Bulletin Institute of agriculture of steppe zone NAAS of Ukraine.-2016.-№10
|Evaluation of new fast-ripening corn source material based on harvesting grain moisture||Annotation|
Evaluation of new fast-ripening corn source material based on harvesting grain moisture
Keywords: corn, hybrid,fast-ripening, harvesting grain moisture, source material, combi-ning ability.
To conduct evaluation and selection of a new fast-ripening corn source material based on harvesting grain moisture and to determine an impact of agrometeorological factors on its performance. Field, mathematical and statistical. 194 S5 families of inbred corn and 345 test crosses obtained in 2012 by crossing inbred families with three testers, two sister hybrids, Kros 267С (Lancaster x Laukon plasma) and Kros 290С (Lancaster plasma), and DK247 line (mixed plasma) were analyzed. The test crosses obtained in 2013–2014 were studied in the control seed-plot in three repetitions. Weather conditions during testing of the test crosses were different which contributed to a comprehensive evaluation of the source material with regard to its drought and heat resistance and helped to determine an impact of agrometeorological factors on the harvesting grain moisture. Distribution of selfed families based on harvesting grain moisture in combinations with testers discovered a modal class in 2013 in the range of 19–20 % with a total span of 17 to 22 %. Arid conditi-ons of growth in the second half of 2014 led to a significant narrowing of the range of harvesting grain moisture of hybrids (12–14 %) and overall leveling of genotype differentiation on this basis. It should be noted that the difference in grain moisture among selfed families in combinations with various testers was small and fit within the limits of 1 %. The span of limits of grain moisture at harvesting from year to year differed by only 2 % and was within 5,4 % in 2013 and 3,4 % in 2014. The coefficient of variation was low in both years, and its difference from year to year was only 1 % due to fast-ripening and homogeneity of the material under study. Estimates of the effects of GCA and variances of SCA of self-pollinated S5 families on the basis of harvesting grain moisture showed their sufficient differentiation for positive selection. The analysis of GCA testers showed heterogeneous nature of the forms used as analyzers of the lines on the basis of harvesting grain moisture.
As a result of the conducted tests, the best test crosses, combinations of self-pollinated families with different standards that had the lowest harvesting grain moisture among the studied samples, were selected. It was found that the weather conditions of the year have a significant effect on the harvesting grain moisture. 19 families with stable reliable negative GCA estimates were selected, which is indicative of good grain moisture-yielding ability, including 8 families with persistently high variances of SCA. In future, the selected families will be used as a source material in plant-selection programs to create new high performance hybrids with low harvesting grain moisture. Based on the research findings, 10 high-yielding test crosses with minimal harvesting grain moisture were selected.
|Correlation between yield traits of lentil and its breeding||Annotation|
Correlation between yield traits of lentil and its breeding
Keywords: lentil,genotypes,variability,heritability,correlation,yield performance.
Cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris), an annual legume crop, have been grown as an important food source for over 8000 years. They come in two main varieties: macrosperma (with large seeds), and microsperma (with small seeds). Depending on the variety and breed, however, lentil seeds can range in color from red-orange, to yellow, green, brown, or black.
Lentil seeds provide high levels of protein and, when consumed in combination with cereals, they provide adequate amounts of essential amino acids for the human diet. Their relatively short cooking time provides an additional advantage. Lentil production is equally beneficial for producers, as lentil have high tolerance for extreme environmental conditions such as drought and hot temperatures, and can be grown in semiarid regions without irrigation. Moreover, the crop can be grown in rotation with cereal crops to reduce soil erosion, improve disease and weed control, and reduce demand for nitrogen fertilizer.
It is cultivated and consumed thought the world, with Canada, Turkey and India being the top producers. As for Ukraine until the mid-twentieth century, it has been one of the largest producers and consumers of lentils in the world. Bat in the second part of twentieth century production and uses of lentil in Ukraine were heavily diminished.
Now in Ukraine are grown such varieties of lentil: Linza, Luhanchanka, Svitanok, which by careful observance of cultivation technology could provide seeds yield up to 2,0–2,5 t/ha. Welco-med zones for growing lentils are Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Kirovograd, Luhansk, Poltava, Kharkov regions.
More and stability yielding are among main aim of lentil breeding. The aim of this study is developed lentil varieties which are more yield, good quality and suitable for mechanical harvesting, adapted to Steppe zone climatic conditions of Ukraine. The aim of our research – was to exa-mine the relationships between lentils seed productivity and morphological and biological features (vegetation and interfacial periods) in conditions of northern steppe zone of Ukraine. Work was carried out in the 2013–2015 years. The test sites were placed in breeding crop rotation after winter wheat, for which precedes fallow. Seeds of lentils were sown with driller “CH-16” to the specified density – 1,8 million plants/ha. Width between rows was 15 cm. The size of plots was 25 m2. For the analysis were taken on 25 plants, from middle of the plot. Seven genotypes of lentil were utilized to compare their performance, genetic divergence and association among various yield related traits. Studied lentil lines were received from next accessions and hybrids: Dew Prentan Fonse, Stella, Stella x Dniprovskaya 2, K1212, Stanka 2, Krasnogradsky 49 x Linsa, K1212 x Stanka 2.
Analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences for all the traits except grains per pod, which showed non-significant results. The data indicated minimum days to maturity (67) for genotype Stela (from Bulgaria), while genotype К1212 (from Iran) showed maximum days to maturity (75). Highest grain yield (2680kg/ha) was recorded for К1212 х Stanka 2. The genotypic variance was found highest for grain yield. Highest value of heritability was recorded for plant hight (83,51%) followed by 1000-grain weight (75,24%), days to maturity (68,50%). Positive and significant correlation was exhibited by most of the traits.
|Viability of maize in vitro regenerated plants hybrids in soil under artificial climate||Annotation|
Viability of maize in vitro regenerated plants hybrids in soil under artificial climate
Key words: maize, viability, in soli, in vitro, regenerated plant, artificial climate.
The survival rate of regenerated plants of Ukrainian breeding maize hybrids in soil under conditions of artificial climate was estimated. The genotype control over survival rate in soil was identified. The hybrid combinations with high rate of viability in soil were detected.
|Creation of the inbred lines of corn (Zea mays L.) by the combined method||Annotation|
Creation of the inbred lines of corn (Zea mays L.) by the combined method
Key words: corn, inbred line, germplasm, combined method, heterosis,test cross.
Today it is impossible to imagine an efficient selection process without the use of haploid genetic marking, the SNP analysis, etc. Most of their efficiency is observed in the process of creating maize hybrids for favorable growing conditions are not limited. However, despite all successes of modern genetic and methodological approaches, creation of a new initial material for stressful climatic conditions demands other combined or modified methods.
Working out and introduction in selection practice of a new method of reception and an estimation of an initial material of corn which would allow to accelerate selection process with an effective utilization ground and a manpower without narrowing of a genetic variety of selection samples was the purpose of researches.
Researches were spent in Institute of agriculture of steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine within 2004–2015 researches on working out and introduction in selection practice of the combined method of creation of inbred lines of corn have been executed. A number of populations of various structure and a genetic origin have been for this purpose selected. They were preliminary estimated on a combining ability in relation to elite lines of base germplasms for studying of the future geterotics of pairs created lines. Self-pollination and selection, since generation S0 to S8 were spent. For generalization of results 5 initial populations in which selection by a standard method and under the scheme improved by us was led have been selected: ДKП63, ДKП18, ДKП26, ДKП19-7, ДKП03. Inbred lines and their test crosses were grown up in selection and control nursery where the allotment area made accordingly 4,0 m2 and 4,9 m2.
As a result of researches it has been established possibility of a combination of two methods of reception of a selection material of corn: modified МSSD and a standard method. At the self-pollination initial stages (generation S1–S4) the scheme of modified method МSSD is used. That is led selection of 3–5 grains from an ear with their subsequent association and sowing on one allotment, selection on a phenotype of plants and rejection of defective plants. From generation S4 the estimation and selection of inbred families is spent under the scheme of a standard method with an estimation of each family, their testing and formation of desirable type of plants.
Such approach allows accelerating process of reception of inbred lines, thanks to possibility of use of winter nursery at the self-pollination initial stages, smaller requirement for the ground area, more a labour and time effective utilization.
The comparative estimation of the standard and combined methods of reception of inbred lines has confirmed considerably the big efficiency of the second, especially concerning the necessary ground area for reception of inbred lines which was in the sum on 1436 m2 less. In the offered combined method level of removal of a material not meeting our requirements reached 50,8–74,8 % in generations S2–S5 that was provided with the big genetic variety of the received recombinants in generation S1, and at a standard method it is fixed in later generations. It is connected first of all with an intrafamily variety of inbred recombinants received by a standard method and accordingly not always defensible definitive liquidation of a family before achievement of certain level of homozygosity by it and the levelled condition to signs. The method improved by us excludes the given fears and provides more free selection thanks to an interfamily variety of received recombinants S2–S5.
The detailed analysis of efficiency of test crosses of lines received by different methods, has confirmed possibility of allocation of samples with a high combining ability. The majority of the best hybrids allocated with us created with the assistance of lines received by the combined method, proves perspectives of its introduction in selection practice.
Generalizing the received results of researches, it is possible to note following advantages of the new offered method: high-speed process of creation of a new initial material, use of wide base of genetic plasma, labour and time effective utilization, possibility to work with a considerable quantity of samples.
|Methods and specificity of selection of sterile analogues of lines in corn||Annotation|
Methods and specificity of selection of sterile analogues of lines in corn
Keywords: cytoplasmic male sterility, sterileanalogue, line, backcrossing, maize.
Problems of practical selection is studying and introduction in production of the concrete hybrid combinations transferred on a sterile basis of M or C – type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) at the expense of full sterility of maternal components. For achievement of it can be used an artificial path in the presence of sources of CMS and good male – sterile restorer (fixing agents sterility). For lines – male – sterile restorer of corn are established the sterile analogues. In order to receive the sterile analogues as a rule is used the method of reserve crossing or backcrossing during five – seven years of saturation. One of the main demandsproducible to them is full sterility of plants. It is recommended to supervise CMS of families before the termination of works in breeding nursery to exclude cases of late going out fertile anthers on the lateral twigs during drying silk ears inherent in some forms C – type. Some lines of the Moldavian type in process of backc-rossing have impure generation on sterility of the panicle. This problem can be solved by means of method of selection of twin families (authors: B. P. Sokolov, N. M. Padalka – 1962) which is modi-fied for inbred material. The specified procedure was used at creation of sterile analogues of lines DК305, DК424, DК633/53, etc.
In case of appearance of some difficulties on achievement of full sterility of any generation of backcrossing, the creation of analogue is better for stopping or beginning anew with attraction of other source of sterility. Though, for an exception of such situation is more effectively to involve some sources simultaneously. For example, transfer of line DК7774 into a sterile basis carried out at once on the basis of two sterile forms – DК301 and DК410. For the purpose of elimination of negative influence on effect of a heterosis of the future hybrids the choice of the source of sterility needs to be carried out on the basis of the information on genetic parentage of self-pollinating forms. It is important, that a line-male-sterilerestorer, for which the analogue is created, and the donor of sterility belonged to one germ plasm. For example, for transfer of line DК777 into a sterile basis used DК257М, both belonging to group Iodent.
There is the possibility of reception of sterile analogues and at synthesis of analogues – fertility restorers (reducing agents) on a sterile cytoplasm. However, it is necessary the additional work on selection among families which give the full fixation of sterility. It is expedient for making in the end of saturation, only for a maternal plant to take not fertile sample, but the sterile sample. In particular, by means of this method have reached full sterility of the Moldavian type at analogues of lines DК633 / 325, DК6080.
The integral problem of selection and research establishments is search of the accelerated methods of transfer of new self-pollinating lines on the sterile basis. Today practically all foreign selection firms use winter nurseries in the countries of southern hemisphere and a tropical region where normally there passes corn vegetation. Reception of two generations for one year at our Institute is begun since 1996. Now with attraction of winter nursery the sterile analogues are created for such inbreds: DK 1825, DК2973, DК3810, DК4447, DКD 9053 and others.
For the fastest transfer into the sterile basis of new self-pollinating lines as the variant, is surveyed them backcrossing after the second or third self-pollination. We apply slightly different schema, involving in the saturation process with the donor the sterile form 3 or 4 backcrossing when it is necessary to transfer on the sterile basis a sisterly line with already known reaction on CМS (for example, DК4447М3 for DК4454).
Acknowledgement of selection efficacy of sterile forms of corn at Institute is that almost all hybrids are brought in the State list of varieties of the plants grown on the sterile basis.It is expedient to include genotypes in practical seed-growing with a sterile cytoplasm of various types to exclude its uniformity relative to thehazards of distribution ofdiseases and vulnerability in stres-sful conditions.
So, productivity of process on creating of sterile analogues depends on the choice of the source of sterility and selection of families with stable expression of CМS. The great value thus gets application of various methods, principle observance heterosis models of hybrids and reduction of term of saturation at the expense of use of winter nursery.
|Selection of new heat-resistant maize lines of heterosis group of Lancaster||Annotation|
Selection of new heat-resistant maize lines of heterosis group of Lancaster
Key words: corn, line, productivity of plant, heat resistance, heterosis group of Lancaster, correlation.
Increasing heat and drought resistance of crops is important and relevant due to the global warming which is a major problem today.
Heat resistance – a genetically caused ability of plants to endure the effect of high temperatures, overheating. Particularly sensitive to heat is a generative organs of plants. Increasing tempe-ratures above 350C during the growing and flowering of male and female inflorescences corn reduces the period of pollen viability, pestles of flowers is drying, which in turn leads to a sharp decline in yields. The main goal of our research was to create a highly heat-resistant maize lines Lancaster heterotic groups based on source material with high matching capacity, but low heat resistance.
The starting material for research were selected families S3 in which 50% of the genome, in the first case presented in IKS 1734 line (plasma Lancaster C103), and the second – line ILK 273 (plasma Lancaster OH43)
Experiments were conducted on Sinelnikovska breeding and research station of the Institute of Agriculture NAAS steppe zone of Ukraine for 2012–2015 years. Weather conditions observed during the study were very hot and facilitate identification and selection of resistant forms of corn.
In 2012 the first stage of selection in the field of 47 families S3, related lines of IKS 1734 and ILK 273, selected 18 families who have distinguished high estimates phenotype. In the second phase of each family was selected one self-dusting ear with the largest number of grains for use in breeding programs.
In 2013 it was assessed heat resistance initial forms and families S4 in the laboratory by germinating seeds at threshold temperatures. As a result of studies found that the line IKS 1734 is not heat resistant, and the line ILK 273 – not as heat resistant. Among S4 families observed varia-tion on the grounds of not heat resistant to resistant forms. Average score heat resistance in families S4 line IKS 1734 increased compared to the original form and was 1,4 points, while the families S4 line ILK 273 – on the contrary, decreased and amounted to 1,4 points. Medium heat resistant were only 2 families S4– IKS 17-4 and ІКS 27-7. Evaluation families S4 in the field helped identify genotypes with high performance and low limit. Among them were family ІКS 17-1, ІКS 17-9, ІКS 27-5, ІКS 27-6.
Analysis of heat resistance S5 families showed that in most cases it has raised, and its avera-ge value in comparison with the S4 rose to 2,1 and 3,1 points. Among the descendants IKS 1734 were only resistant line S5 IKS 17-3, while the descendants of ILK 273 lines S5 was ІКS 27-1, ІКS 27-4, ІКS 27-7 and IKS 27-8. Thus, the selection was effective in heat resistance among families of related lines ILK 273 – plasma Lancaster OH 43.
As a result of the studies were set up high-performance line, on this basis to 24,4–54,8% higher than the original form. In the first group of lines had significantly higher performance such lines S5– IKS 17-3 (72,9 g), IKS 17-6 (72,5 g) and IKS 17-7 (66,8 g), and the second – IKS 27-1 (77,4 g), IKS 27-4 (74.3 g) and IKS 27-9 (62,2 g). Other lines have the performance level standards.
The study of correlations between plant breeding grounds has shown that there is a high positive correlation between heat resistance and the number of beans on the corn-cob (r = 0,771) and between heat resistance and productivity of plants (r = 0,724), weak positive relationship between heat resistance and length of corncob (r = 0,342) and weak negative correlation between heat resistance and weight of 1000 grains (r = -0,145).
Thus, phenotypic selection in plant productivity, which was held in the field in the presence of hot weather, allowed to identify lines with high heat resistance. Particularly noteworthy lines S5 IKS 17-3, IKS 27-1 and IKS 27-4, which combine in their genotype heat resistance and high performance. These lines will be included in a program maize breeding new hybrids resistant to stressful growing conditions.
|Results andprospects of introduction of innovations corn selection||Annotation|
Results andprospects of introduction of innovations corn selection
Keyword: innovative products, implementation, corn hybrids, Intellectual Property.
The network of research institutions NAAS of Ukraine The Institute of Grain crops (hereafter the Institute) is one of the leading on the development of innovative products in the branch of plant growing.The Institute monitors the latest scientific developments, the coordination of their testing and subsequent implementation of the most effective ones in agricultural production for a wide exploration.
Development is completed (innovation), when fully implemented plan of study and received a positive result. It is very important to check production.For example, on new varieties and hyb-rids of agricultural crops this stage is a state sort testing under the new techniques or technologies of others. Along with the production test of scientific development stage design is completed develop-ments as intellectual property, issuance of patents and licenses. Scientific development is an innovation only after testing and recommends it to the mass introduction into production.
The main scientific achievements of the Institute is the breeding and development of innova-tive character – namely, varieties and hybrids of cereals, legumes and cereal сrops. Varieties (hybrids) plants – innovative intellectual property. After passing the state sort testing, examination of findings and issue of protection for this type of intellectual property sort (hybrid) seed becomes a commodity on the market.
In current market conditions, the seed of parental forms and hybrids of maize in Ukraine is influenced by several prominent scientific breeding centers. Of the 917 corn hybrids, registered in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine in 2015, 32 % owned by domestic breeding institutions. Foreign hybrids account for 68 % of domestic and dominated by 2,1-fold. However this ratio was not in favor of foreign firms in 2005–2007. If this trend in the branch of plant selection and seed breeding corn hybrids will be observed in the future, this may result in a violation of national interests and significantly displace Ukrainian producers in the domestic market.
At the same time among domestic and foreign institutions of corn selection, the Institute certainly ranks first in the number of registered – 110 hybrids, or 12,0 % of the total in 2015.
It should be noted that in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine in 2015 registered 11 hybrids of sweetcorn and 3 -pop-corn own corn selection.
Each year the Institute offers the production of new high-yielding corn hybrids of all maturi-tygroups and their cultivation technologywith a view to theimplementation of a high-level potential grain yield, obtaining high quality products, increase the adaptive capacity of plants, improving energy and economic indicators. It should be noted that during the selectioncorn hybrids using plasma without genetic modifications. In addition, high yield hybrids combined with low grain harvest moisture, cold, drought and heat resistance of plants and more.
For the current market conditions, it is important not only capacity rating and the degree of market saturation seed corn but also evaluation of competitors producing similar products. Compe-tition in the market in today's conditions is very significant and will benefit only on the side of innovative products with best quality parameters. Hybrids own selection characterized greatest adaptability to specific stressful growing conditions in drought years. Long-term studies indicate that in these tough conditions, corn hybridsof selectionof Institute showed their best adaptive properties and provide a high level of productivity.
In terms of increased competition in the global market of agricultural products application of innovative achievements is crucial to ensure the competitiveness of individual companies and Ukraine as a whole.
Applying innovation ensures sustainable economic growth, increases production and social development of society, ensure economic security and stability.
|Ecological and economic grounding of territorial location of grain production: the methodical aspects||Annotation|
Ecological and economic grounding of territorial location of grain production: the methodical aspects
Keywords: grain crops, location, losses due to soil erosion, soil fertility, ecological and economic efficiency.
Location and specialization plays an important role in increasing of the efficiency of grain production. The purpose of the article is to give an overview of methods of ecological and economic grounding of grain production location, which is the basis for further definition of the ways for improvement of grain farming location and increase of ecological and economic efficiency of the branch.
In modern science, there are many methodical approaches, which allow to estimate the effectiveness of the plant growing production, including grain. Thus, the criterion of economic efficiency of rational location of grain production is to increase the production of high quality
products at minimum expenses of living and materialized labor. For estimating of the economic efficiency of location and specialization of grain production, a number of indicators are used. These are productivity, product quality, the proportion of a particular culture in the sown areas structure, the output of feed units per 1 hectare of grain feed cultures, the production volume per capita or per 1 hectare of agricultural grounds, the value of gross and marketable products per 1 hectare of agricultural grounds, per 1 UAH of fixed and circulatingfunds, per 1 average annual worker; cost price of products; the volume of profit per 1 UAH of production expenses and per 1 hectare of crops; profitability, etc.
Some scientists also recommend to use the combined reliability rating of location efficiency, which is calculated as the ratio of the yield index to cost index.
It is reasonable to use the integrated index of comparative assessment of grain production efficiency, which is calculated as the ratio of the yield index to product of cost and laboriousness indexes. Another index is defined as the ratio of product of yield index and price index to the product of cost and laboriousness indexes.
In multivariate comparisons it is expedientalso to use the method of multidimensional comparative analysis based on Euclidean distance method.
In modern science the methods of economic-mathematical modeling, including Markowitz model, and cluster analysis methods are also widely used for evaluating the effectiveness of grain production location.
Methodical approaches used to determine the effectiveness of the location of grain and its prognostication for the future should necessarily take into consideration the ecological aspects such as peculiarities of the territory relief, the degree of soil erosion and soil fertility, the level of soil-protective efficiency of grown plants, etc.
Making of decisions in relation to adjustments of grain crops placement by this method should be based on a preliminary ecological and economic assessment of sown areas structure, which is grounded on the calculation of direct and indirect losses due to soil erosion and products shortfall. Economic evaluation of damage from erosion is carried out on two criteria such as the value of resulted expenditures and conditionally net income losses.
In modern conditions in relation to expansion of the use of computer technology and automated data processing methods the task of constructing of economic-mathematical models of optimization of the sown areas structure acquires a great importance. These models take into acco-unt the erosion control measures and are based on the applying of simplex method. Task definition is to determine the optimal composition of crop rotation that will provide maximum ecological and economic benefits according to available land, labor, material and financial resources of production, production parameters such as output of feed, protein, prices, cost, ecological capabilities such as soil damage, its distribution depending on the degree of erosion on slopes, accumulation of symbiotic nitrogen, etc.
The modern economic and mathematical methods in automated mode allow taking into account a large number of limiting factors and indicators, to get more reliable results of optimization of crop rotation structure and territorial location of agricultural cultures, including grain crops, and to obtaine the highest level of ecological and economic efficiency of their cultivation.
|Basic priorities of rational development of production of grain corn on Dnipropetrovs’k Oblast||Annotation|
Basic priorities of rational development of production of grain corn on Dnipropetrovs’k Oblast
Keywords: corn, hybrids, yield capacity, intensification, productive charges, cost, price, profit, economic efficiency.
A production of grain corn is the important constituent of all grain growing of the Dnep-ropetrovsk area. Her modern value and, in particular, providing of reliable grain-feed balance do not have an alternative. This culture largely determines not only economic position of stock-raising but also grain growing industry on the whole.
Dnipropetrovs’k Oblast is a traditionally sowing a corn area of Ukraine, about 7% of her sowing are here concentrated.
In the last years in the farms of area there was considerable expansion of areas busy under a grain corn: from 192,9 thousands hectare in 2000 to 296,6 thousands hectare in 2015. Thus it should be noted that due to an input in the production of high productivity hybrids and making more active of innovative activity in technologies of growing of this culture record gross collection of her grain – over 1 million tons is first got in the Dnepropetrovsk area. In particular, in 2011 this index made 1314 thousand tons, and an absolute maximum – more than 1315,5 thousand tons is collected in 2013.
Problem of creation of necessary pre-conditions for the increase of efficiency of production of grain corn in the Dnepropetrovsk area is this complex task. This task is related to the sphere of the rational use of the landed resources, introductions of new high productivity hybrids, saving energy of technologies, by introduction to the production ecologically of safe means of production and principled change of economic relations in a village.
It is a circle of questions without that we will not be able to start going the main instrument of concrete work, that are modern innovative technologies growing of corn, that form the greatest productivity of this culture. In particular, it is well-proven experimental researches, that such tech-nologies, as a rule, to a full degree depend on timely implementation of all complex of measures, both organizational (material well-being by combustible and lubricating materials, special technique, high-quality seed of the districted hybrids, by full strength by personnel) and agronomical and technical (quality of preparation of soil, observance of terms of sowing, bringing of sufficient amount of fertilizers and timely till of sowing, and others like that).
Generalization of the agronomical, technological, economic researches and prognosis calculations, conducted in Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine and his experimental stations by the state on beginning 2016 year, allows to do the prog-nosis of productive cost of ton of grain corn at the yield capacity from 3,0 to 6,0 a ton from a hectare in limits from 2662 to 1919 UAH for a ton. At the increase of yield capacity to the level 5,5–6,0 a ton from a hectare, profitability of her production can grow to 36,0–42,1% and, as a result, more favourable conditions will be created for the extended reproduction.
Consequently, the got results of complex agronomical and technological, economic and power researches testify that in the modern terms of menage rational application of intensive saving energy technologies and optimization of hybrid composition at growing of grain corn in the condi-tions of the Dnepropetrovsk area are one of reserves of increase of the productivity and competi-tiveness of production of grain of this culture.
|Strategy of grain production: methods, resources and perspectives||Annotation|
Strategy of grain production: methods, resources and perspectives
Keywords: grain crops, crop rotation, tillage, fertilizers, plant protection, prognosis, efficiency.
Grain farming of Ukraine is a strategic asset and the most effective branch of agriculture and economy of the state on the whole. Grain and products made from him are always remain highly liquidity because they make the basis of national food base and security.
Natural and climatic conditions and fertile land of Ukraine promote the cultivation of all crops and allow to obtain high quality food grains in volumes sufficient for domestic needs and the formation of export potential. Over the past five years, gross grain harvest reached 56–64 mln tons. Together with that, further development of the industry requires a thorough economic evaluation, revision of a number of positions on technical and technological, organizational economic and market conditions of functioning of all complex.
To ensure grain production in the volume 71 mln. tons it needs to spend turnover capital at 157 billion USD, that in calculation per hectare on average on all cultures will make within 9,5–10,2 thousand UAH.
Sowing areas under grain crops in Ukraine should remain stable enough (fluctuations is within 15–16 mln. ha), of which 7,1 million ha in Steppe, 5,6 million ha in Forest-Steppe, 2,3 milion ha in Polesye approximately. Therefore, the main directions of increasing of production volumes of food and feed grain is increasing productivity of varieties and fertility of soil which are already used in agricultural production.
One of the actual resource elements of grain crops growing is the use of mineral fertilizers. To maintain a high level of grain yield and soil fertility preservation it is necessary to eliminate their deficit and ensure the application rate NPK within 160–180 kg per hectare. For cereals on 2025 the need of nitrogen fertilizer will be 1336 thousand tons of active ingredient, phosphorus 783 ths. tons and potash 853 ths. tons.
High yield grain crops need to strengthen measures of weeds, pests and diseases control. Along with the priorities of system agrotechnical measures it is necessary to use pesticides of differente spectrum of action on special purpose basis. The need for protection chemicals in crops of cereals and legumes will make 4370–5230 tons including 2496–2854 tons disinfectants, 1092–1384 tons insecticides, 782–992 tons fungicides.
The process of intensification of agricultural production is closely linked to using in agriculture the latest advances in selection and seed production.
To complete the full cycle of grain production, effective post-harvest treatment and laying of parties on storage the capacity of storage should be 40 mln. tons and seed plants at 4 mln.tons.
The national strategy is based on scientific-reasonable organizational and technological measures which involve systemic increase of the productivity of brunch of production of grain on the basis of the balanced use of natural and material resources, the creation of stimulating agricultural structure, diversification of the innovative software and expansion of domestic and foreign markets.
|The current status of Ukrainian grain market||Annotation|
The current status of Ukrainian grain market
Keywords: winter wheat and spring barley winter and spring, oats, grain production, exports, balance.
The results of analysis of gross grain harvest of winter wheat and spring barley and winter and spring oats in Ukraine over the past 15 years of marketing. Determined export potential, the ratio of the share of domestic consumption of grain for its exports and found the average grain consumption patterns.
|Methodology of definition seed quality of cereal crops||Annotation|
Methodology of definition seed quality of cereal crops
Key words: seeds, corn, winter wheat, barley, indexes of quality, methods of testing.
Methodology, in keeping with excepted terminology, word for word, means totality of methods, which are used in any science according to specificity of object its cognition. Modern methodology of definition quality of the sawing material is based on methods and indexes, which are determined by effective normative documents. The index of sawing properties of the most cereal crops is clearness (contents of the basic seeds), germinability and humidity.
However, in practice it is known, that such methodological approach in characteristics of seeds doesn’t always reflect its quality in production conditions. For example, germinability which is the main normative index of seed quality very differs in laboratory and field conditions. It doesn`t always the seeds with the same laboratory germinability will have similar field germinability and consequently productivity.
The aim of this work – to improve methodology, to determine indexes and methods, which characterize sawing seed qualities of cereal crops in largest measure, and also which predict their yielding properties.
The experiments were carried out with seeds of hybrids and self-pollinated lines of corn, and also with sorts of winter wheat and barley, which were grown and went through the preparation for sawing in condition, DP DG “Dnipro”. Sampling of seeds for analyzes and definition of effective indexes of quality was realized according to dictates of state standard SSV 4138, and by the methodology of Institute cereal crops SAAS of Ukraine.
It is established, that sowing and yielding seed properties, certified by laboratory indexes of germinability, are differed. For example, between categories of hybrid seed Solonianskiy 298 SV with different laboratory germinability, the difference during the cold sprouting reached 10%, by field – 12%, the number of strong plantlets – 8%, with weight of sprouts – 5,6 g, with yielding – 6,5 g, 0,83t/ga appropriately. Fluctuating indexes of quality was seen even between seed categories with the same laboratory germinability.
The most probable reason of decrease in life activity of certified seed is its damage – mechanical or thermal. In our experiments it was established that damaged seeds can germinate and form certified germinability, but in favorable conditions for it.
As it is not possible to define negative action of damage by ordinary (affective) method of sprouting, it is necessary to base on other methods, one of them, called a cold test. It is based on imitation a complex of factors, which can take place in field conditions. The cold test more clearly characterizes sawing and yielding properties of seeds, and also depends on level its damage.
So, on basis of summarizing influence of different physical-mechanical and physiological indexes it is possible to choose the main ones, which the most substantially connected with sawing and yielding properties of seeds of corn hybrids, – it’s an energy of sprouting, germinability by the cold test and a power of seed growing, its clearness, a level and a type of damage. On the base of these indexes we were proposed an index estimation of sawing availability of certified seeds with aim to predict its field germinability and productivity.
In experiments it was also established additional indexes, which in large measure characterize sawing seed availability of other cereal crops, especially wheat and barley – it is energy of sprouting, power of growing and weight of 1000 seeds.
So, it is improved methodology of definition seed quality of cereal crops on the base of effective and additional indexes, which in large measure characterize its sawing and yielding properties. For seeds of corn hybrids the additional indexes are – energy of sprouting, germinability by the cold test, power of growing and also content of seeds with macro- and microtraumas, which must be limited; for seeds of winter wheat sorts and barley – weight of 1000 seeds, energy of sprouting and power of growing by the parameters for completeness of plantlets and weight of sprouting.
It is modified the method of definition germinability by the cold test, which gives possibility from certified seeds of corn hybrids to select sawing material with high field germinability (for 5–12 %) and high corn crop – higher for 8,0–16,7 according to a hybrid.
|Effectiveness of combined application of macro – and microfertilizers in technology of grain corn growing||Annotation|
Effectiveness of combined application of macro – and microfertilizers in technology of grain corn growing
Keywords: maize, productivity, efficiency, microelements, fertilizers, spraying.
The technological measures on application of microelement preparations and adaptogens in the system of nutrition of corn plants were developed and their effectiveness at application in tank mixtures with carbamide on the background using basic fertilizer are revealed.
In the experiments were used the most correlative biometric parameters with the harvest: plant height, leaf surface area, thickness and diameter of the stem.
The weather conditions during the vegetative stage of maize was favourable to acceleration of linear growth at flowering phase, when in accordance with biological characteristics the increa-sing of height have been stopped.
The maximum height of the plants in the phase of maize tasseling due to favorable water supply reached 219–229 cm.
The general trend relative to the growth response of corn for fertilizer types, methods and timing of their application was that every element of the system of plant nutrition created the conditions to accelerate the linear growth of corn.
The most drastic factor for regulation of the height of plants was nutrient regime, which was created by application N45 before sowing and at different periods of the vegetative stage of maize.
Thus, compared to nonfertilized variant (plant height 219 cm), the application of ammonium nitrate under the inter-row cultivation provided the growth rates of height up to 2 cm, and under presowing cultivation – up to 10 cm.
The value of complex micronutrients had minimized influence on the growth processes, resulting in spraying with the preparations Reacom-SR-corn and Quantum by increasing of the plant height only up to 1–3 cm.
Corn leaf surface area is usually more important indicator for the formation of crop yield, so long as 95 % of the biomass plant is the result of a process of synthesis of carbohydrates through photosynthesis.
Variant dynamics of leaf surface area indicators was subordinated analogy, in which the fertilizing corn reacted in terms of the height of the plants. The minimum leaf surface area per plant was recorded in variant without application of nitrogen fertilizers and micronutrients (0,422 m2).
The maximum development of photosynthetic apparatus was received subject to application N45 at inter-row cultivation combined with spraying of corn in the phase of 9–10 leaves with carbamide together with complex microfertilizers Reacom-SR-corn – 0,488 m2/plant.
If we consider the assimilation system agrocenoses in general, the use of mineral complex macro + microelements increases the possibility of using the photosynthetically active radiation by 2,9 thousand m2/ha (from 19,3 to 22,2 thousand m2/ha).
In this way, sequential application of nitrogen fertilizers and complex preparations based on microelements was favorable for increasing of plant height indicators, leaf surface area and thickness of stems.
Formation of corn yield was naturally determined consequence and as derivative result from quantity of biometric parameters and morphological and biological characteristics of plants.
In experiments we observed the dependence of parameters of cob and grains from the size of the biometric indicators of corn plants.
That is, the generative organs at the big biometric size of plants were provided with better opportunities to supply resource growth – moisture, mineral elements, photosynthetic products.
Available hydrothermal resources and their distribution throughout the vegetative stage were favorable for the higher grain yield recoupment of nitrogen fertilizers (N45), which were made during pre-sowing cultivation and before the inter-row cultivation of corn.
On this background of water supply the intensive type of corn nutrition provided grain yield increase by the application of N45, compared with the variant without the application of nitrogen fertilizers, on 0,60–0,93 t/ha.
The application of fertilizers in the form of microelements solutions S, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Co also had the positive influence on the formation of the corn productivity and their technological characters concerning the timing of corn spraying.
Thus, the comprehensive improvement of morphological and reproductive indicators in consequence of optimization of nutrition of maize during the maximum rate of growth processes positively affected the yield of grain, which increased under the influence of fertilizers up to 0,82 t/ha.
In the cumulative effect of the interaction of nitrogen fertilizers and microelements share of ammonium nitrate in the formation of yields of main products was 1,06 t/ha, and Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Co, Ni was less significant – 0,31 t/ha.
|Efficiency of protectants against bunt and root rot of winter wheat||Annotation|
Efficiency of protectants against bunt and root rot of winter wheat
Keywords: winter wheat, protectants, bunt, root rot, harvest productivity.
During past years in Ukraine has increased harmfulness of winter wheat diseases which exciters are transmitting through seed or soil. During the fight against seed infection, primary importance is the decontamination of seeds with chemicals.
Nowadays in Ukraine are registered a large number of winter wheat seed protectants including both relatively new which were introduced on the market in recent years, and the chemicals that agricultural producers are using for long time. Taking in account increase of harmfulness of winter wheat diseases, which pathogens are transmitting through soil our research where targeted for studying efficiency of different protectants generations in Steppe zone of Ukraine against exciters of mold of seeds, bunt and root rot.
Experimental researches conducted on crop rotation base of Synel’nykove Research Station of the Grain Corps Institute of UNAAS by laboratory and field experiments.
Researching influence of protectants for seed germination index proved that all of them had positive effect for this index. Average laboratory germination for past three years was on the level of verification variant. Field germination has ben raised in variants where were used Vitavax 200FF and Rankona 15 ME for 1,4 and 1,7 % accordingly. In verification variant were hit by mold 14,8 % crops and in variants with protectants – 0,9–9,3 %
Against smut of winter wheat all protectants for 3 years proving their absolute efficiency. In verification variant was 15.4% of the affected ear.
During the milk-wax ripeness of grain damage for plant by root rot in versions with protec-tants was 9,1–37,3 %, and 23,8–42,6 % in verification variant with disease evolution, respectively 2,3–14,7 and 6,1–16,9 %. It’s should be noted that during a strong spread of root rot efficacy was higher as compared to the years with small distribution.
For all the years of researches protectants significantly affected the productivity of winter wheat.
The results of experimental researches among smut pathogens resistant to protectants, races that researched did not found. Against root rot of winter wheat showed greater efficiency two-component chemicals Vitavax and Kinto Duo. Usageof protectants improved the phytosanitary condi-tion of winter wheat and harvest improvement for 0,21–0,30 tons per hectare.
|The ways of commerciallizing scientific developments||Annotation|
The ways of commerciallizing scientific developments
Keywords: commercialization, innovation, intellectual property, methods, development, implementation and effectiveness.
The transition of agrarian economy in Ukraine and innovative model of development requires effective use of the innovative capacity of agricultural science, since it paradoxical situation.On the one hand, agricultural science has formed a strong scientific and innovative potential and is
very well developed, and the other – the effectiveness of the use of this potential remains low.Commercialization of scientific developments is very slow.In this connection special importance is the construction of such a system of scientific research, which would cover the full innovation cycle – from idea creation to finished product innovation, its production and implementation.Therefore, the overall strategy of innovative development the Institute of grain crops is in search of ways to ef-fectively commercialize scientific developments in agricultural production Dnepropetrovsk region.
The main forms of commercialization of scientific developments are: use them in their own manufacturing process; transfer (sale); creating new (or shared) companies to promote innovation.The main factor for the commercialization of research is the rapid spread, the development and introduction of innovation between end users.
Analysis of the market of intellectual property in the field of crop growing indicates the existence of a certain disparity between the selection and technological innovation. Selection innovation during the creation have a commodity shape in the form seed and protected in a legal field as an object of intellectual property. The majority of technological innovation or technology elements are considered as the developments of "know-how". This situation leads to the fact that the commercial use of technological innovation is accompanied by significant complications, and demand for them is limited.
The concept of "technology transfer" applies on legislative, contractual and practical levels. Rights to the technology as a whole as a separate object does not exist. Therefore there is a need on decomposition of her objects of intellectual property, contractual rights to know-how, samples equipment and other means of materialization technology.
Sale and purchase of of exclusive rights to patented technology or permission to use it (know-how) are carried out within legal relationship between the owner and the individual or an entity that buys those rights or receives permission to use them.
An important stage of commercialization of objects of intellectual property that are especially spread is choice of form of transfer, patent agreements license agreements, know-how, engine-ering, franchising.
Perspective form of transfer of ownership rights on Intellectual property objects is an license agreement.
To fill the of the market innovative products need as many as possible attention paid to a transfer infrastructure and its proper functioning, establishing close contacts with agricultural producers. Overall this is becomes a basis for innovations to market.
Ways to of commercialization of of scientific developments would increase the competitiveness of national of agrarian manufacture on the domestic and world markets.Contributes to transfer of infrastructure and appropriate functioning of establishing close links with agricultural producers.
|Efficiency growth regulating agents and micronutrients in growing winter wheat area in the northern Steppe||Annotation|
Efficiency growth regulating agents and micronutrients in growing winter wheat area in the northern Steppe
Keywords: winter wheat, growth regulating agents, plant growth stimulants, micronutrient fertilizers, predecessors, yield.
In the agricultural sector the problem of increasing crop yields is the most important, so the constant search for ways to increase the number of grown production per unit area are extremely important, but often have a contradictory character.
In the last 15–20 years of widespread use in the production of socalled acquired growth regulating substances that often are called stimulants, regulators or morfomodulyatory plant growth. These substances, according to the manufacturers of such products have extremely useful properties, affecting the most important processes in plant organisms increase their resistance to adverse environmental conditions, provide increase yields and improve crop quality, environmentally friendly and can be a cheap alternative to organic and mineral fertilizers.
However, there are a number of publications in which skeptical and negatively highlighted the role of these substances in the formation of grain productivity not only winter wheat, but also other crops that have a spike.
Taking the ambiguity of evaluating the effectiveness of growth regulating substances and micronutrients and liquid organic fertilizer in applying them in the process of growing winter wheat on Sinelnikovo breeding and research station Institute of Agriculture steppe zone NAAS in the laboratory technology of growing winter crops conducted research on various above named drugs. Research work carried out during 2008–2010, and during the 2011–2014 biennium, due to the need to find effective growth promoters, which would have a comprehensive and sustainable impact on all biochemical reactions in plants, creating for them the most favorable conditions for adaptation and interaction with the environment.
The aim of research was to study the characteristics of plant growth and development of winter wheat, followed by determination of their performance when using various regulators in its effects (stimulants) growth and micronutrients. Preparations of different origin used in the processing of seeds and crops were introduced to the way in foliar phase out the plants in the tube.
During 2008–2010 in experiments studied plant growth stimulators Biolan, Radostim, Emistim C, Vimpel and Reakom fertilizers and liquid organic fertilizer Riverm. Drugs used in crops of winter wheat varieties Zira, which is sown in black couple in optimal terms.
During the 2011–2014 biennium continued study of some of the above named drugs for growing winter crops not only steam predecessor, but after peas and sunflowers.
Study of growth regulating agents and micronutrients in the processes of life and produc-tivity of winter wheat during 2008–2010 showed a possible feasibility of using certain drugs as for the treatment of seed and for spraying vegetating plants to enhance their resistance to abiotic stress factors and increased productivity.
Overall, the average yield of winter wheat obtained in the experiments was within 3,98–4,28 t/ha. The most important crop seed treatment or when spraying crops in the phase of the output tube plants was recorded when using drugs Reakom (under the control of 0,13 (3,2 %) and 0,25 t/ha (5,9 % ) and Vimpel (under the control of 0,16 (3,9 %) and 0,28 t/ha (6,6 %)).
The joint processing of seed and vegetative plants the best results are obtained when using drugs Radostim (0,22 t/ha (5,3 %) to control) and Vimpel (0,27 t/ha (6,3 %) to control).
Continued research during the 2011–2014 biennium demonstrated that efficacy is largely dependent on the predecessor basic cereal and duration of their use. As the results of the work, the best among the drugs ristrehulyuyuchoyi action and micronutrients was biostimulant plant growth Emistim C, which although showed a slight increase of yield compared with the control, but rather a stable performance in all modes of its application are envisaged in the experiments.
Overall, the highest average yield of winter wheat crop spraying drugs provided Emistim C in phase and Vimpel exit tube plants, while drug Reakom - seed treatment.
Regarding efficacy in growing winter wheat after various predecessors, in case their appli-cation in areas on black pair and peas provide a high yield Emistim C respectively 4,87–5,15 and 4,15–4,23 t/ha; after sunflower – Vimpel (2,74 t/ha) for seed treatment and Emistim C by spraying in the phase of exit in the tube (2,72 t/ha) and compatible with seed treatment and spraying plants in the phase of exit in the tube (2,77 t/ha).
Thus, obtained in 2008–2014 results of studies on the use of growth regulating substances and micronutrients sufficiently shown their poor performance to increase winter wheat yield signi-ficantly lower than those parameters that are given in brochures manufacturers (guaranteed increase the yield on 10–30 %). Their distinctive feature, which largely eliminates the declared properties of drugs was unstable ensure the effect of their use (primarily sustained increase in productivity) in crops of winter wheat as after various predecessors and in different weather conditions years when the research was conducted.
|Productivity and economic efficiency of corn farming in short-rotation crop rotations in Northern Steppe.||Annotation|
Productivity and economic efficiency of corn farming in short-rotation crop rotations in Northern Steppe.
Keywords: corn,fertilizer application system, predecessor, short rotation, productivity, costs of production, economic of efficiency.
Reform of the agricultural sector and the formation of small entities represented by peasants and farmers economies led to narrow specialization and saturation of crop rotations by separate groups of crops, which in turn led to some changes in the structure of sown areas and the transition to a short-rotation crop rotation.
Recently, there is an expansion of the area under industrial crops, particularly sunflowers, leading to inefficient use of water and nutrients from the soil, a significant reduction in productivity of all crops. Thus there is accumulation of soil pests and pathogens, metabolic products of plants and soil microorganisms.
Only science-based crop rotations that include a different after biology cultures can signify-cantly reduce the number of measures to protect plants from of weeds pests and diseases; and the introduction of legumes can compensate for insufficient making of organic and mineral fertilizers, positive balanced of nutrients, especially nitrogen contained in the soil in the minimum amount. Crop rotation also positively effects the water and soil nutrient regime, and this, in turn, promotes active detoxification of harmful substances, and thus formation of favorable conditions for plant growth and the developments of plant.
In scientifically grounded crop rotations during spring and autumn marked by more efficient use of machine-tractor fleet, since there is a significant easing of tensions with carring out of some field work, increasing the possibility of carring out of them in optimal terms. The latter action reduces crop losses during harvesting, and decrease of costs on harvest farming in rotation by spending relatively less fertilizers and plant protection products makes it economically more profitable. An urgent question is the introduction of highly profitable crop rotations and crops that would assure to support and implementation the potential of our black soil.
In the Erastivska research station of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe zoneof NAASof Ukraine in 2008–2015 studies were carried out aimed to identify the most effective of a аgrotechnological and economic aspects short-rotation crop rotations with corn for increase of this culture productivity. Objectives of research was to identify and substantiate the place of corn in short-rotation crop rotations with efficient farming practices in the system of basic tillage and plant nutrition in concrete ground and climatic conditions of NorthernSteppe.
The experiment waslaid on the background oftwo waysbasic tillage: mould board ploug-hing andchiseling in depth 25–27 sm. We have studied thesaturation of crop rotations by soybean: in two-field crop rotation it was 50%, in three-field crop rotation it was 33 %, in four-field crop rotation it was 25 % and50%, and by corn in two-field crop rotation it was 50 %, in three-field crop rotation it was 33 %, in four-field crop rotation it was 25 % and 50%, respectively. In thethree- and four-field crop rotations in order to decreaseherbicideloadan interruptrotationof cornandsoybeansby onefieldof barley is envisaged. The systems of fertilization in crop rotation were studiedby the scheme:control – nofertilizer,fertilizer useunderplannedyieldaccordingto the results ofsoil diagnosticanduse of fertilizers inrecommended doses.
Economic evaluation of the results of experiments conducted in accordance with generally accepted methods. Basic economic indicators: cost and profitability of grain production was determined to evaluate the effectiveness of growing corn and soybeans in short-rotation crop rotations. As a result of the research one might make the following conclusions: among the investigated short-rotation crop rotation in Northern Steppe of Ukraine the most profitable and most productive are the crop rotations with 50 percent saturation of them by corn, which is the most productive crop in the region.
Thus, in Northern zone of the Steppe under different weather conditions in short rotation crop rotations highest yield of corn after soybean formed by making fertilizer according to soil diagnosis on the planned harvest. However, to preserve the balance of permanent soil fertility in a northern steppe promising direction is to apply the recommended doses of fertilizers on background chyzelnoho deep soil with an effective system of protection of crops from weeds. These agronomic measures is the most rational to preserve soil fertility and increase the competitiveness of grain corn.
|Features of realization the potential productivity of winter and spring barley varieties in Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Features of realization the potential productivity of winter and spring barley varieties in Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Key words: winter and spring barley, variety, climate, grain, crop yield.
The results of the analysis of available variety assortment and grain yields of different varieties of winter and spring barley in the environmental crop variety testing, depending on the changing hydrothermal conditions are presented. Marked the varieties, which characterized by stable realization of genetic potential of grain yield in a wide range of variation of average air temperatures and conditions water provision.
|Formation of grain productivity of naked oats in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Formation of grain productivity of naked oats in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Keywords: naked oats, fertilizer system, plant productivity, yield.
In the global agriculture to solve the problem of shortage of plant protein for livestock industry and ensure quality food for population was and remains one of the main components enhance food securement. A partial solution to this problem may be due to the expansion of cultivated areas of strategic crops which include oats, including its kind naked oats (Avena sativa nuda).
Naked oats are very promising and little explored culture in the Northern Steppes of Ukraine. Therefore, in 2013, by conventional methods in laboratory studies agrobiological resources of spring grains and legumes laid the scientific research to determine the impact of agromete-orological laws, agrochemical and agronomic factors on processes growth and development of plants of naked oats on the main stages of organogenesis and development on this basis of technological measures to improve plant resistance for various weather conditions and the formation of high performance of naked oats. It is important to create relevant morphological structure of plants and crop structure that would effectively used batteries and moisture during the growing season of crops.
It is noted that the combination of nitrogen fertilization with the use of microfertilizer positively effect of plants height oats. Thus, the largest increase in this indicator (19,1 cm) relative to the control was in making N40P40K40 + N30 + reacom-SP-Grain. This version of fertilization culture promoted also a better rooting plants. Number of nodal roots increased in comparison with the control by 21,3 %. The weight per plant was higher with 0,65 g compared to the variant without the use of fertilizers.
Research has found increasing the yield of naked oats due to optimization of mineral nutria-tion from 2,4 to 3,4 t/ha. Thus, the largest increase in yield observed for control in a variant number, which made N40P40K40 + N30 + reacom-SP-Grain. It is 1,02 t/ha or 43 %. The results show that only by feeding nitrogen of plants in the phase of tillering could increase yield of 18,5 %. The most efficient and cost-effective way to use foliar application of micronutrients are vegetating plants.Thus, in a variant of the experiment with the use of microfertilizer reacom-SP-Grain (spraying crops in the tillering phase, 3 l/ha) increased of gain yield to control was 8,5 %. The combination of nitrogen fertilization with spraying microfertilizer increased gain yield to 20,6 %.
Summarizing the results of experimental data, the following should be noted. The use in modern grain production of rational dose and timing of fertilizer combined with the complex use of micronutrient provides a real opportunity to get a significant increase in grain yield.Research has established that exposure to research elements of agricultural technology, such as making N40P40K40 under presowing cultivation + feeding N30 and spraying vegetating plants microfertilizers reacom-SP-Grain in late phase of tillering increases the number of productive stems per unit area, length of panicle, plant height and weight of grain panicle, which provides the largest increase in grain yield of naked oats – 43 %.Thus, this culture is capable of forming a stable high yields and quality of food grains and in the near future to take its rightful place among the crops in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine.
|Weediness of spring barley depending on tillage and fertilizer in crop rotations short rotation||Annotation|
Weediness of spring barley depending on tillage and fertilizer in crop rotations short rotation
Keywords: spring barley, weediness, tillage, fertilizer, crop residues, grain yield, economic efficiency.
One of the limiting factors to obtain high grain harvest of spring barley is the level of his weeding. Weeds are usually due to their overground mass of plants shade the choke and barley, so that the latter developed slowly, it decreases the rate of photosynthesis by reducing assimilation leaf surfaces and create organic matter.
The main tillage plays a key role in enhancing the culture of agriculture and controlling the weeding crops of spring barley, his carried taking into account development of erosion processes predecessors, weather conditions, and the nature and magnitude of weeding fields. Listed above factors determine the feasibility of using separate methods and systems of the basic soil cultivation, especially in the growth potential of chernozem pollution, which makes the need for further research to determine the optimal tillage regarding weeding barley agrocenosis to improve the control of weeds in the future.
The purpose of research – to determine the effect of different ways of basic soil tillage and chemical fertilizers while abandonment stubbly residues predecessor on weediness in spring barley crops, productivity and economic efficiency of cultivation in the conditions of of Northern Steppe of Ukraine.
As the results of studies weediness spring barley significantly dependent on the methods of basic soil tillage and chemical fertilizers. So at the beginning of the growing season (tillering phase) before making provides for a technology regulation for herbicide esteron plowing cultivation, fertilization depending on the background, there were 16,8–27,2, chiseling – 22,8–37,6, disking – 38,8–52.4 pieces/m², moldboardless – 39,0–84,0 pieces/m² of wild plant species. Significant reduction of weediness soil for moldboardless compared of chiseling to 1.4 times at disk and 1,9–2,3 times, and in 2,3–3,0 times moldboardless explained plowing in the lower layers of soil (20–22 cm) weed seeds where it was in adverse conditions for germination stage and was in suspended animation, while at chiseling, especially disking seeds at the top, the most favorable for germination layers of soil.
At early development stages spring barley for all tillage methods in group structure weeding almost completely dominated last year sprouted sunflower seeds – 50,5–72,0 %, Ambrosia arte-misiifolia (Ambrosia artemisifolia L.) – 8,8–39,1 %, polygonum convolvulus (Polygonum convo-lvulus L.) – 8–17 %. adding nitrogen (N30-60) as part of a complete fertilizer stimulated germination of weeds nitrofiliv, including chenopodium album (Chenopodium album L.).
According to the observations, last year sprouted sunflower seeds, with a pivotal root system and using soil moisture lower horizons, quickly takes the free ecological niches in crops of spring barley. Based on the top tier, it is hard to compete for survival, obscures crops, creating for them the power mode discomfort. Therefore, in such crops of mandatory agrotechnical measures is the use of herbicides for post-total destruction last year sprouted sunflower seeds.
Pretty dangerous kind for spring barley is also ambrosia artemisiifolia (Ambrosia artemisi-folia L.). Under favorable conditions, it develops powerful aboveground mass, using the moisture and nutrients that inhibits crop plants grow rapidly, forming a large number of side branches. Ambrosia has a high evolutionary plasticity and ability in the later stages of development (forma-tion after 4 true leaves) rapidly to increase phase resistance to herbicides.
The use of disking and moldboardless shallow cultivation in spring barley crop rotations in short rotations contributes to its weeding crops in 1,4–3,0 times, resulting in some years the use of herbicides in insurance tillering stage plants (eg esteron 0,8 litre/hectare). Adding fertilizer (N30-60 and N60P30K30) combined with stubble precursor increases the competitiveness of spring barley against the weed growth of by optical density crops, weediness thus reduced by 2–2,5 times compared to no fertilizers background.
The use plowing and chiseling provides the receipt practically equivalent yield of barley 2,69–3,35 and 2,35–3,32 tone/hectare, respectively. Disking the soil reduces the yield of cereal at 0,14–0,48 tone/hectare (5,9–17,8 %) due to growth of weeding, especially the increase of ambrosia artemisiifolia (Ambrosia artemisifolia L.) to 45,9–48,7 % of the weeds group.
As shown by economic calculations, use disking shallow (10–12 cm) and moldboardless (12–14 cm) cultivation technology of spring barley growing, despite lower grain harvest ensured the, as compared to plowing and chiseling, fuel economy – 13,2–12,0 and 7,4–8,2 liter/hectare, reduce labor costs and 0,91–0,62 0,33–0,38 man-hours/ hectare and funds in the amount of 260–191 and 104,0–137,0 UAH/hectare respectively.
|Influence of the systems of basic till of soil is on impurity of sowing of wheat winter in the short term crop rotations of South Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of the systems of basic till of soil is on impurity of sowing of wheat winter in the short term crop rotations of South Steppe of Ukraine
Key words: till of soil, impurity of sowing, wheat winter, short term crop rotations, pair black, pairs green, predecessors.
The favourable action is certain differentiated and with shelves and without shelves are certain tills of soil on the improvement of the sanitary state of sowing of wheat winter in the short term crop rotations of South Steppe of Ukraine. Effective application is set pair black and pairs green with a vetch winter and peas and mustard white, as predecessors of wheat winter, in relation to diminishing to impurity of her sowing.
|Diagnosticating of the microelement state of system soil – plant is in agrocoenosiss of wheat winter-annual||Annotation|
Diagnosticating of the microelement state of system soil – plant is in agrocoenosiss of wheat winter-annual
Keywords: chernozem, content, microelements, a winter wheat.
The search of ways of increase of the productivity of wheat winter-annual remains fore-ground job and will be arrived at by the improvement of technological level of production including due to optimization of mineral feed. This question it will decide by controlling of the state of the
system soil-plant in continue vegetation period Researches conducted in 2010–2014 in the station-nary and short-term experiments of department of agriculture. Methods of researches – the field, laboratory-analytical, statistical. Content of microelements in soil (ДСТУ 4770.1-4770.9: 2007) and plants was determined on AAS С-115М1.
It is set that maximal values of movable connections of Zn, Mn, Cu, Co in soil observed in an initial period of development of plants phase of exit in a tube with a decline in the phase of earing. The vibrations of their amount during a vegetation arrive at 1,4–5 times. Most substantial differences of their movable for it is marked the phases of development of plant for Zn (force of influence 88 %). Sharply the movable of Mn (from 92,6 mg/kg in the phase of phase of exit in a tube to 46,7 mg/kg in a complete ripeness) changed under act of level of feed. Top-dressing assisted the reliable increase (on 41 %) of his movable comparatively with control. Force of influence of factor of feed on content of Mn in soil presented 52 %, and to the factor development of plant –31 %. Content of copper and cobalt hesitated comparatively in small limits.
In accordance with grouping of soils on maintenance movable forms microelements (for Vazenin) for the agricultural cultures of not high bearing-out of microelements (grain-growing cereals), zonal chernozems is characterized by the high provision of manganese and subzero – by zinc. Such gradation of provision of elements remained in continue all phases of development of wheat winter-annual. At the same time, watched the redistribution of provision of soils movable forms of copper and cobalt the vegetation period of plants: material well-being of Cu was trans-formed in subzero, and Со – in middle. Id est, growing on such background of sorts of intensive type must be accompanied by obligatory application of microfertilizer.
Forming of element composition of plants passes under act of ground-climatic terms, application of fertilizers and other factors. From data of content microelements (МЕ) in the plants of winter crop the genetically conditioned features of culture are set in relation to the selective mastering МЕ at growing in the conditions of north Steppe. On the initial stage of development of plants most metals behave to the group of weak biological absorption. In the period of the intensive use МЕ (phase of exit in a tube) indexes of coefficient of biological absorption (CBA) are for a copper and zinc > 3. In grain the greatest values of (CBA) (>3) are marked for Zn, Cu, Mn, some less (>1) they for Co.
The results of statistical treatment testify that reliable prediction of content МЕ in plants from data of the ground diagnostics provide equalization of linear regression. High (r >0,70) cross-correlation copulas are got between content in soil and plants of winter wheat of biogenic elements (Zn, Mn, Cu, Co) in the corresponding phases of her development. High reliable cross-correlation connection in the system soil-plant characteristic for zinc. Identically clearly he showed up both in the phase of bushing out and in phase of exit in a tube and earing. Analogical conformity to law, accordingly phases of development, marked for Сu (r= -0,99; -0,94; 0,97). For other elements of value of coefficients of correlation substantially change from subzero to high.
High reliable cross-correlation copulas (r = 0,97–0,99) are set between content of Zn, Mn, Cu, Co in plants in the phase of bushing out and in grain. High (r = 0,76–0,87) they were in the phase of earing. In connection with that for all elements that was studied, the high coefficients of correlation are got on the initial stages of vegetation, this period must be used for diagnostic aims and operative adjustment of microelement feed.
|Influence of fertilizers on the content of heavy metals in soil and their accumulation of spring barley plants||Annotation|
Influence of fertilizers on the content of heavy metals in soil and their accumulation of spring barley plants
Keywords:heavy metals, the safety of grain, fertilizer system, spring barley.
Comprehensive quality of spring barley grain assessment includes its safety performance, which is determined by the content of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in plants is largely dependent on the level of soil contamination. To reduce the anthropogenic load on аgrosfera and optimization of plant nutrition process in terms of reducing the volume of use of agrochemicals is advisable to apply biofertilizers.
Research carried out in a field rotation of Donetsk SAS station NAAS of Ukraine in 2012–2014. In crops of spring barley varieties Avers studied the effect of a mineral (N30P30K30) and organo-mineral (N15P15K15 + vermicompost) systems fertilizers on the accumulation of heavy metals in grain, straw and soil.
According to the research it found that the use of fertilizers has led to an increase in the content of heavy metals in the soil. Thus the lead content increased to 0,36 mg/kg, or 16,8 % compared with the control. The zinc content increased to 6 mg/kg (18,8 %), cadmium – 42,9 %. Organic and mineral supply system provided decrease in the content of mobile forms of heavy metals in the soil. The amount of lead as compared with controls decreased on average 1,4 times, cadmium – 1,3 times. The content of copper and zinc were above the background level in all experimental variants. The excess of background values in the control variant ranged 1,3–1,5 times to 2,6–3,2 times the copper and zinc. Elevated levels of copper and zinc is a consequence of the arrival of these elements of airborne emissions.
The experimental data showed that the grains depends essentially on the safety system fertilizer. Organo-mineral fertilizer system's efforts to reduce the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium in the grain of spring barley. Their number in the grain in the form of fertilizer had a lower value. The lead concentration was 0,28 mg/kg cadmium 0,05 mg/kg, in control – 0,36 mg/kg and 0,07 mg/kg. When mineral fertilizer system, these values were higher than the control and the embodiment were respectively 0,49 mg/kg and 0,10 mg/kg.
In dry conditions the use of biogumus contributes to the preservation of productive soil moisture. In the phase of wax ripeness humidity of spring barley soil with fertilizers variants exceeded the control in soil layer 0–20 sm 2,3 mm (fertilizers) and 4,3 mm (organic fertilizer), and 0–100 mm 10,3 mm (fertilizers) and 18,3 mm (vermicompost). Grain yield using vermin-compost with half norm of mineral fertilizers has been at the level of productivity in making their full rules.
So, get environmentally safe spring barley grain yield while maintaining the level of application of full rate of fertilizer application allows elements biologiсal agricultural technologies that increase the resistance of plants to accumulate heavy metals, as well as reduces the application rate of agrochemicals, reducing human pressure on the environment.
|Biochemical profile of blood serum of young pigs of differrent categorys in the qualitative composition of the longest back muscles||Annotation|
Biochemical profile of blood serum of young pigs of differrent categorys in the qualitative composition of the longest back muscles
Key words: young pigs, blood serum, biochemical indices, longissimus muscle of the back, physical-chemical properties, chemical composition, correlation.
The results of studies of biochemical parameters of blood serum of young pigs of different differentiation soft, moisture ability, the intensity of the color and fat content in muscle tissue.
It was found that for the early prediction of quality indicators of the longissimus muscle of back, use the following biochemical parameters of blood serum concentrations of cholesterol (r=0,726), the activity of АсАt (r=0,659) and activity of АlАt (r=0,593).
|Weighing growth of bulls, depending on the ethological features||Annotation|
Weighing growth of bulls, depending on the ethological features
Keywords: bulls, meat productivity, ethological features, selection, functional activity, live weight.
For industrial production of a uniform herd productivity and elements of behavior is perfect.
Therefore, the aim of research was to determine the performance of beef bulls Ukrainian meat breed ethological depending on their characteristics and to develop criteria for the selection of calves homogeneous feeding behavior for fattening.
According to different ways of keeping animals spend most of their time feeding action and the difference in these values was insignificant and unreliable (2,8 min. or 0,6 %). With increasing age increased activity in gobies eating to feed. Thus, in 7 months of age in eating fodder fastened at keeping spending 48,1 minutes (P> 0,999) less than 16 months of age in the Loose hold, but during chewing lasted 51,3 minutes (P> 0,999) longer. Moreover, if the difference in duration gum standing negligible (3,6 min, with R ≤ 0,999), in the supine position reaches 32,1 min (P > 0,999). The same trend applies to the rest. At an early age with dependent young tethered rested on 153,2 min (P > 0,999) longer, including lying to 126,1 min (P > 0,999).
Bulls Ukrainian meat breed at an early age and attachable by way of keeping comfortable action in supine (rest to 126,1 min, P > 0,999, gum 32,1 min, P > 0,999) spend more time than Loose maintenance. In this regard, young in early ontogenesis should provide comfortable condi-tions for rest.
The allocation of animals that are kept Loose their feeding behavior in classes found signi-ficant difference between the groups and . Yes, young who belongs to a class compared with their peers from the class spent in motion 101,1 ± 7,35 min, which was significantly more than 20,9 %, rested 168,3 ± 13,41 min, an increase of 45,0 %, including 127,8 ± 10,61 standing and lying 52,1 ± 9,38 min, an increase of 32,3% and 83,5 %. However, this class of cattle to feed the actions spent 367,2 ± 7,78 min, a decrease of 25,5 %, eaten feed 248,9 ± 11,66 min, a decrease of 33,5 %, incl. + gross juicy 232,8 ± 11,52 min, a decrease of 34,9 %.
The highest averages of live weight (522,6 ± 5,03) and average daily increments (1056,7 ± 14,45) characterized bulls which belongs to a class. Yes, the animals of this class peers probably dominated the class at 21,9 kg (P> 0,95) and 62,9 g (P> 0.99). Youngsters, which belongs to the class had a live weight of 514,4 ± 3,03 kg and average daily 1028,1 ± 20,40 g.
The results of the control test animals slaughtered (carcass yield) showed that bulls that belonged to the class of (54,6 ± 0,47 %) prevailed with their peers (52,9 ± 0,45) and (53,6 ± 0,36 ) grade of 1,7 (P> 0,999) and 1 % (P > 0,95).
Research has shown that in animals with different classes there is a different distribution of the direction and power cords. Yes, the animals of the class has a high mobility link between actions and body weight (r = 0,668), and a slight positive feed back between indicators of behavior and development.
Animals belonging to the class there is a positive relationship between body weight and feed operations (r = 0,405), eating food (r = 0,587), in t. Ch. + Juicy rough (r = 0,603), standing gum (r = 0,459) and negative actions between the brake (r = -0,517), including standing rest (r = -0,419), chewing gum (r = -0,320), including chewing gum lying (r = -0,432).
Thus, to increase meat productivity of animals is desirable to select youngsters for further cultivation with an average ratio of functional activity by eating food – not lower than T = 0,5674 ± 0,01479.
|The improvement of balancing feed additives for piglets of early weaning||Annotation|
The improvement of balancing feed additives for piglets of early weaning
Keywords: pigs, diet, feed, live weight, daily gains, feed additives.
Induced the results of research of influence of standard and author of a balancing feed additives on the growth of piglets early weaning. It is found that for the conditions of use of improved balancing of feed additives, in comparison with the standard, the increase of live weight of pigs amounted to 13,36 %, daily weight gain is 24,8 %, the reduction in cost of feed per kg of growth – 19,67 %, the cost of additional products in the experimental group 1 head in recalculation on 100 kg of live weight, hrn –136,8.
In modern pig husbandry, one of the main directions of the profitable industry, is to maxi-mize the number of piglets from the sow per year the preservation of cattle with early weaning. This contributes to the development of measures to establish controlled conditions the content of sows and the use of evidence-based standards of feeding which favors the appearance of signs of potential, genetically determined productivity. Intensive pig farming involves the provision of the pigs organism with all necessary nutrients (protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, etc.). However, the results of the comparative analysis of the chemical composition of feed medium tabular data indicate a decrease in the energy of nutritional value on average by 26 %, protein 9 %, macro – 24,7 % and trace elements – 45,2 %, depending on technology of cultivation of fodder crops. Therefore, traditional balancing rations for table indicators average density of the feed is not effective enough, mainly through low contents of elements of nutrition in them below biotic standards.
In this regard, natural food, which can not meet the physiological needs of pigs at different feeding technologies, uses a complex of biologically active substances. The most feasible their use in pre-enriched mixture of premixes, protein-vitamin-mineral fodder additives. In our experience sets an optimal formulation balancing feed additives, allowing the most economical and effective use of biologically active substances.
In the conditions of pig farms feeding pigs from 30 to 60 days of life is, in our opinion insufficient, and can not fully meet their needs in the period of weaning the growing. During this period the standard of the feed additive in compound feeds are significantly higher than the content of some elements relative to the current feeding rate with a lack of others. In this regard, the issue of improvement of balancing feed additives that satisfy the physiological needs of pigs during their growing up to 60 days of life in an industrial content, is one of actual. To solve the assigned tasks – ensuring pigs essential nutrients and biologically active substances at cultivation in the period from 30 to 60 days of age and was held scientific and business experience.
|Comparative characteristics of various methods of determining the breeding value in pigs||Annotation|
Comparative characteristics of various methods of determining the breeding value in pigs
Keywords: pigs, breeding value, estimate for animals classes, indeks.
Construction of the selection process of the pigs, with few signs of productivity simulta-neously without damage to the economy sector is an objective prerequisite for profitable growth industry. Therefore, it is clear that a high level of value of animals in the specialized sector of the pork production will be determined by a previous driving direction of breeding with animals that were brought to Ukraine from abroad, and focus the selection process of the next generation of imported livestock. Thus it is clear that the accuracy of the breeding value of pigs causes in the future direction of the selection process in the herd.
An important issue is the problem of building selection process leading group of females through which planned to get further Heifer, which successfully combined the industry for the economy of signs. Therefore, the existing problem identified the relevance of our research and led to the search area.
Studies were conducted in a specialized sector of the pork production of "Expert Agrotrade" Dnipropetrovsk region in 2015 animal breed Yorkshire Irish descent. Evaluation of reproductive ability pigs were determined in compliance with instructions appraisal pigs. Statistical analysis of experimental data carried out by the method Plohynskoho M. A.
Feeding and pig answered zootechnical requirements.
In experiments was used breed Yorkshire pigs (domestic animal reproduction Irish selec-tion). Under the experiment was located 233 sows, which are referred to 7 conventional genealo-gical structures systematics Zavadovskiy M.M.: family Blackberry, East Lass, Lassia, Hauri, Royal Catalina, Maple Leaf, Rima, according to the groups 37, 14, 21, 10, 7, 22, 122 head.
As a result of appraisal pigs to leading groups of animals classified 69 sows with whom the family referred Blackberry 9 goals (24,3 % of the animals in the family), East Lass – 7 (5 %), Las-sia – 7 (33,3 %), Hauri – 2 (20 %), Royal Catalina – 4 (57,1 %), Maple Leaf – 7 (31,8 %), Rima – 33 (27 %).
Number in life Farrowings by different structures for family genealogy Blackberry is 17, East Lass – Lassia 11 – 11, Hauri – 4, Royal Catalina – 6, Maple Leaf – 10, Rima – 53, and the total number – 112.Data analysis shows that on the basis of "the average score for the class of animals" was significant difference between groups in only two cases comparisons with fifteen (13,3 %): Family East Lass – Maple Leaf, td = 2,2 at P < 0,05 family and Royal Catalina – Rima, td = 2,12 at P < 0,05.
At the same time the index BLUP (paternal line) probability of the difference between groups was set up in seven cases comparisons with fifteen or 46,7 %, of 1–2, td = 3,49 at P <0,01; groups 2–5, td = 4,76 at P <0.01; groups 2–6, td = 5,17 at P <0,001; groups 2–7, td = 3,79 at P <0,001; groups 3–5, td = 2,96 at P <0,05; groups 3–6, td = 3,30 at P <0,01; groups 6–7, td = 2,33 at P <0,05.
Calculating the probability of difference between groups on the index BLUP (maternal line) shows that the probability of the difference was in four cases comparisons with fifteen or 26,6 %, of 2–6, td = 3,48 at P <0,01; groups 2–7, td = 2,37 at P <0,05; groups 3–6, td = 2,94 at P <0,05; groups 3–7, td = 2,72 at P <0,01.
It is established that the ratio of maximum BLUP index corresponding to the minimum value of BLUP in parental lines as 2,45: 1, and a parent – 3,13: 1. This in turn suggests a certain level not were selected, that that uneven largest breeding herd "BLUP index", which was never the subject of mass breeding pig industry.
Building a Gaussian curve shows that maternal she had some asymmetry, however, the subordination of the quantities BLUP (maternal and paternal) Act normal distribution of signs indicating that the value of selected BLUP is.
In assessing the same classes for the maximum ratio of class "elite" to the value of the bree-ding category "non-class" as 2.0: 1, which is lower in this case (ie, less precise) than assessment methodology BLUP (limits for the average estimate for animals classes 4,0–3,2 and a BLUP index paternal 152,44 – 62,11, and the parent 156,61–49,95)
Thus it is clear that the use of integrated features "BLUP indices" for comparisons of differrent animals genealogical structures of mathematical variables that determine their level of breeding values showed an advantage over traditional performance indicators' average rating by classes of animals.
|Monitoring of parasitic worms and protozoan diseases of poultry of the central region of Ukraine||Annotation|
Monitoring of parasitic worms and protozoan diseases of poultry of the central region of Ukraine
Keywords: parasitic worms, eimeriosis, extensity, intensity, invasion, poultry.
In the article materials are expounded on the spread of helminthosis and eimeriosis inva-sions of agricultural poultry on the farms of the central region of Ukraine for 2014–2015. Deter-mined the species composition of pathogens, certain extensively and intensity of intestinal invasions alongside with their dependence on the method of maintenance, growing technology, poultry age and season have been determined.
The studies indicate that to invasion of poultry depends on the technology and the main-tenance of the general and specific veterinary measures. However, most of the farms and household plots, which hold the bird on the floor using a walking helminthes and eimeriosis found throughout the year. So, in the winter-spring period chickens were infested Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) and A. dissimilis (Vigueras, 1931), Capillaria obsignata (Madsen, 1945), C. bursata (Freitas et Almeida, 1931), C. caudinflata (Molin, 1858), Heterakis gallinarum (Ymelin, 1790), Thominx collaris (Linstow, 1873), Raillietina cesticillus Molin, 1846) and Trichostrongylus tenuis (Mehlis, 1846) to (4–100 %) of low intensity (single worms), and in young (13,3–100 %) of medium intensity − a dozen parasitic worms of different stages of development. Turkeys were infested parasitic worms with EI (20–100 %) and theintensity − single worms.
In geese are kept on the floor using land and water walking helminthes found Gangule-terakis dispar (Schrank, 1790), Capillaria anseris (Madsen, 1945), Amidostomum anseris (Zeder, 1800) and Trichostrongylus tenuis (Mehlis, 1846) for the extensity of invasion of 8 to 100 % and a minimum intensity of infestation − single worms.
Particularly high intensity of infestation helminthes registered in young chickens and turkeys private households in the summer-autumn period. The poultry showed nematodes pathogens and cestodosis with EI − 8–100 and 24 %, respectively.
In geese and goslings during this period were recorded nematodes with EI (4–100 %). Ducks were affected Capillaria anatisand Ascaridia galli by EI (4–100 %).
The results of the monitoring of the epizootic situation and parasitological studies on poultry eimeriosis show significant spread them.
Most farms and private households where poultry kept on the floor using a range, eimeriosis of invasion showed throughout the year. In the winter-spring period (8–100 %) of poultry farms and private households registered and eimeriosis of chickens identified four types: E. tenella (Railliet, Lucet, 1891), E. acervulina (Tyzzer, 1929) E. maxima (Tyzzer, 1929), E. necatrix (Johnson, 1930). In turkeys three − E. adenoeides (Moore, Brown, 1951), E. meleagridis (Tyzzer, 1929) and E. gallopavonis (Hawkins, 1952 ), the geese − three (E. anseris (Kotlan, 1932), E. nocens (Kotlan, 1933) and E. trunsata (Railliet, Lucet, 1891), the ducks − one (Tyzzeria perniciosa (Allen, 1936), quail − two (E. bateri (Bathia, Pandey et Pande, 1965) and E. uzura (Tsunoda et Muraki, 1971).
Eimeriosis of infestation intensity was weak-single oocysts eimeria in view of the micro-scope. During warm season’s contamination eimeriosis of poultry of all kinds, grew and ranged from 8 to 28 % in adult of poultry and from 50 to 100 % for the young growth. Thus the intensity of infestation was average − a few dozen pathogens in the field of view of the microscope, which was often the cause of outbreaks in farms and private households.
|Innovations on grain-crops protection||Annotation|
Innovations on grain-crops protection
Keywords: innovations, scientific-technical production, grain-crops protection, pest organisms.
There are innovations on grain-crops protection from pest organisms. The main directions of the Institute of Plant Protection NAAS innovation activity on this problem are elaboration the technologies of creation of resistant plants’ varieties, elaboration the effective methods of forecastting of crops’ phytosanitary situation, determination of the role of agrotechnical method of the crops protection, the optimization of chemical method of the crops protection, elaboration of the biological measures of plant protection from insect pests and diseases, elaboration of effective measures of crops protection and grain reserves from quarantine pest organisms.
|Pests identifying in grain stocks and determination of the maximum multiplicity of their treatments with wide usage drugs||Annotation|
Pests identifying in grain stocks and determination of the maximum multiplicity of their treatments with wide usage drugs
Keywords: species composition pests of grain reserves , winter wheat, insecticides.
In recent time the trend was to increase the number of pests of grain stocks in connection with the neglect of preventive measures on disinfection of premises, and incorrect selection of methods and techniques of grain storage. Therefore there is a need to clarify the patterns of distribution, species and quantitative composition of insect pests of grain depending on the type of granaries, conditions and ways of grain storage and to obtain information on the rotation of drugs used to protect grain from pests.
Species composition of pests is established by using the identification keys of insects.
To determine the maximum possible number of treatment it is used drugs: aktellik 500 EC, k.e. is 6 g/t; karate 050 EC, k.e. – 0,1 ml/t; prostor, k. e. – 5 ml/t.
During 2011-2014 the quantitative and species composition of grain pests isn't changed. Only in the farms which are neglected by preventive measures of protection, it is seen their sharp increasing. It is established that plant pests were absent during the storage of various grain crops in synthetic bags, and the fumigation holding in granaries, and cooling in winter. There were obtained different results for the storage of grain in bulk and early treatment of the empty granaries with wet or spray method.
Comparison of the obtained data on the distribution of grain pests of the stocks, depending on climatic zone shows that the number of collar weevil and rhopalocera khruschak with movement to the Northern Ukraine is reduced in 1,5–2 times.
According to the results of studies to determine the maximum possible number of treatment of the grain mass from pests with the drug aktellik 500 ES, k. e. (primos-methyl, 500 g/l) are found that, since the third generation of the experimental insects, its effectiveness were reduced in almost all versions at 20–33 %. Only in the variant with the grain capturecam, a significant reduction in the effect of the drug was observed from the 4th generation.
Drug containing two active substances (prostor), showed fairly steady effectiveness over the first three generations of insects. A significant reduction of the agent is installed with the fourth generation of pests.
Thus, during the years of research in selected samples the grain insects are met 7 most common types of pests: granary and rice weevils, rhopalocera small flour khruschak, grain kapturnek, south gate moth, grain moth. The shipment of grain in polyethylene bags into the fumigation storage accommodation with their cooling in winter provides reliable storage of grain reserves.
If it is necessary the processing of grain and not loaded storage accommodation against the plant pests with the same drug, without compromising its effectiveness, it is advisable to spend no more than three times. The drug aktellik 500 ES, k. e. should be used twice. Pyrethroid karate 050 ES, k. e. (lambda-cyhalothrin, 50 g/l) effectively acted almost all kinds of pests, however, starting with the second generation, there was only a slight increase in the effectiveness of the drug by 1–2 %, its action was reduced to 12–23 % from the third generation.