the agricultural practice the accounting of used herbicides in each rotational line.
A trend that accelerates the use of combined herbicides can be an additional impetus for accelerating by the weeds acquired resistance to the active substance of preparations of different chemical classes. Therefore, in order to prevent the evolutionary occurrence of herbicide immunity, every 10 years it is necessary to change the phytotoxic concept on the basis of new mechanisms of depression of weeds.
Key words: agriculture, weeds, herbicides, crop rotations, agricultural crops, weedeness, phytoto-xicity, species composition, transformation, prognosis.
|1 (2019)||Effect of basic soil cultivation for damage by pests and defeat by diseases of grain crops||Annotation|
Effect of basic soil cultivation for damage by pests and defeat by diseases of grain crops
UDC 631.51: 631.8: 633.854.78 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0065
Tsyliuryk O.I. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 93–101.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhii Efremov Str., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
Significant limiting factors for the cultivation of grain crops are the degree of defeat by diseases and pest damage. Despite the widespread introduction of modern high-performance chemical protection products, they continue to be harmful objects that reduce crop by more than a third.
The purpose of the work is to determine the peculiarities of damage by pests and defeat by diseases of the main grain crops (corn, winter wheat) depending on the methods and the system of basic soil cultivation and fertilizer.
The experimental part of the work was conducted during 2001–2015 in accordance with the generally accepted methodology of the research in the long-term stationary experiments of the DPDG «Dnipro» in the Institute of Agriculture of steppe zone of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Dnipropetrovsk region). Experiments are laid out in triple repetition, the total area of sown area is 330 m2, and accounting area is 100 m2.
There was a tendency to increase the damage by wireworms (seedlings – 15,2–16,4 %, seeds – 15,1–17,6 %) of corn plants for mulching soil cultivation (flat cutting) with abandonment on the surface and wrapping in the upper layer (0–16 cm) of the plant residues of the predecessor (spring barley). The conducting of board cultivation contributed to the removal of many wireworms (Elateridae) on the surface of the soil, where it died due to physical drying under the influence of sun rays and destroyed by birds in the fall immediately after cultivation. In this case, the damage to seedlings and seeds decreased to 10,9–13,0 and 9,2–12,8 % respectively, or by 3,4–4,3 and 4,8–5,9 % less than that of the shallow mulching system. The system of differentiated cultivation occupied an intermediate position with respect to corn damage by wireworms (seedlings – 13,6–14,8 %, seeds – 12,9–15,2 %). Incorporation of fertilizers under corn in a dose of N60P30K30 contributed to better growth and endurance (tolerance) of plants irrespective of the system of cultivation, damage of seedlings and seeds by wireworms was reduced by 1,2 and 1,4 times, respectively.
The corn damage by corn moth was at a low level and fluctuated within 1,4–2,5 % with increasing damage in a shallow mulching system of cultivation in 1,5–1,7 times, due to the presence of plant remains in it, in which well preserved and wintering dolls of corn mothes in contrast to the board cultivating system, where, on the contrary, they burrow in the lower layers of the soil and die.
There was a tendency to decrease the development of root rot in the variants of board soil cultivation, in comparison with disk, chisel and non-board cultivation in 1,1–1,25 times, as well as on the uncoated background in relation to fertilizer, which is explained by the plowing of the cultivars and reduction of the period of infection non-nourished plants due to their premature maturation and drying.
The use of boardand differentiated soil cultivation systems for corn growing provides for the most complete destruction of pathogens (mold seedlings and root rot, plants with bile ducts, early illnesses) and pests (wireworms, stalk mothes, cotton scoops) that hibernate and remain in plant remains. Indicators of defeat by diseases and damage by pests are reduced by 1,4–1,6 times as a result of tillage of plant remains along with pathogens in the lower layers of the soil. The use of shallow mulching cultivation requires additional regulations on the control of pests and diseases, provided they exceed the economic thresholds for their harmfulness, which requires additional costs of material resources, especially in the years of significant manifestation of harmful objects.
The damage of winter wheat plants to root rotates decreases in areas with board soil cultivation by 1,1–1,25 times, as well as in the unpolluted background in relation to fertilized by tillage postbreeding remains and the reduction of the period of infection of non-fertilized plants due to their premature maturation and drying.
Key words: winter wheat, corn, damage by pests, defeat by diseases, basic soil cultivation, fertilizer system.
|1 (2019)||Structural and aggregate composition of soil depending on the tilling method in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Structural and aggregate composition of soil depending on the tilling method in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.452: 631.512 (477.6) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0066
Medvedyev E. B. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 102–109.
Lugansk Institute of Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 Oktyabrska Str., Village of Metalist, Slavyanoserbsk district, Lugansk region, 93733, Ukraine
The article shows the results of studies on the impact of the main tillage methods on the soils structural-aggregate composition in the link of grain-fallow-tilled crop rotation (winter wheat – peas – winter wheat) under conditions of the northern plains of Ukraine in 2010–2012.
It was found that when growing peas after winter wheat on the corn of milky-wax ripeness in all the years of research, plowing compared with beard lesstreat ment contributed to the formation of the best agronomical structure in the upper (0−10 cm) soil layer. So, on average over the years of research in the spring before applying the pre-sowing treatment of the soil, the difference in the content of agronomically valuable aggregates (10–0.25 mm) and the value of the structural coefficient in this layer in favour of plowing was, respectively, 3.5% and 0.19. This was due to a decrease in the number of structural units with a size of >10 mm. On average, over the years of research, there were less of them by 3.9% at the mouldboard plowing compared to aboardless treatment. By the time of harvesting, this trend continued, except for 2012, in which the difference in these indicators in terms of treatment options was almost not observed during this period. Significant differences in the addition of structural aggregates in soil layers of 10–20 and 20–30 cm have not been established for the experimental variants.
The studies revealed a tendency to an increase in the number of pulverescent aggregates
Regarding aggregates of size >10 mm, by the time of harvest, there was a tendency to reduce their number in the entire arable layer of soil in all crops of the crop rotation link mainly during all the years of research, which contributed to the improvement of its structural indicators.
The indicators of the structural aggregate composition of the soil with different ways of its procthreessing did not lead to the emergence of a significant difference in the water regime, bulk density, microbiological activity in the soil, the crop yield of the crop rotation link, which is confirmed by our previously published studies.
Key words: soil treatment, structural-aggregate composition, pea, winter wheat, soil layer.
|1 (2019)||Influence of the basic soil cultivation systems and fertilization on yield of winter wheat after fallow in Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of the basic soil cultivation systems and fertilization on yield of winter wheat after fallow in Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.581: 631.51: 631.432 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0067
Tsyliuryk O. I. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 110–119.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhii Efremov Str., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
The level of crop yield and gross collection of winter wheat grain is determined by the general level of production and the state of food security of Ukraine. Therefore, the use of modern technologies, one of which elements is the optimal dosage of fertilizers, and the right choice of methods for basic soil cultivation, in combination with other elements of technology and weather conditions, provide maximum level of productivity of plants. The mutual influence of various factors on the size of the grain crop related to the soil cultivation is complex, sometimes somewhat different depending on the years and the growing zone, and therefore requires additional research to determine the optimal methods and systems of soil cultivating in order to increase the yield of winter wheat, especially in recent decades of global warming.
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of the formation of a grain yield of fallowwinter wheat under the influence of different systems of basic soil cultivation and fertilization and the determination of the optimal variant of arable land tillage.
Different ways of the basic cultivation of fallow (disk, chisel, board) provided in the experiments practically the same productivity of winter wheat. It should be noted the tendency to reduce the yield of grain in the early fallow after barley, compared with fallow against the background of no fertilizer at 0,10–0,20 tons/ha, or 2,7–3,8 %.
Deep board cultivation of fallow did not have advantages compared to shallow disk cultivation, as opposed to spring-like, loose soil tillage, where lower fertilizer yields were obtained within individual fertilizer options (no tufts, N30P30K30). At the same time, application of N60 in spring in combination with P30K30 under pre-sowing cultivation provided grain yield at the control level (tillage – 5,50, early fallow – 5,52 t/ha).
Use of board cultivation with the addition of N30P30K30 contributed to extra grain yield of 0,28 t/ha, disk – 0,38, flat cutter – 0,33 t/ha, and N60P30K30 – respectively 0,26; 0,43 and 0,48 t/ha. The low growth of grain yield from mineral fertilizers, in particular nitrogen, is due to lack of rainfall during the formation of reproductive organs in plants.
During the experiment, the deep tillage of fallow on all agrophons without exception allowed the production of food grain with the content of protein 11,6–12,4 %, and gluten 23,3–26,2 %. Autumn disk and spring flat cutting of the fallow field caused the annual receipt of grade 3 grain only when N60P30K30 was added (protein – 11,6–12,3 %, gluten – 22,6–24,6 %).
When engaging in the crop rotation of the by-products of crop rotation, the introduction of N30P30K30 under winter wheat, placed on a fallow, contributed (as compared to the unhealthy background) to increasing the content of protein in the grain by 0,6–1,0 %, gluten – by 1,9–2,6 %, and N60P30K30 – by 0,8–1,4 % and 2,0–3,0 % respectively.
Thus, the use of an early fallow after sunflower during winter wheat cultivation provides crop at the level of board, chiuzel and disc cultivation, that is, different pairs and methods of cultivating them are equivalent. At the same time, the introduction of an early fallow after a corn forehead (barley) and after corn in the process of engaging in the cycle of all the by-products of cultivated crops leads to a partial immobilization of nitrogen compounds of soil under wintering in the spring and to a tendency to decrease the grain yield by 0,10–0,20; 0,02–0,15 t/ha (or 2,70–3,80 and 0,10–0,15 %) compared to other soil cultivation.
Key words: winter wheat, basic soil cultivation, fertilizer system, early fallow, predecessors, grain yield.
|2 (2018)||Methodology for determination of soil moisture: classical errors and objective physical parameters||Annotation|
Methodology for determination of soil moisture: classical errors and objective physical parameters
UDC 631.5:432.2 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0041
Shevchenko M. S. 1,Desyatnyk L. M. 1, Shvets N. V. 1, Shevchenko S. M. 2 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 309–313.
1 SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
Based on the long-term study of the water regime and water availability in crop rotations and agro-systems, the factor dynamics of moisture in agrocenoses has been determined and corrections have been made to the methodology for determining the soil moisture reserves. In the process of research in mul-tifactorial field experiments, the complexity of the wet consumption of certain components of agrocenoses was revealed. Due to the use of comparison and exclusion methods, the mechanisms for distributing water between cultural and harmful objects are disclosed, using the methods of comparison and exclusion, the mechanisms of water distribution between cultural and harmful objects are disclosed.It is established that the most influential factors of the regulation of productive use of moisture in agrocenoses are crop rotations, weeds, pests and diseases, soil cultivation, etc.In this case, additional mobilization of volumes of moisture content of cultivated plants can reach 20–120 mm. It is proved that the existing method of determination of moisture content of soil and moisture content reduces the objectivity of these indicators and does not correspond to the current perceptions of the percentage (%) content of the constituent part in the whole object.The fundamental change in the mechanism of calculation is that the moisture content is determined from the moist soil sample, and not from the dry one, as was done by this time. At the same time, the coefficient of water-physical ratio is introduced into the moisture determination formula.
Key words: soil, humidity, formula, methodology, factors, moisture content, moisture reserves, coefficients, culture.
|2 (2018)||The impact of soil cultivation methods and fertilizers on the soil fertility performance and crop yields under the conditions of the northern part of the Donetsk Highland||Annotation|
The impact of soil cultivation methods and fertilizers on the soil fertility performance and crop yields under the conditions of the northern part of the Donetsk Highland
UDC 631.153.7 (477,61) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0042
Medvedev E. B. Grain Crops. 2018.2 (2). С. 314–323.
Lugansk Institute of Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine,
14 Oktyabrska Str., Metalistvillage, Slavyanoserbskdistrict, Lugansk region, 93733, Ukraine
The article deals with the findings of a research on the impact of the methods of primary soil cultivation and fertilizers on the soil's agro-physical properties (texture, bulk density, reserves of productive moisture), microbiological activity and crop yields at the field crop rotation stage (winter wheat – peas – winter wheat) under the conditions of the northern part of the Donetsk Highland during 2010–2012.
It was established that the moldboard-free cultivation, in comparison with the moldboard plowing, against the background of tillage for row crop rotation, predetermines the best preservation of the water-resistant texture of the black soil. A significant increase in the number of water-resistant aggregates (more than 0.25 mm in size) was observed in the variants with the moldboard-free cultivation at the crop rotation stage during 2011 and 2012 under all crops in spring and before harvesting, mainly in the soil layers of
Monitoring yields of the field crops did not reveal any advantages of the moldboard plowing as compared with the moldboard-free cultivation. The mineral fertilizers introduced significantly influenced the productivity of all crops of the crop rotation stage: winter wheat/milk-ripeness maize throughout all years of the research, peas and winter wheat after peas in 2011. Over the years of the research, the average increase in grain yields due to the use of doses of compound fertilizers recommended for Lugansk region conditions (N45P35K15 for peas, N60P60K30 for the winter wheat) amounted to: winter wheat/milk-ripeness maize – 0.91 t/ha, peas – 0.17 t/ha, winter wheat/peas – 0.10 t/ha, or 54.8 %, 12.2 % and 4.4 % respectively. Due to the fertilizer introduction in the N90P80K70 dose for the planned winter wheat yield (the dose was calculated taking into account the removal of nutrients with the crop and the increase in the soil fertility), the increment amounted to: after the milk-ripeness maize – 0.96 t/ha or 57.8 %, and after peas – 0.22 t/ha or 9.6 %.
At the same time, the use of the fertilizers indicated in the experiment by the broadcast method for the primary soil cultivation under the conditions of insufficient moisturizing caused a decrease in the levels of profitability of the crops grown. On average over the years of the research, as per the crop rotation stage variants with the recommended doses of fertilizers, the profitability levels decreased: as per the variants with the moldboard plowing – by 97.7 %, as per the variants with the moldboard-free cultivation – by 103.2 %, as per the variants with targets for the planned crop yields – by 122.5 % and 129.6 % respectively in comparison with the variants without fertilizers.
The use of moldboard-free cultivation implements makes it possible to reduce the energy consumption for growing crops and increase the profitability levels. On average over the years of the research, the savings per 1 ha at the crop rotation stage were as follows: labor costs – 0.50 man-hours, fuel consumption – 8.9 l, operating costs – UAH 177.38, total energy costs – 509.58 MJ or 33.6 %, 36.8 %, 24.9 %, and 33.0 %, respectively. The profitability levels were higher as follows: as per the variants without the use of fertilizers – by 14.4 %, as per the variants with the recommended doses of fertilizers – by 8.9 %, and as per the variants with the doses for the planned crop yield – by 7.3 %.
Keywords: soil cultivation, water-resistant texture, density, productive moisture, microbiological activity, mineral fertilizers, crop yield.
|2 (2018)||Efficiency of fertilizers using in crop rotation depending on the methods of basic soil cultivation||Annotation|
Efficiency of fertilizers using in crop rotation depending on the methods of basic soil cultivation
L. M. Desiatnyk 1, M. S. Shevchenko 1, N. V. Shvets 1, S. M. Shevchenko 2. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 324–329.
1 SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
2 Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhiya Yefremova Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The analysis of experimental results in a stationary field experiment on the study of the efficiency of mineral fertilizers on the background of minimization of soil cultivation and the use of by-products of organic products is presented. It was found that higher yields ensured winter wheat and corn for grain, while peas and barley grew considerably inferior to productivity. Minimization of the main cultivation of soil by replacing plows in shallow loosening with disk implements and direct sowing was accompanied by a decrease in the physical recoupment of mineral fertilizers due to localization in the upper layer of black earth.
On the basis of multivariate analysis of experimental data, a model of algorithms for ecological, economic and economic indicators was developed. It has been established that significant increase in the efficiency of mineral fertilizers can be achieved through the cultivation of high-yielding crops and the dilution of the arable soil layer. With a significant variety of economic indicators in the agrotechnological scheme of stationary experiments on all the backgrounds of soil cultivation and crop rotation, the indicators of profitability of production from the use of fertilizers grew most stably.
On the basis of the experimental data obtained, the principles of optimization of the mineral fertilizer dispersion model in the soil are developed, which can be effectively regulated by the movement of soil mass during soil cultivation. The model of maximum efficiency of mineral fertilizers is based on a uniform distribution of nutrients in the arable soil layer.The narrowing of the localization of the main elements of nutrition is accompanied by a decrease in the yield of crops of grain-growing crop rotation due to the formation of a smaller mass of the root system. Along with this, the negative effects of soil compaction when minimizing cultivation are manifested in the mechanical deformation of branching of the roots. Therefore, the advantage should be given to differentiated soil cultivation.
Key words: fertilizers, crop rotation, soil cultivation, efficiency, recoupment, productivity, direct sowing.
|№ 1 (2018)||Agrophysical and biotic factors of regulation of biological activiti of soil in crop rotation||Annotation|
Agrophysical and biotic factors of regulation of biological activiti of soil in crop rotation
UDK 631.41:631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0015
Grain Crops,2018, 2 (1), 109–115. Shevchenko M. S., Shvets N. V., Shevchenko S. M.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14 Volodymyra Vernadskoho str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhiya Yefremova Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
On the basis of field stationary experiments the dynamics of the total biological activity of the soil, depending on the biomass of plant residues of crop rotation crops, methods of basic soil cultivation and hydrothermal factors, was studied. It has been established that the release of carbon dioxide from the soil with greater intensity was observed on the background of deep plowing, where better conditions for aeration were and the distribution of plant residues in the profile of the arable layer was more quantitative. Minimal methods of soil cultivation, through consolidation of the soil, led to a decrease in the parameters of the zone of biotic activity and growth processes of crop rotation crops. It also inhibited total biological soil activity and reduced the amount of carbon dioxide released.
Among the crops of crop rotation, the largest mass of organic matter left behind corn (4,34 tons/ha), and the minimum sunflower (2,24 tons/ha), which determined the potential of biological soil activity. Reducing the depth of the basic soil cultivation is accompanied by an increase of soil hardness and deterioration of its water absorption, which enhances conservative processes and inhibits the decomposition of organic matter. Biological activity of the soil on the background of plowing exceeds the direct sowing by 15–20%.
Key words: crop rotation, soil cultivation, biological activity, organic mass, hardness of soil, crops.
|№ 1 (2018)||Implementation of the potential productivity of field crops under the conditions of the northern Steppe||Annotation|
Implementation of the potential productivity of field crops under the conditions of the northern Steppe
UDC633:551.506:631.559 (251.1)(477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0016
Chaban V. I., Podobed O. U., Klyavzo S. P., Gorbatenko A. I. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 116–122.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyra Vernadakyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,Ukraine
High demand for food and feed grain and oilseeds on the market of agricultural products contribute to the further development of the agrarian sector. Modern varieties and hybrids of agricultural crops have a high biological productivity potential. However, in the steppe zone, it is realized at best of 40-50%, which in most cases is associated with the high probability of drying phenomena in the continuation of plant growth. Therefore, an adaptation of steppe farming to climate change remains a matter of concern. The purpose of the research is to establish the level of implementation by grain and oil crops of the productivity potential in the conditions of the northern steppe of Ukraine on the background of climate change.
Estimation of the productivity potential of winter wheat, spring barley, corn, and sunflower was carried out by summarizing the harvest data of stationary experiments of soil fertility laboratories, crop rotation and environmental protection systems of soil cultivation (DPDG Dnipro) on control variants and organo-mineral fertilizer system. Ground cover – the black earth is an ordinary low-humus heavy-bodied. The content of humus is 4.2–4.3 %. The availability of moving nitrogen forms is moderate, phosphorus is medium and elevated, and potassium is high. The assessment of the climatic conditions of 1991–2017 was carried out according to the data of the AMC of the Dnieper, comparing them with the climatic norm (1961–1990). Data arrays were statistically processed using programs in Excel 2003 and Statistica (version 6).
Formation of productivity of agricultural crops takes place against the backdrop of climate change. They are manifested by an increase in the temperature regime over the past 27 years (1991–2017). The average temperature per year, the growth of early cereals and late crops increased by 0.7–1.0 °C, and in January and July – by 1.6 and 1.4 °C. The number of years with a reliable excess of air temperature ranged from 14 to 19, and their relative repeatability reached 52–70 %. Occurrence is characterized by high variability and uneven distribution (Cv = 36-60 %). Despite the growing trend of their annual amount (561 mm), it is statistically not confirmed. During the years of observation only in 7 cases (26%) their number corresponding to the norm, in 12 (44 %) – a lack of moisture was detected and in 8 (30 %) – exceeding the norm. That is, in the face of temperature rise, the conditions of moisture do not change.
Zonal chernozems are characterized by high fertility. In control, the average yield was: winter wheat (steam) – 4.49 t/ha; after unpaired – 2.52 t/ha; a corn – 4,35 t/ha; a spring barley – 2.39 t/ha; a sunflower – 2,13 t/ha. The variation of weather conditions during vegetation caused significant fluctuations. Reduction of non-parietal winter wheat, corn, barley compared to the average was 3.2–3.7 times, and wheat in steam and sunflower – 2.2 times.
The established dependence is confirmed by the variability index (Cv) of the yield data. Only for sunflower, it corresponded to the average level (Cv = 25 %). For grain crops, the coefficient of variation is high (Cv = 33–39 %). The systematic application of fertilizers in crop rotation positively impacted the productivity of plants. The average yield of crops increased: steam wheat – by 17% (5.24 t/ha); after non-steaming – by 57% (3.95 t/ha); corn – by 13% (4.91 t/ha); a barley yarrow – by 40 % (3.34 t/ha); a sunflo-wer – by 11% (2.37 t/ha). At the same time, the variability of the indices of non-wheat and maize crop remained high (Cv = 34–35 %), and steam winter and barley – declined to an average (Cv = 24–30 %). At the same level (24%) he remained for sunflower.
Using the confidence interval, crop yields are set with a slight deviation from the mean values. Thus, according to the natural fertility of chernozem, the usual harvest of wheat in a steam range is 4.01–4.97 t/ha, corn – 3.87–4.83 t/ha, barley– 2.10–2.68 t/ha, sunflower – 2,19–2,56 t/ha is estimated as average. The grouping of harvest data makes it possible to determine the patterns of distribution and frequency of certain cases, which allows us to assess the adaptive properties of crops to the ecological conditions of cultivation. Against the background of natural soil fertility, only 22–29 % of cereal crops form a crop at the average level, while sunflower – 42 %. Almost identical was the probability of the formation of a winter wheat crop and maize lower or higher than the average (33–39 and 38–39 %). Adaptability of barley was inferior – the repeatability of harvests below the average reached 46 %.
There was an increase in the cases of the formation of average and high yields of field crops on fertilizer variants due to effective soil fertility.
Keywords:field crops, productivity potential, adaptive properties, climate change.
|№ 2 (2017)||Moisture conservation and productivity of sunflower using a mulch tillage method||Annotation|
Moisture conservation and productivity of sunflower using a mulch tillage method
Key words: sunflower, soil cultivation, post-dormancy remnants, mineral fertilizers, water regime, yield, economic efficiency.
The influence of different methods and depth of the main soil cultivation on the chernozem water regime, yield and economic efficiency of growing sunflower in the northern steppe of Ukraine has been investigated with the involvement of 3.4–6.9 t/ha of crop residues of the predecessor (winter wheat) in the cycle. Multicultural cultivation creates on the field a soil protecting surface from plant remains to prevent deflation and flushing, additional accumulation of snow, reducing water drainage and unproductive evaporation. Protective and moisture-saving effects of Agrofons are largely dependent on the number and physical properties of post-dart remnants, as well as the prerequisites for the formation of a continuous mulching screen. Under the influence of straw mulching, the direction and intensity of biochemical processes in the soil, in particular, the content of mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium increases in it, increases the activity of the main groups of microorganisms of the nitrogen series. In the crop layer, due to better supply of energy material, as well as a smaller fluctuation of humidity and temperature, the number of useful fauna increases.
According to the records, chisel and sweep-typeequipmentpreservescrop residues of winter wheat best of all. With the average volumeof 5.1 t/ha of the predecessor’s residues involved in the cycle,there remained unopened 3.5–3.8 t/ha of straw (67.3–71.9 %) after the main cultivation and 2.0–2.3 t/ha (38.8–43.3 %) at the time of sowing of oil-bearing crops. The degree of projective cover of the soil surface with plant residues after chiseling and sweep cultivation in the fall was 76–80 % and in the spring it was 61–67%, which indicates a potentially high snow-moisture efficiency and moisture conservation ability of the agricultural background.
With the involvement of all the leaf and stem residues of the predecessor, mulch tillageusing chisel and sweep-type equipment contributed, in comparison with plowing, to an additional (45–113 m3/ha) accumulation of productive moisture in a layer of 0-150 cm, an increase in the level of assimilation of fall-winter precipitations up to 45.4–47.8 % and more economical water consumption to create a unit of dry matter of sunflower yield (organo-mineral fertilization).The water consumption coefficient indicated the advantage of the best mulch cultivating options for plowing on the fertilized background, which manifested itself both in the yields of the main products and in the lateral, especially in 2013, when favorable start conditions for the rapid growth of vegetative organs were created on the plots without rotation of the chute. Therefore, despite the higher total costs of moisture for chisel and planar cultivation, the water consumption coefficient here on average for the years of research in the application of mineral fertilizers tended to decrease (444–468 m3/ ha against 456–475 m3/ ha in the plow)
With the autonomous use of plant residues (without application of fertilizers), 2.38 t/ha and 2.15–2.31 t/ha of sunflower seeds were harvested after surface tillage and mulching respectively. With the combined application of straw and complex dual nitrogen mineral fertilizers (N60P30K30), both chisel and
sweep cultivation were not inferior to plowingin terms of the level of yield of the main product (2.68–2.72 and 2.66 t/ha respectively). The advantage of chiseling was observed when more than 5 t/ha of straw (2011, 2012) were involved in the cycle, while sweep cultivation produced better result when less than 3.5 t/ha of crop residues wereleft in the field (2013). Shallow disk tillage, irrespective of fertilization, led to a decrease in plant productivity compared with thecontrol by 7–10 %. At the same time, the small amount of disk cultivation in terms of the degree of impact on the yield of sunflower fell in the plow, irrespective of the background of fertilizer, an average of 0.17–0.23 t/ha. The use of conventional steam-type cultivators of the type KPS-4 against the background of the small rounding of a large number of straw, deteriorated the quality of pre-planting field preparation and sowing, while the proportion of seed earned by the drill to a lesser depth than the given, reached 18–21%. With the technical support of technological processes, it is difficult to create a crop layer with optimal structure and structure of the soil. In arid weather, the risks associated with the slow development of the root system and the assimilation of NPK mobile compounds (2012) are not excluded.
Instead, when intense precipitation falls immediately after sowing of the oilseed crop, in the undersized areas, due to the greater dispersal and moisture content of the upper layer, there is a danger of the formation of a soil crust, which prevents seed germination and withdrawal to the surface of cotyledons. Slight discoloration, irrespective of the background of fertilization, led to a decrease in plant productivity compared with control by 7–10 %.
According to the results of economic assessment in cultivation of sunflower after winter wheat using 3.4–6.9 t/ha of straw and applying an optimal dose of mineral fertilizers (N60P30K30), it is expedient to employ resource-saving chisel (14–16 cm) or sweep (12–14 cm) mulch tillage. More economical (compared to plowing (20–22 cm)) sunflower growing will reduce the cost of a ton of seeds by 82–96 UAH and increaseprofitability by 12–15 %.