Grain Crops.-2019.-Vol. 3.- №1
|Origin and agrobiological characteristic of soft winter wheat variety Artaplot||Annotation|
Origin and agrobiological characteristic of soft winter wheat variety Artaplot
UDC 633.111.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0053
Diordiieva I. P., Riabovol Ia. S., Riabovol L. O. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 7–12.
Uman national university of horticulture, 1 Institytska str., Uman, Cherkassy region, 20300, Ukraine
In the article it is shown the results of research in the direction of creation of new high-productive forms of soft winter wheat with the use in breeding process of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.). Research was started in 2010 under leading of doctor of biological sciences F. M. Parii. New variety was created in the result of crossing of varieties of soft winter wheat Kopylivchnka and Kryzhynka with the sample of spelt wheat from foothills of the Carpathians with next hybridization of obtained hybrids with each other and with the use of multiply individual selections. In the results of crossing were obtained 12 hybrid populations with wide genetic basic. Hybrid progenies F2–5 analyzed for the manifestation of morphological and agronomic traits which allows to select four best samples. After analysis and testing on the productivity of the ear, grains quality and resistance to lodging, two breeding samples with high qualitative characteristics were selected, which continued to be analyzed in a competitive testing. Thus it was selected an awn line of soft winter wheat 1809. This sample was analyzed in a competitive testing during 2013–2015 in the experimental plot of Uman national university of horticulture. In the research was used systematic method of sites placement with accounting area 10 m2 and plant density 400 thousand pcs/ha. All records and observations were conducted in accordance with the «Methodology of the State Scientific and Technical Expertise of Plant Varieties». After all accounting and measurements, the grain was threshed out of the ear and deter-mined the yielding capacity. The reliability of the research and the significance of the differences between the indicators of productivity in experimental studies were evaluated based on the results of the variance analysis of mathematical statistics and the use of the MS Excel application. During the period of control testing in the experimental plot of Uman national university of horticulture sample 1809 was characterized by high productive (6,38 t/ha), high gluten content (36,1 %) and complex resistance to unsuitable environment factors, in particular, ash, brown rust and powdery mildew. The positive feature of the sample 1809 is the high resistance to lodging, which is associated with low stem (80 cm) and the presence of strong, coarse straw. Sample characterized by high mass of 1000 grains (46,8 g) and grain unit (690 g/l). Sample 1809 in 2015 was transferred to the State scientific and technic expertise with the name Artaplot. Testing of new variety conducted during 2015–2018 in17 State centers of expertise of plant varieties in different regions of Ukraine. During the State scientific and technic expertise (2015–2018) the average yield of the variety Artaplot in the Polissya and Forest-steppe regions varied from 61,5 to 61,9 t/ha, which exceeded the average yield for the Polissya region on 0,53 t/ha but it was inferior on 0,23 t/ha to the average indicators in the Forest-Steppe zone. It was fixed high resistance of plants of variety Artaplot against unsuitable environment factors (deceases, lodging, drought, frost e. g.) in both zones of growing with not significant variation on percent of affected plants. Depending on the growing zone, differences in the weight of 1000 grains were recorded: in the Forest-steppe this indicator was 43,3 g, while in Polissya zone it was 46,0 g. The content of protein in the grain of the variety Artaplot varied within the range 14,3–14,8 %. Accordingly to the results of State Scientific and technic expertise variety Artaplot listed to State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine in 2019 and recommended for growing in the zone Polissya. Created variety belongs to medium-ripening group of plants with duration of vegetation period 285–290 days. It differs by leveling stems and uniform ripening. The variety has winter type of development. Bush – erect, plants without wax plaque. Ear – prismatic, long (14,0 cm), with medium density, in the phase of full ripeness has red color and long awns. Grain – egg-shaped, large, has light brown color. Variety has good level of winter- and drought- resistance, tolerance to deceases, resistant to aspiration and germination of grain in the ear.
Key words: soft wheat, spelt wheat, hybridization, selection, control testing.
|Сharacteristics of a new grass peavine variety Ivolga||Annotation|
Сharacteristics of a new grass peavine variety Ivolga
UDК 633.36/.37:631.527 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0054
Klisha A.I.1, Kandaurova K.F.1, Kulinich O.O.1, Kobos I.O.2 Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 13–17.
1SEinstitute of graincropsof nationalacademy of agrarian sciences, 14VolodymyraVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2State Enterprise «Experimental Farm «Krasnogradske», Doslidnevillage, Scientific Str., Krasnogradskiydistrict, Kharkivskaregion, 63308, ukrainе
Peavine (Lathyrussativus) belongs to the legume family. Peavinegained fame thanks to its extra-ordinary endurance. It is able to grow on such a dry ground, where no other plant will survive. At the same time it also tolerates well excess moisture. In addition, the peavine are not demanding for soil fertility and are almost not damaged by pests and diseases. Therefore, it is most widely distributed in regions where agriculture is almost impossible.
Despite the presence of a significant number of valuable characteristics, the peavine needs a selection improvement. In particular it needs improving the suitability for mechanized harvesting. Peavine plants have a stem length of up to 1 m and therefore prone to sinking. It is desirable to obtain determinant varieties of shrub type with a rigid stalk, which will be kept straight to the ripening. When new varieties are produced, seed yields are the main indicator of the value of the source selection material. Solving the problem of increasing productivity depends on the genetic potential of the variety, its plasticity and high resistance to major diseases.
In the article the characteristic of a new cultivar of peavineIvolga is presented, which in the future will take significant crop areas in Ukraine. The variety of peavineIvolga was made in the Institute of grain crops of NAAS it is derived by individual selection from the natural hybrid of the Peavine variety Spodyvanka. It belongs to varieties of complex use (grain and forage). Registered for cultivation in the Steppe and Forest-steppe of Ukraine in 2017.
The new variety of peavineIvolga is characterized by high yield performance and quality of seeds. The variety is resistant to drought, major diseases; withstand spring frosts to minus 7–8оC. In the two years (2016–2017), of a competitive variety trial under the conditions of the State Enterprise «Experimental Farm «Krasnogradske»,the maximum grain yield was 3.58 t/ha and celebrated with high quality. It is recom-mended to grow a variety in arid conditions in both the northern and southeast steppes of Ukraine.
Key words: grass peavine, Ivolga variety, breeding numbers, growing season, elements of growing technology.
|Breeding value of oat (AVENA SATIVA L.) lines and varieties||Annotation|
Breeding value of oat (AVENA SATIVA L.) lines and varieties
UDC 633.13: 52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0055
Nechеporenko L. P.1, Orlov S. D.2 Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 18–25.
1Verkhniachka Experimental Breeding Station of the Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet NAAS,
1 Shkolnaya Str., pgt Verkhniachka, Hrystynovsryi villege, Cherkaskyi region, 20022, Ukraine
2Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet NAAS, 25 Klinichna Str., Kyiv, 03010, Ukraine
In the research, the collected oat samples, varieties, and lines of various eco-geographical origin were used. In the process of creating new breeding genotypes of spring chaffy and hulless oat with the aid of hybridization, castration was carried out according to the Shishlows method and 7792 flowers were pollinated, 1119 hybrid grains from 159 combinations were obtained. In the hybrid nursery garden, stable by agronomic and economic value progeny was selected (420 grains). Against the provocative background, the number of forms resistant to crown rust is 2016 was 31, and in 2018, the number was 20. Resulted from research 67 variety samples were selected from the infectious background. Of them, 31 resistant, 33 weak-susceptible and 29 susceptible to nigra loose smut.
Highly productive breeding genotypes (418-5, 475-12, 486-11, and others) of oat that exceed the standard variety Zakat by 0.3−0.5 t/ha and SkarbUkrainy by 0.9−1.2 t/ha were selected in the competition test. The selected lines are resistant to lodging and fungal diseases (7−9 points). According to the results of field research and qualification examination, the Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine was completed with ‘Dioskurii’ spring hulless variety in 2017 and spring chaffy ‘Denka’ in 2018 have been introduced.
Keywords: oat; varieties; samples; cross; selection, variety examination.
|Elucidation of the dependence between the methods of heat treatment of sweet corn grains and their color||Annotation|
Elucidation of the dependence between the methods of heat treatment of sweet corn grains and their color
UDC 581.192:633.15 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0056
Psiolova A.O. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 26–30.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
It is topical to develop the sweet corn with the red-colored grain, high content of antioxidants and of vitamin P.
Anthocyanins change the hue and intensity of coloration in media with different pH values, at different temperatures, etc. Therefore, it is very important that the attractive red color does not change during the heat treatment process of sweet corn cobs.
The purpose of the study is to investigate how the color of sweet corn grains varies depending on the heat cooking.The studies were conducted at the State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS in the Laboratory of Biotechnology. The experimental material were the cobs of maize of the F4 population (CE401xChornosteblova).
For research, the cobs with the red-colored grain on a kernel milk stage were used, on the 21–23-rd day after self-pollination. Three ways of heat treatment of cobs were considered: 1) boiling in plain water; 2) boiling in ordinary acidified water; 3) baking in husks.The grain in the control version (without heat tre-atment) was characterized by intense red color and dense structure. The cobs in the control version were the most attractive (5 points). The grain tasted sweet and its structure was tender and succulent, but due to the lack of heat treatment, the grain's taste was 4 points. When boiled in plain non-acidified water, the grain lost its color and became a greenish-gray. Its condition was estimated at 1 point. A considerable amount of anthocyanins contained in the grain were washed out with water during cooking and the water became intense greenish-gray. During cooking of cobs in acidified water, the grain lost its color only partially because the pigments are more stable in acidic environment than in neutral. The color of the cobs was rated 4 points. This is due to the fact that some of the pigments from the grain are washed out with water and the latter turns reddish-pink. The taste qualities of the cobs in this version corresponded to 3 points: the grain was sweet, but with a tangy taste of acid and denser than in the previous version.
After baking the sweet corn cob in the oven at 180 ˚С the grain color was the best, compared to other variants of culinary processing we studied. Its score was 5 points and it remained unchanged. This is probably due to the fact that anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments that are washed out by water during cooking, as a result – the grain is discolored. When baking, contact with water is absent and the color of pigments does not change. The taste qualities of the grain in this version corresponded to a score of 5/5: grain was sweet, non-acidic, the grain structure was slightly denser than that of cobs boiled in plain water.
Depending on the method of heat treatment, the grain of sweet corn of genotype F4 (CE401xChornosteblova) changed color and structure. The best results were obtained when baking the cobs in the oven at 180 ˚C, the structure and red color of the grain remained almost unchanged.When boiling cobs in the plain water, the color of the grain deteriorated and in the water acidified with 9% vinegar, although it was slightly better, however, the intensity of color decreased and the grain became more brittle.
Key words: Zea mays L., sweet corn, grain, anthocyanins, color, heat treatment.
|Effect of maximum and minimum dose of herbicide harness on the seed germination of parent forms of corn hybrids||Annotation|
Effect of maximum and minimum dose of herbicide harness on the seed germination of parent forms of corn hybrids
UDC 633.15:632.954 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0057
Aldoshyn А. V., Kravets S. S., Svinitskyi L. M. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 31–36.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
Effect of herbicide Harness 90 e.c.was studied on seeds of registered and prospective parent components of corn of different subspecies: siliceous (Zea mays indurateSturt.), odontoid (Zea mays indentataSturt.), siliceous-odontoid (Zea mays semidentataKulesh.), saccharine (ZeamayssaccharataKoern.). In the experiments, the seeds of 18 parent components (14 self-pollinating lines and 4 hybrids) were used. The herbicide Harness 90 e.c. was applied by presowing spraying of the soil using its maximum (3,0l/ha) and minimum (2,0 l/ha) dosesaccording to the manufacturer's recommendations for loamy soils and soils with high humus content. It was found that the maximum dose of the herbicide more negatively affects the seeds germination of parent components of corn hybrids compared to the minimum dose. The specific reaction of the seeds of parent components to the maximum and minimum doses of the herbicide Harness 90 e.c. was noted.The parent components studied were divided into three groups according to the reaction to the contrast doses of the herbicide Harness 90 e.c. Specific doses were identified and recommendations were made for the application of Harness 90 e.c. in the crops of the parent components of each group.
The results indicated significant effects of weather conditions on the system «corn seeds – herbicide Harness». The maximum dose of this preparation (3,0 l/ha) is characterized by more negatively affects the seeds germination of parent components of corn hybrids compared to the minimum dose (2,0 l/ha). The presence of different response of corn genotypes to herbicide Harness was established.
According to the revealed features of the seeds reaction of the parent components to the herbicide Harness we recommend to use this preparation in the seed on the areas of corn breeding and hybridization as follows:
1. In the cultivation of parent components of corn hybrids included in the first group (DK 633/325 MV, DK 3070 MV, Cross 289 С) of which seeds didn’t reduce or not significantly reduced germination under the influence of both minimum and maximum doses of the herbicide Harness apply from 2,0 to 3,0 l/ha, depending on the degree of crop weediness.
2. In the cultivation of parent components of corn hybrids included in the second group (DK 744 M sterile, Cross 250 M, DK 680 MVZS, Cross 255 M, DK 315 M sterile, Cross 254 M, SE 414), of which seeds didn’t reduce germination under the influence of the minimum dose of the herbicide Harness and significantly reduced germination under the influence of the maximum dose, use 2,0 l/ha.
3. In the cultivation of parent components of corn hybrids included in the third group (DK 959 MV, DK 239 MV, DK 2323 MV, DK 8141 MV, DK 2064 MV, BSM-5, DK 2442 MV, DK 5002 SVZM), of which seeds significantly reduced germination under the influence of both minimum and maximum doses of the preparation, we don’t recommend to use the herbicide Harness.
Keywords: parent components, self-pollinating line, hybrid, herbicide, Harness 90 e.c., dose of application, field germination.
|System factors for controlling the grain yield of corn in diverse crop rotations of the Steppe zone||Annotation|
System factors for controlling the grain yield of corn in diverse crop rotations of the Steppe zone
UDC 633.15:631.559/.582 (477.63) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0058
Desyatnyk L. M., Shevchenko M. S., Shvets N. V., Khyzhnyak A. A. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (1). 37–44.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str.,
Market stimulation and giving priority to the production of maize grain caused a significant restructuring of agrotechnological systems, which are associated with a high rate of change in the structure of crop areas, a radical focus on soil protection methods of soil cultivation and the problem of the use of alternative organic fertilizers.
Principal scientific solution requires the replacement of traditional organic fertilizers - manure on the residues of agricultural crops or sideral organics. Over the past 30 years, the use of manure has decreased from 7.3 t/ha of arable land to 0.2 t/ha, which excludes the renewable resource of organic matter from the balance of humus.
In the radical transformation of the organo-mineral fertilizer system, the main cultivation of the soil becomes a new value, which substantially changes the positional arrangement of nutrients in the arable layer. As you know, the availability of nutrients for plants to a large extent depends on the nature of the compatibility of their distribution in the rhizosphere of agricultural crops. Different vertical or plane positioning of fertilizers in the soil in the conditions of limited scope of their application will allow to effectively adjust the cost recovery for the formation of power regimes.
High functional value of natural fertility and payback of fertilizers will provide the expected result only in the case of optimization of soil-ecological directions.
The organic fertilizer system on the basis of seed crops, plant residues and manure allowed to raise the grain yield of corn by 0.11–0.36 t/ha, but yielded to the effectiveness of mineral fertilizers and their combination with manure.
Direct application of maize to manure did not provide a full effect on the yield of this crop, since in
the short period the processes of humification and nitrification did not go through the full cycle and did not obtain available forms for plant nutrition.
Its regulatory significance as regards the effectiveness of fertilizer use has also been shown by the methods of basic soil cultivation. This tendency has become especially persuasive in the dry conditions of the Rosivska state agricultural research station. Thus, the introduction of N60P40K30 in the background of deep plowing plow provided an increase of 1.20 t/ha of grain, while flatly different cultivation caused a decrease in the growth to 1.0 t/ha.
The analysis of experimental data obtained in stationary 5, 7 and 8-way crop rotations in the southern and northern parts of the Steppe zone was carried out. The influence of predecessors on the yield of corn grain during its placement in crop rotation after winter wheat, sunflower and spring barley has been studied. The agrobiological role of long and rotary plowing, chisel cultivation and No-till system in growing corn is established. The efficiency of the sideral and byside organic matter, manure, mineral fertilizers in different combinations and places of the rotational scheme is determined. To reveal the adaptive dependence of corn agrobiocenoses on soil-climatic conditions of cultivation.
In the multi-factor model of agriculture, which includes crop rotation, basic soil cultivation and application of various types of fertilizers, it has been established that corn cultivation has a wide range of productive reaction within the range of 2.73–6.35 t/ha. In this case, the disadvantages of the crop rotation factor can be partially offset by the main cultivation of soil and the integrated introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers. The best agrobiophysical conditions for the growth and development of corn are due to the deep-grazing cultivation and the application of 30 t/ha of manure at the same time N90P60K60.
Key words: crop rotation, corn, tillage, manure, mineral fertilizers, predecessors, yield, grain.
|Efficiency of cultivation of hard winter wheat of variety Kontynent in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Efficiency of cultivation of hard winter wheat of variety Kontynent in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine
Melnyk T. V. 1, Yarchuk І. І. 1,Masliiov S. V.2 Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 45–51.
1 Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
2 LuhanskNationalAgrarianUniversity, 68 Slobojanska Str., Starobilsk, Luhanskyi region, 92703,Ukrainе
The grain of hard wheat (Triticum durum) is extremely important for the processing and food industry in Ukraine, the need of which is one million tons per year. The immaturity of technology of its cultivation prevents the expansion of the cultivated lands. This imperfection leads to the economic inexpediency of its cultivation.
Therefore it was assigned to improve the technological methods for cultivation of hard winter wheat, which can increase yields and make its cultivation economically better.
The studies were conducted (2013–2014) on the experimental field of the educational farm “Samarskyi” of Dniprovsk State Agrarian and Economical University (Dnipropetrovsk region) on the usual black thinhumous average loamy soil. The reference area is 33 m2, it is a threetime repeatability, the placement of the plots is systematic. Weather conditions during the research years were mainly typicalfor the Steppe zone.
It was established that the highest yield of the hard winter wheat in the fallow land, both on low, and on high grounds of the mineral nutrition in average for 4 years was received during seeding on September 17 and with the seeding rate 4,5 min. p/ha – 5,66 and 6,21 t/ha, accordingly.
The greatest yield capacity of wheat after the spring barley, both on a low and on a high nutritional background the plants of the hard winter wheat was formed when sowing on September 10 at a seeding rate of 6.5 million p/ha. Such a high rate is explained by the unfavorable conditions of the stubble previous crop, by the low bushiness of plants.
At different sowing dates, the norm of seeding has to be different. At the late term of sowing the seeding rate changes upwards, due to the low bushiness of plants and, conversely, at the early term of sowing on condition of sufficient moisture content of the soil, the seeding rate has to be corrected towards its reduction.
The maximum yield after the stubble previous crop was lower than the maximum yield of steam crops by a third (27.9 %). The low yield of hard winter wheat after spring barley caused extremely low economic indicators. In such a way a payout of production expenses was only 1.62 UAH. The economic indicators of growing of hard winter wheat, after the worst previous crop – spring barley, indicate a low efficiency of use of stubble previous crop.
Key words: hard winter wheat, previous crops, sowing terms, seeding rates, mineral fertilizers, crop productivity, economical indicators of cultivation.
|Growing of Scarlet amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus) in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Growing of Scarlet amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus) in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDК 633.3: (477) (251.1) (1–17) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0026
Dudka M.I. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 52–61.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
Among the representatives of the world's flora in plant growing, increasingly used species of Amaranthus, the grain and vegetative mass of which is rich in the protein. The publication presents the results of research on the development of elements of the technology of growing of love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthuspaniculatus) in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine. The purpose of the research was to provide a comparative estimation of the grain productivity of the love-lies-bleeding and traditional late spring crops, to investigate the influence of the method of sowing and the sowing rate, fertilization, the time of harvesting on the grain yield, to determine the expediency of growing the crop on green fodder in companion ag-rophytocenoses for once cut and two hay cutting use.
The research was conducted during 1987–2013 at the Erastivska research station of the SU Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The soil of the experimental part was the common chernozem low in humus, the content of humus in the arable layer is 4,0%.
It was established that love-lies-bleedingis a high-yielding culture; its sowings exceeded soybeans on grain yielding capacity in 1,3 times, but in 1,7 and 2,7 times respectively yielded to millet and maize. In its grain, each feed unit contains by 38,8% more digestible protein than maize grain and by 8,6% more than millet grain. The content of digestible protein in grain of love-lies-bleeding far exceeds maize and millet, yielding only to soybeans, and for energy food value of grain –it has no advantage over maize and soybeans. The collection of nutrients per hectare depended on the productivity of crop of culture.At growing of love-lies-bleeding for grain, the most productive were the wide-row (45 cm) sowings with the seeding rate 1,0 kg/ha, the grain yield was 1,77 tons/ha with actual plant density 593 thousand/ha. Application of complete mineral fertilizer (N90Р90К30) provided an increase in the yield of love-lies-bleeding 0,42 t/ha compared with the control (without fertilizers). With this dose of fertilizer, the carry-over of nitrogen by plants to form 1 ton of grain was 20,6 kg, and that of phosphorus and potassium was 13,2 and 5,6 kg, respectively.
The highest yield of green mass (42,38 t/ha), collection of feed units (6,89 t/ha) and digestible protein (0,67 t/ha) with once cut use of sowing were obtained at companion growing of agrophytocenoses of love-lies-bleeding and maize. In total for two hay cutting (main and aftergrouth) the highest yield of green mass (50,10 t/ha), the collection of feed units (8,41 t/ha) and digestible protein (0,89 t/ha) provided the companion sowing of love-lies-bleeding with sudan-grass hybrid.
Key words: love-lies-bleeding, method of sowing, seeding rate, mineral fertilizers, harvest time, companion agrophytocenoses, productivity.
|Efficiency of growing winter wheat depending on the soil tillage and sowing systems||Annotation|
Efficiency of growing winter wheat depending on the soil tillage and sowing systems
A. D. Gyrka 1, O. O. Viniukov 2, T. V. Gyrka 1, O. I. Bokun 1, А. О. Кулик 1
1SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
2 Donetsk State Agricultural Experimental Station of NAAS Ukraine, 1, Gagarin str, Grishina, Pokrovsky district, Donetsk region, 85330, Ukraine
The results of the analysis of the efficiency of winter wheat growing depending on the soil tillage and sowing systems in changing hydrothermal conditions of Steppe zone are presented.
Weather conditions during the investigations were different, but in general favorable, which made it possible to fully assess its influence of soil tillage and sowing systems on growth, development, grain productivity and economic and bioenergy efficiency of winter wheat growing. It is established, that the highest grain yield of winter wheat was formed in the variant of surface soil tillage and seeding with ATD-6.35 and was 5,62 t/ha, which was for 0,12 and 0,16 t/ha more than the variant using the seeding machine ATD-6.35 without tillage and seeding machine SZ-3.6 on surface tillage. Analysis of winter wheat grain showed, that the protein and gluten contents in samples of variants 1 and 2, where the ATD-6.35 used were higher compared to variant 3, where the SZ-3.6 used and amounted respectively to 12,7–13,3 and 24,0–25,3%.
At direct seeding observed the increasing the prime cost of 1 ton of grain, reducing the profitability and the energy efficiency ratio, as compared to the surface tillage and seeding with sowing machine ATD-6.35, respectively, by 124 UAH, 38,8% and 1,17, and at seeding with SZ-3,6 – for 164 UAH, 53,5% and 1,18.
Key words: winter wheat, soil tillage, seeding methods, crop yield, grain quality, economic and bioenergy efficiency.
|Features of buckwheat growing in post-harvest crops||Annotation|
Features of buckwheat growing in post-harvest crops
UDC 633.12:631.58/.53.048 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0062
Tkalich I. D., Tkalich Yu. I., Bochevar O. V., Sydorenko Yu. Ya., Ilienko O. V. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 68–76.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The influence of mineral fertilizer norms on the background of surface cultivation of soil and plowing on the crop yield of buckwheat variety Liubava in post-harvest crops, as well as the reaction of crop on seeding methods and seeding rates, was investigated.
Field experiments on fertilizing and soil cultivating were laid in the farm holding "Victoria" of the Magdalynivka district of the Dnipropetrovs’k region. The studies of the sowing methods and the seeding rates of the buckwheat were carried out in LLC "Svitanok" of Novomoskovs’k district of the Dnipro-petrovs’k region. Soil of experimental plots – ordinary chernozem, middle loamy. The content of humus in the arable layer of soil is 4.0–4.2%, mobile nitrogen – 1.6–1.8 mg, P2O5 – 10.3–10.5%, exchangeable potassium – 12.4–13.5 mg per 100 g of soil.
After harvesting the rye for the green feed, the soil was cultivated with a heavy harrow to a depth of 8–10 cm, and the separate plots were plowed to a depth of 20–22 cm. Under the pre-sowing cultivation, the mineral fertilizers were applied according to the experimental scheme. Buckwheat seeding was carried out with a seed drill SZ-3.6 with a seeding rate of 2.5 million of germinated grains per hectare. After sowing, the field was pressed with cross-kill rollers. Buckwheat was harvested in a two-phase way when browning of 75% grains.
In the Steppe, in the post-tipped period, an average of 142 mm of precipitation falls, which is sufficient to maintain optimum soil moisture for growth and development of buckwheat plants. In 40% of years their number may decrease to 107–124 mm or increase to 178–210 mm. During the years of our research, the buckwheat moisture content was satisfactory.
The results of the research showed that increasing the seed rate and the widening spaces between rows, decreases the plant nutrition, increases the unevenness of their placement, decreases their moisture content, nutrition and illumination, which leads to the reduction of agrophytocenosis of buckwheat due to the loss of weaker plants.
In ordinary crops with row spacings of 15 cm and direct sowing with seed drill SZS-2.1 in plants due to less branching-out than in wide-rowed, a smaller number of inflorescences and grains were formed, which reduced their productivity and crop yield, despite a larger number of plants per hectare. Within the ordinary and wide-rowed crops by productivity the plants differed a little.
With thickening of plants in all sowing methods, the productivity of buckwheat naturally decreased. Thus, if the seed is sown at a rate of 1.0 million per hectare on average for 2013–2015 at ordinary sowing (15 cm), the weight of the grains from the plant was 0.63 g, at wide-rowed (45 cm) – 0.80 g, then at a rate of 3.5 million/ha – 0.23 and 0.33 g, respectively.
The most favorable ratio of the number of plants on the area and their productivity was formed at sowing using the wide-rowed method (45 cm) and the seeding rate of 2.0 million /ha, which provided the highest crop yield (1.08 t/ha) with minimal energy consumption. The crop yield of buckwheat grain was reduced by 0.06 t/ha at the sowing with spacing between rows of 70 cm, by 0.17 t/ha – at direct sowing with a seed drill SZS-2.1 and by 0.18 t/ha – in an ordinary sowing crop. The optimum seeding rates for buckwheat at wide-row sowing manner (45, 70 cm) are 2.0 million ha/ha, and ordinary (15, 22.5 cm) – 2.5 million/ha.
Substantially influenced on growth of buckwheat plants and their branching-out the soil cultivation and fertilization. The best rate for mineral fertilizer application for post-topped buckwheat was N90P60, but the highest payback of fertilization with grain increments and its lowest cost was observed when introducing N60P30.
In most years of researches, plowing did not have the advantage over the surface soil cultivation, and due to more cost, its holding proved to be an economically disadvantageous agro-investment in the technology of growing post-harvested buckwheat.
Key words: buckwheat, soil tillage, mineral fertilizers, sowing methods, seeding rate.
|Influence of nitrogen top dressing on the yielding capacity and grain quality of soft winter wheat in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of nitrogen top dressing on the yielding capacity and grain quality of soft winter wheat in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.11«324»:631.811.1/.559:57.014 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0063
Gasanova I. I., Yerashova M. V., Pedash O. O. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 77–82.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str.,Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
Based on the results of triennium experimental studies, the features of the effect of nitrogen top dressingon the yielding capacity and grain qualityof modern varieties of soft winter wheat in the Northern Steppe were discovered. The field trial was placed after the spring barley. The amount of mineral fertilizers under pre-sowing cultivation was N60P60K30. Three varieties of winter wheat were sown: Kohanka (SI TheInstitute of Grain Crops), Pylypivka and Misia Odes’ka (Selectionand Genetic Institute). All the varieties belong to the erythrospermumsubvariety. The variantsof nitrogen top dressingwere as follows: without application (control); N30 applied early in the spring on frozen-thawed soil (FTS); N60 applied early in spring on FTS; N30 applied locallyat the end of the tillering phase; N30applied early in the spring on FTS+ N30 locally at the end of the tillering phase; N60 applied locallyat the end of the tillering phase; N60 applied early in the spring on FTS+ N30 locally at the end of the tillering phase.
The nitrogen top dressing of winter wheat crops after the stubble predecessor on the background of the N60P60K30 provided grain yield 4,24–5,62 t/ha, on average for 2016–2018. Depending on the variant of nitrogen application, the increasing of grain yield of winter wheat varieties as compared to the control (without fertilization) ranged from 0,36 to 1,20 t/ha. The best results were obtained at the single application of nitrogen fertilizer on frozen-thawed soil with a dose of 60 kg/ha (AI) and in two stages –N60 applied early in the spring on frozen-thawed soil+ N30 locally at the end of the tillering phase. Among the winter wheat varieties the greater crop yield was noted in the variety Pylypivka, the less – in the variety Misia Odes’ka.
It was found that the application of N30 early in the spring on FTS+ N30 locally at the end of the tillering phase contributed to the formation of the highest protein and gluten contents in winter wheat grain (the amount of protein in the grain, depending on the variety, varied from 11,7 to 12,5%, and gluten –19,0–23,1%). The winter wheat variety Pylypivka exceeded other varieties by such indicators as the grain-unit and the sedimentation value.
Key words: soft winter wheat, variety, nitrogen fertilization, yielding capacity, grain quality, protein, gluten.
|Technogenic level of arable farming and associative variability of weeds in agrocenoses||Annotation|
Technogenic level of arable farming and associative variability of weeds in agrocenoses
UDK 631.5:631.51 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0064
Shevchenko M. S.1, Shevchenko S. M.2, Derevenets-Shevchenko K. A.1, Shvets N. V.1 Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (1). 83–92.
1 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
2Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
On the basis of multiyear field time and stationary experiments on the study of the effectiveness of herbicides, the distribution of weeds and the impact of agricultural factors, features of the transformation of their species composition were established. It was established that the high regulatory capacity against the botanical composition of weeds was determined by herbicides, the structure of sown areas, the phytocoenic density of crops and the intensity of soil cultivation.
The most characteristic of the newest cycle of development of agriculture was the universalization and growth of phytotoxic action of herbicides up to 90–97% and the transition to minimizing soil cultivation. The theoretical conclusion about necessity of constant correction of phytotoxic spectrum of herbicides and differentiation of cultivation of soil in crop rotation is made.
It is established, according to which agro-ecological scenario can develop the situation in the herbological, herbicidal and agro-system agriculture. In the conditions of intensive diversification of agrarian production and concentration of markets, the new meaning is filled with the concept of crop rotation and system alternation of crops. At the forefront is no longer the dependence of the productivity of culture from the predecessor, and the permissibility of saturation with their toxicants herbicide origin. Avoid the uncontrolled spread of herbicides should be a scientifically grounded alternation of pesticide-containing (corn, sunflower) and phytocoenocisal-resistant (winter wheat) crops.
To overcome the negative effects of herbicides on crops in crop rotation, it is necessary to introduce into the agricultural practice the accounting of used herbicides in each rotational line.
A trend that accelerates the use of combined herbicides can be an additional impetus for accelerating by the weeds acquired resistance to the active substance of preparations of different chemical classes. Therefore, in order to prevent the evolutionary occurrence of herbicide immunity, every 10 years it is necessary to change the phytotoxic concept on the basis of new mechanisms of depression of weeds.
Key words: agriculture, weeds, herbicides, crop rotations, agricultural crops, weedeness, phytoto-xicity, species composition, transformation, prognosis.
|Effect of basic soil cultivation for damage by pests and defeat by diseases of grain crops||Annotation|
Effect of basic soil cultivation for damage by pests and defeat by diseases of grain crops
UDC 631.51: 631.8: 633.854.78 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0065
Tsyliuryk O.I. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 93–101.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhii Efremov Str., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
Significant limiting factors for the cultivation of grain crops are the degree of defeat by diseases and pest damage. Despite the widespread introduction of modern high-performance chemical protection products, they continue to be harmful objects that reduce crop by more than a third.
The purpose of the work is to determine the peculiarities of damage by pests and defeat by diseases of the main grain crops (corn, winter wheat) depending on the methods and the system of basic soil cultivation and fertilizer.
The experimental part of the work was conducted during 2001–2015 in accordance with the generally accepted methodology of the research in the long-term stationary experiments of the DPDG «Dnipro» in the Institute of Agriculture of steppe zone of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Dnipropetrovsk region). Experiments are laid out in triple repetition, the total area of sown area is 330 m2, and accounting area is 100 m2.
There was a tendency to increase the damage by wireworms (seedlings – 15,2–16,4 %, seeds – 15,1–17,6 %) of corn plants for mulching soil cultivation (flat cutting) with abandonment on the surface and wrapping in the upper layer (0–16 cm) of the plant residues of the predecessor (spring barley). The conducting of board cultivation contributed to the removal of many wireworms (Elateridae) on the surface of the soil, where it died due to physical drying under the influence of sun rays and destroyed by birds in the fall immediately after cultivation. In this case, the damage to seedlings and seeds decreased to 10,9–13,0 and 9,2–12,8 % respectively, or by 3,4–4,3 and 4,8–5,9 % less than that of the shallow mulching system. The system of differentiated cultivation occupied an intermediate position with respect to corn damage by wireworms (seedlings – 13,6–14,8 %, seeds – 12,9–15,2 %). Incorporation of fertilizers under corn in a dose of N60P30K30 contributed to better growth and endurance (tolerance) of plants irrespective of the system of cultivation, damage of seedlings and seeds by wireworms was reduced by 1,2 and 1,4 times, respectively.
The corn damage by corn moth was at a low level and fluctuated within 1,4–2,5 % with increasing damage in a shallow mulching system of cultivation in 1,5–1,7 times, due to the presence of plant remains in it, in which well preserved and wintering dolls of corn mothes in contrast to the board cultivating system, where, on the contrary, they burrow in the lower layers of the soil and die.
There was a tendency to decrease the development of root rot in the variants of board soil cultivation, in comparison with disk, chisel and non-board cultivation in 1,1–1,25 times, as well as on the uncoated background in relation to fertilizer, which is explained by the plowing of the cultivars and reduction of the period of infection non-nourished plants due to their premature maturation and drying.
The use of boardand differentiated soil cultivation systems for corn growing provides for the most complete destruction of pathogens (mold seedlings and root rot, plants with bile ducts, early illnesses) and pests (wireworms, stalk mothes, cotton scoops) that hibernate and remain in plant remains. Indicators of defeat by diseases and damage by pests are reduced by 1,4–1,6 times as a result of tillage of plant remains along with pathogens in the lower layers of the soil. The use of shallow mulching cultivation requires additional regulations on the control of pests and diseases, provided they exceed the economic thresholds for their harmfulness, which requires additional costs of material resources, especially in the years of significant manifestation of harmful objects.
The damage of winter wheat plants to root rotates decreases in areas with board soil cultivation by 1,1–1,25 times, as well as in the unpolluted background in relation to fertilized by tillage postbreeding remains and the reduction of the period of infection of non-fertilized plants due to their premature maturation and drying.
Key words: winter wheat, corn, damage by pests, defeat by diseases, basic soil cultivation, fertilizer system.
|Structural and aggregate composition of soil depending on the tilling method in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Structural and aggregate composition of soil depending on the tilling method in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.452: 631.512 (477.6) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0066
Medvedyev E. B. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 102–109.
Lugansk Institute of Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 Oktyabrska Str., Village of Metalist, Slavyanoserbsk district, Lugansk region, 93733, Ukraine
The article shows the results of studies on the impact of the main tillage methods on the soils structural-aggregate composition in the link of grain-fallow-tilled crop rotation (winter wheat – peas – winter wheat) under conditions of the northern plains of Ukraine in 2010–2012.
It was found that when growing peas after winter wheat on the corn of milky-wax ripeness in all the years of research, plowing compared with beard lesstreat ment contributed to the formation of the best agronomical structure in the upper (0−10 cm) soil layer. So, on average over the years of research in the spring before applying the pre-sowing treatment of the soil, the difference in the content of agronomically valuable aggregates (10–0.25 mm) and the value of the structural coefficient in this layer in favour of plowing was, respectively, 3.5% and 0.19. This was due to a decrease in the number of structural units with a size of >10 mm. On average, over the years of research, there were less of them by 3.9% at the mouldboard plowing compared to aboardless treatment. By the time of harvesting, this trend continued, except for 2012, in which the difference in these indicators in terms of treatment options was almost not observed during this period. Significant differences in the addition of structural aggregates in soil layers of 10–20 and 20–30 cm have not been established for the experimental variants.
The studies revealed a tendency to an increase in the number of pulverescent aggregates
Regarding aggregates of size >10 mm, by the time of harvest, there was a tendency to reduce their number in the entire arable layer of soil in all crops of the crop rotation link mainly during all the years of research, which contributed to the improvement of its structural indicators.
The indicators of the structural aggregate composition of the soil with different ways of its procthreessing did not lead to the emergence of a significant difference in the water regime, bulk density, microbiological activity in the soil, the crop yield of the crop rotation link, which is confirmed by our previously published studies.
Key words: soil treatment, structural-aggregate composition, pea, winter wheat, soil layer.
|Influence of the basic soil cultivation systems and fertilization on yield of winter wheat after fallow in Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of the basic soil cultivation systems and fertilization on yield of winter wheat after fallow in Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.581: 631.51: 631.432 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0067
Tsyliuryk O. I. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 110–119.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhii Efremov Str., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
The level of crop yield and gross collection of winter wheat grain is determined by the general level of production and the state of food security of Ukraine. Therefore, the use of modern technologies, one of which elements is the optimal dosage of fertilizers, and the right choice of methods for basic soil cultivation, in combination with other elements of technology and weather conditions, provide maximum level of productivity of plants. The mutual influence of various factors on the size of the grain crop related to the soil cultivation is complex, sometimes somewhat different depending on the years and the growing zone, and therefore requires additional research to determine the optimal methods and systems of soil cultivating in order to increase the yield of winter wheat, especially in recent decades of global warming.
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of the formation of a grain yield of fallowwinter wheat under the influence of different systems of basic soil cultivation and fertilization and the determination of the optimal variant of arable land tillage.
Different ways of the basic cultivation of fallow (disk, chisel, board) provided in the experiments practically the same productivity of winter wheat. It should be noted the tendency to reduce the yield of grain in the early fallow after barley, compared with fallow against the background of no fertilizer at 0,10–0,20 tons/ha, or 2,7–3,8 %.
Deep board cultivation of fallow did not have advantages compared to shallow disk cultivation, as opposed to spring-like, loose soil tillage, where lower fertilizer yields were obtained within individual fertilizer options (no tufts, N30P30K30). At the same time, application of N60 in spring in combination with P30K30 under pre-sowing cultivation provided grain yield at the control level (tillage – 5,50, early fallow – 5,52 t/ha).
Use of board cultivation with the addition of N30P30K30 contributed to extra grain yield of 0,28 t/ha, disk – 0,38, flat cutter – 0,33 t/ha, and N60P30K30 – respectively 0,26; 0,43 and 0,48 t/ha. The low growth of grain yield from mineral fertilizers, in particular nitrogen, is due to lack of rainfall during the formation of reproductive organs in plants.
During the experiment, the deep tillage of fallow on all agrophons without exception allowed the production of food grain with the content of protein 11,6–12,4 %, and gluten 23,3–26,2 %. Autumn disk and spring flat cutting of the fallow field caused the annual receipt of grade 3 grain only when N60P30K30 was added (protein – 11,6–12,3 %, gluten – 22,6–24,6 %).
When engaging in the crop rotation of the by-products of crop rotation, the introduction of N30P30K30 under winter wheat, placed on a fallow, contributed (as compared to the unhealthy background) to increasing the content of protein in the grain by 0,6–1,0 %, gluten – by 1,9–2,6 %, and N60P30K30 – by 0,8–1,4 % and 2,0–3,0 % respectively.
Thus, the use of an early fallow after sunflower during winter wheat cultivation provides crop at the level of board, chiuzel and disc cultivation, that is, different pairs and methods of cultivating them are equivalent. At the same time, the introduction of an early fallow after a corn forehead (barley) and after corn in the process of engaging in the cycle of all the by-products of cultivated crops leads to a partial immobilization of nitrogen compounds of soil under wintering in the spring and to a tendency to decrease the grain yield by 0,10–0,20; 0,02–0,15 t/ha (or 2,70–3,80 and 0,10–0,15 %) compared to other soil cultivation.
Key words: winter wheat, basic soil cultivation, fertilizer system, early fallow, predecessors, grain yield.
|Growth, fattening and guality parameters among young pigs with different snp genotypes of melanocortin - 4 receptor gene (Mc4r)||Annotation|
Growth, fattening and guality parameters among young pigs with different snp genotypes of melanocortin - 4 receptor gene (Mc4r)
V. I. Khalak Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). C. 127-132
The results of researches of absolute and integrated growth parameters, fattening and meat qualities of young pigs of different genotypes according to the receptor gene of melanocortin 4 (Mc4r) are presented, and the level of correlation relations between the features is calculated.
Studies have shown that according to the live weight indices at the 2–4-month of age, the age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg and the thickness of the fat at the 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, the young pigs of the large white breed of the control herd (Druzhba-Kaznacheyivka LTD of the Dnipropetrovsk region) meets the requirements of class I and elite class. It was found that young pigs of the genotype AA for the receptor gene of melanocortin 4 (Mc4r) prevails on the peers of the genotype AG on the basis of growth on average by 5.62 %, and on fattening qualities – by 3,09 %. The thickness of the fat at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae is the difference in favor of young pigs of large white breeds of genotype AG of 6.75 %.
The correlation coefficient between absolute and integrated growth rates, fattening and meat qualities in young pigs of different genotypes according to the receptor gene of melanocortin 4 (Mc4r) varied from – 0.863 ± 0,0958 (thickness of fat at 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, mm х SI5 – selection index of fattening and meat qualities of young pigs, points) to + 0,675 ± 0,1374 (live weight at 2 months of age, kg х index «intensity of formation» (Δt), points).
Key words: young piglets, genotype, ontogenesis, integrated growth indices, fattening qualities, correlation.
|Prospects for development of animals husbandry in conditions of State enterprise «Experimental farm «Krasnograds’ke||Annotation|
Prospects for development of animals husbandry in conditions of State enterprise «Experimental farm «Krasnograds’ke
UDC: 636.2.084/085.13 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0070
Kozyr V. S., Maystrenko A. N.. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 133–138.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
Experimental farm "Krasnograds’ke" occupies a leading position in the field of animal husbandry. Analyzing the results, we see additional reserves to improve its efficiency.
One of the main conditions for increasing the number of holsteinized cattle is reproduction. This is a very complex process, which depends on the obligatory implementation of many factors. It is necessary to steam cows and heifers with high-quality bulls in accordance with the schedule of their daily rotation and planning of lodges, to set up the account and organize the mating of animals, to control their physiological state, to observe the course of birth and restoration of the organism in the postnatal period, to stimulate and synchronize the next hunt, to carry out obstetric and gynecological dispensary and practice the herd's reproduction day (weekly) with status analysis and defining ways to eliminate disadvantages.
The primary task should be to strengthen the forage base. It is necessary to determine the area of arable land under feed crops, to take measures to increase yields, to organize the harvesting of fodder crops in the phase of the highest yield of nutrients, to ensure the preservation of feed, without losing their nutritional value.
In pigs, it is necessary to inseminate sows with pure-breeding kennels, repair guinea pigs at the age of 8.5–9 months, live weight 125–130 kg and length of the body – 132–136 cm, plan insemination and farrowing of the uterus, control their physiological state, follow the course fertility and restoration of the organism in the postnatal period, to prevent infertility of pigs.
The implementation of this program requires the obligatory implementation of the following measures: it is necessary to feed pigs twice a day only high-quality feed in the form of feed mixes in accordance with detailed norms, daily cleaning of feeders, water in dusts should be continuous and clean, change the diet gradually, in separate feeders for рiglets should be constantly fed with barley, ore clay, chalk, charcoal.
The implementation of the programmed tasks by scientists and specialists will improve the reproduction of livestock in pigs and pigs, and, on this basis, increase the number of livestock, and the creation of appropriate technological conditions for breeding animals will contribute to the growth of the production of competitive products of livestock and pig breeding.
Key words: milk cattle, sows, feeding, keeping, technology, production, beef, quality, milk, meat.
|Long period of lactation and level of milk production of cows on industrial complex||Annotation|
Long period of lactation and level of milk production of cows on industrial complex
UDC 636.082.22:637 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0071
Pishchan I. S., Lytvyschenko L. O., Honchar A. O., Pishchan S. G. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 139–148.
Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Sergiya Efremova str., Dnipro, 46000, Ukraine
Increasing the milk production of cows is the main task of breeding in dairy cattle, the implementation of which depends on many factors, including the reproductive ability of animals. The aim of the research was to determine the characteristics of the realization of the genetic potential of milk production of Holstein breed cows during a long lactation period at exploitation in the industrial complex. For research were selected cows of all ages and formed in six groups: I group of first-heifers (45 heads); II group of the cow of the second lactation (26 heads); ІІІ group of animals of the third lactation (21 heads); IV group of cows of the fourth lactation (34 heads); V group of animals of the fifth lactation (47 heads); VI group of cows of the sixth lactation (81 heads).
In the conducted researches it was established that the duration of one productive period in cows of different ages in the industrial complex, from the first and the sixth lactation, is in the range from 583.1 to 635.6 days. During this period, from the animals of I and II groups in the first and second lactation was obtained almost the same amount of milk, which was, on average, respectively, 12605.3 kg of physical, or 12275.3 kg of 4 % milk, and 12370.3 kg of physical, or 12061.4 kg of 4 % milk. In cows of ІІІ group, the level of milk production in the third lactation was higher in relation to the index of the first-heifers of the I group, respectively, at 5.37 and 7.13%, and amounted to an average of 13321.0 kg of physical or 13217.9 kg of 4% milk. In animals of the IV group, milk production in the fourth lactation amounted to, on average, 14062.3 kg of physical or 13666.1 kg of 4% milk, which exceeds the index of first-heifers of I group by 10.36 % (P<0.05) and 10.18 % (P<0.05). In the fifth lactation from V group of cows was obtained, on average, 14435.2 kg of physical or 14113.4 kg of 4 % milk. These figures are higher values of animals of I group in the first lactation, respectively, at 12.68 % (P<0.01) and 13.02 % (P<0.01). The highest index of milk secretion during the entire lactation period was observed in cows of VI group, from which in sixth lactation obtained an average of 15434.4 kg of physical or 15218.2 kg of 4 % milk. This level of milk production is higher than that of first-heifers of I group, respectively, on 18.33 % (P<0.001) and 19.34 % (P<0.001).
In recalculation on 305 days of lactation, the milk production of the first-heifers of I group is at the level of 7614.1 kg of physical or 7415.2 4 % milk. In animals of the ІІ group, the milk-yield was 8355.4 physical, or 8156.1 kg of 4 % milk, which is more than the index of the first-heifers of the I group, respectively, at 8.87 % (P<0.05) and 9.08 % (P<0.05). Animals of III group secreted during this period on average 8562.6 kg of physical or 8503.1 kg of 4 % milk, which is more than the index of cows of І group, respectively, on 11.08 % (P<0.01) and 12.79 % (P<0.001). Cows of the ІV group produced an average 9138.3 kg of physical or 8889.4 kg of 4 % milk per 305 days, which exceeds the value of the first-heifers of the І group by 16.68 % (P<0.001) and 16,58 % (P<0.001). The highest milk production was found in cows of V group, which obtained 9631.6 kg of physical or 9418.3 kg of 4 % milk, which is more than the indicator of animals of the III group, respectively, on 11.10 % (P<0.01) and 9, 72% (P<0.01). The level of milk production of cows of the VI group, practically consistent to the indicators of the V group of animals of the fifth lactation and amounted to 9587.2 kg of physical or 9464.1 kg of 4 % milk.
It has been proved by researches that during the long lactation activity there is practically no functional relation between live weight and general milk-yield in cows of different ages – from r = -0.176 in animals of V group to r = 0.145 in cows of ІІ group.
In general, Holstein cows for a long duration of the lactation period are characterized by satisfactory adaptive properties, since the index of adaptation is below the neutral value. Thus, in cows of III and IV groups, the adaptation index is at the level of -14.7 ± 0.55 and -14.5 ± 0.49, respectively. In animals of ІІ and V groups, this index is slightly higher and, on average, is -16.6 ± 0.72 and -17.0 ± 1.75, respectively. In animals of ІІ and V groups, this index is slightly higher and, on average, is -16.6 ± 0.72 and -17.0 ± 1.75, respectively. The relatively low index of adaptation in VI group of cows is -15.4 ± 0.6, while its highest value in first-heifers of I group is -18.2 ± 0.52 units. Indicators of the adaptation index have a low functional relation with the overall milk-yield of cows of all ages – from r = -0.078 in cows of III group with a third lactation to r = 0.577 in animals of V group with fifth lactation.
Key words: cow, lactation, milk-yield, milk fat, protein, index of adaptation.
|Influence of feed additives on the growth of pigs in the transition period||Annotation|
Influence of feed additives on the growth of pigs in the transition period
UDC 636.4.085.5. https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0072
Maystrenko A. N., Dimchya G. G., Denysyuk O. V. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 149–153.
The experimental part of the research was conducted in the conditions of LLC "Agro-Aurora" of the Nikopol district of the Dnipropetrovsk region. A comparative analysis of the growth of guinea pigs in the transition period using comparative standard (control group) and advanced author (experimental group) of feed additives was conducted.
The conducted analysis and biological evaluation of the dietary value of ration the pig in the experimental groups indicates that the total nutrition, exchange energy, the amount of dry matter, raw and digestible protein, calcium and phosphorus conform to approved norms.
At the same time, in the diet of the diet, there is a shortage of individual elements,%: cop-per – 12,15–20,59; zinc – 25-42,42; manganese – 8,47–53,72; cobalt – 62,36–76,79; vitamin D3–94; B12 – 74–83. At the same time there is an excess of other nutrients: lysine – 35, methionine + cystine – 50, raw fiber more than 1,8 times, iron – 1,5 times, iodine – 1,7 times, carotene – 2,8 times, tocopherol – in 2,3 times, thiamine – in 2,7 times, riboflavin – in 1,7 times, pantothenic acid – in 4,7 times, choline – in 1,3 times.
In order to eliminate the identified imbalance of individual nutrients and obtain the maxi-mum growth of the pigs in the experimental group of 3 and 4 months of age, respectively, we fed the improved feed additives.
Due to the improved formulation of fodder supplements, the ration of the experimental group of swine for the basic vital substances was balanced, which positively influenced their growth and development.
Control of the metabolism of the mumps was carried out by biochemical study of blood parameters: total protein, total calcium, alkaline reserve, inorganic phosphorus.
It should be noted that in the pigs of experimental groups the biochemical parameters of blood were within the limits of the existing norms. But in the experimental group, the swine showed a tendency for these indicators to approach the upper limit of norms and they were higher than in the control group,%: the total protein was 2,23, the alkaline reserve was 6,38, the total calcium was 5,86, and inorganic phosphorus – 4,06. However, no reliable difference was found in comparison with those in the control animals. In our opinion, this is due to the high level of feeding of the pigs of both groups in terms of total nutrition, dry matter, raw and digestible protein, lysine, methionine + cystine. What is evidenced by the results of the growth of piglets of 3 and 4 months of age.
The animals of the experimental group had a significantly higher live weight in both three and four months of life. In the experimental group, at the age of three months, the weight of the piglets was 35,30 ± 0,753 kg, while in the control group it was 31,67 ± 0,747 kg, which was significantly less (P<0,001); in four months respectively – 55,58 ± 1,03 and 47,27 ± 1,05 kg respectively. Daily increments in the experimental group were 540 ± 5,35 g and 676 ± 9,33 g, while in the control group it was 435 ± 7,66 and 520 ± 6,98 g (P<0,001).
Thus, the growth of the pigs of the experimental group testifies to the reliability of the ef-fective influence of author's balancing feed additives in comparison with standard ones. Once again, one truth is confirmed – since there are no standard feeds, the proposed feed additives for a standard recipe will not be effective either.
Analyzing the level of average daily increments and feed costs per 1 kg of growth of the experimental group, during the whole period of their growth and development, a generalized con-clusion was made that the continuous replenishment of diets with vital elements at the expense of improved feed additives has a positive effect.
An economic assessment of the use of advanced feed additives to a particular diet, growth and developmental stages of the growth of pigs showed a relatively high efficacy in relation to the control group.
Key words: piglets, ration, feed, live weight, daily gain, feed additives
|Method for assessing reproductive qualities of boars||Annotation|
Method for assessing reproductive qualities of boars
UDC 636.4: 082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0074
Zeldin V. F. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 159–162.
In the opinion of the English researcher and the practice of G. Johnson, the pedigree does not affect the size of the sow's nest. Its function is fertilization, a small amount of eggs that ovules the sow. It has been found that the stalk has a great influence on the size of the nest of their daughters, which, in turn, only emphasizes the bias of the existing system approach to determining the level of reproductive qualities of the pedigree. Therefore, the current problem has caused the direction of our research.
The subject of research was the productive qualities of sows of large white breed and hybrid nodes. The performance of animals is evaluated according to the requirements and in an innovative way. Statistical processing of experimental materials was carried out in accordance with the methodology of Plokhinsky M.O. Researches were conducted at LTD "Privat-Agro" of Dnipropetrovsk region in 2016. Under control were 2 terminal boars and 35 sows of large white breed of thick meat-fat type body structure.
The assessment of the reproductive capacity of the sows was carried out in accordance with the requirements of the Instructions for the boning of pigs for the four tribal classes (elite, first, second and extracurricular), and boars– for three (elite, first, second). The use of the index reception of the evaluation of the reproductive qualities of the chickens allows for a greater degree of differentiation of the pedigrees on a basis than in accordance with the requirements of the instruction on the boning of pigs.
When comparing the multiplicity indices of sows fertilized with semen, experimental horses did not establish a probable difference between the two averages on the given sign (td = 1,73 за γ = 46). As a result of the comparison, there is no probable difference between the pregnant women on the basis of "fertilization of the uterus from the first insemination" (td = 1,73 за γ = 46). The result of the comparison of the indicator "the piglets received on 100 inseminants of sows for the first time" of the two experimental horses was td = 0.74 for γ = 33. Thus, it is obvious that the last way of comparing the calculated integrated indicators of estimation of the bone that characterizes its own reproductive capacity is greater than the previous indicators.
Key words: boar, sow, multiplicity, fertility, index, estimation.
|Influence of paratypic factors on fattening quality of young cattle of a feeder liverstock at growing||Annotation|
Influence of paratypic factors on fattening quality of young cattle of a feeder liverstock at growing
UDC 636.2.033: 53 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0073
Cherniavsky S. E., Zeldin V. F., Sokrut A. V. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 154–158.
The results of microclimate research in the premises where animals were kept indicate changes in the qualitative parameters of the air environment under the influence of artificial aerionization and ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, during the treatment sessions, the air temperature increased by an average of 0,24 and the relative humidity decreased by 1,55 %. Air velocity increased by 0,03 m/c. There was a decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide by 0,04 %, ammonia by 1,05 mg/m3, reduction of the amount of hydrogen sulfide by 0,34 mg/m3. The number of microorganisms decreased by 62,8 % and dust pollution decreased by 56,6 %.
Consequently, the results of research on microclimate parameters indicate that artificial aerionization and ultraviolet irradiation have contributed to the improvement of the zoo-hygienic state of the air environment and have had a positive effect on the formation of basic microclimate indices in which test animals were kept.
Characteristics of the clinical and physiological state of experimental animals during the experiment is important because it allows you to more closely analyze the main results of the experiment. Under conditions of creating a comfortable microclimate in animals, the respiration rate, heart rate and other clinical and physiological parameters are normalized.
The study of productive indicators of young animals in all experimental groups showed that the animals of all experimental groups were compared with control large gross and average daily increments. The largest additional gain was obtained from calves of the III experimental group that surpassed the controls for gross increment by 20 kg (P <0,05), in this group the concentration of aeroions was 400 thousand per 1 cm3. In the 1st and 2nd groups, the difference in this indicator, in comparison with the control group, was 13 and 15 kg, respectively. Average daily increments in animal experimental groups were higher in comparison with control ones, respectively, at 9,0; 10.4 and 14,5 %.
Animals, under the influence of artificial aerionization and ultraviolet irradiation, better and more fully utilized the nutrients of the diet, which positively affected the payment of food. In the III experimental group, bulls for each kilogram of live weight gain compared with control spent 1.2 fodder units (16,0 %) less.
Artificial aerioniation in a complex with ultraviolet irradiation positively influenced the productive qualities of bulls when cultivated up to 6 months of age. Average daily increments of experimental bulls were higher in comparison with control at 9,0–14,5 %. The most effective mode of complex treatment for bulls during cultivation from 6 to 12 months was determined: the concentration of negative aeroions was 400 thousand per cmі, the dose of ultraviolet irradiation was 150 mg/h /m2.
Key words: cattle, artificial aeroionization, ultraviolet irradiation.
|Influence of breed and technological factors on the fertility of repair heifers sorted by sex semen of Holstein bulls||Annotation|
Influence of breed and technological factors on the fertility of repair heifers sorted by sex semen of Holstein bulls
UDC 636.2.034.82 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0075
Sidashova S. O. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 163–171.
LLC "Vidrodczennya M", 62-4Sadovaya Str., Petrodolinskoe village, Ovidiopol district, Odessa region, 67810, Ukraine
The results of the analysis of milk production indicators, studied by Ukrainian scientists, showed that at the present stage the intensive process of reorientation of the dairy industry from small-scale to large-scale industrial production is underway. The basic technological indicators of the efficiency of such enterprises are the rhythm of production at a high concentration of livestock. Among the factors that hinder the development of large-scale milk production in Ukraine are the insufficient number of livestock of cows and repair heifers.
Specific features of the sexual function of cattle are the biological basis for the organization of industrial milk production. The main role in ensuring uniform reproduction of the dairy herd belongs to the female ovaries, as key organs of the reproductive system. The introduction of hormone regulation programs for the sexual function of cows and heifers has ensured the rhythm of year-round calving. At the same time, synchronization of the sexual activity of cattle females requires more attention when organizing the systematic breeding of the herd, which can only be done on the basis of a detailed study of the morphological and functional features of the activity of the ovaries.
The introduction of biotechnology of artificial insemination of heifers into the practice of dairy cattle breeding with hemp sperm, sorted by gender, which allows to get up to 96 % of female offspring, solves the problem of providing Holstein herds with their own repairs. According to foreign sources, the effectiveness of the use of sorted sperm in the repair livestock was 47–53 % of the pregnancy from primary insemination (assessment was conducted in 211 commercial herds). According to foreign researchers, such indicators en-sure the achievement of a break-even point while simultaneously significantly increasing the supply of new-born babes to grow their own repair of Holstein breed.The aim of our study was to compare the performance of artificial insemination of breeding repair heifers with sorted sperm under conditions of two different industrial complexes.Under the conditions of farm number 1, purebred breed of Holstein breed of black and variegated breeds were grown, farm number 2 – breeding stock of Ukrainian red dairy breed. The conditions of maintenance and operation in both enterprises met modern zootechnical standards of intensive dairy production, the difference in conditions was determined by climatic and organizational features of industrial complexes (farm No 1, 1,200 milk cows –Sumy region, farm No 2, 650 milk cows – Odessa region).
Experimentally, we found that in conditions of farm No 1, repair heifers were grown under intensive conditions – they reached a live weight of 364.1 ± 7.53 kg at the age of 13.7 ± 1.51 months, and on farm No 2, respectively, 375,4 ± 14.36 kg at 15.2 ± 1.82 months. At the same time, the daily increase in the first enterprise was 798.9 ± 5.66 g, and in the second, respectively, 742.4 ± 46.67 (Р <0.05).
Comprehensive diagnostics of ovarian repair heifers using palpation and ultrasound scanning showed that in both enterprises repair heifers showed a high level of deviations in the morphometric and morphofunctional parameters of gonad development.
Thus, on farm No 1, the morphofunctional rate of ovarian development was established in 61.18 % of animals, on farm No 2, in 58.21 %, respectively. The most common ovarian pathology was the presence of hypofunction with symptoms of hypoplasia (62.09 and 75.00 %, respectively). In 31.01 and 21.43 % of
repair heifers with deviation of ovarian development, cystic degeneration of follicles was detected, which indicated a toxic effect on the tissues of the reproductive organs of a complex of toxic factors of endogenous and exogenous origin.The effectiveness of artificial insemination of heifers with sperm of Holstein bulls, divided by sex, was significantly higher in farm No. 1 – 37.50 % of the females became pregnant after the first insemination. On farm No 2, only 18.18 % of the heifers were fruitfully inseminated with sorted sperm, which is 19.32 % less than on farm No 1 (P <0.05).
Thus, it was experimentally concluded that the conditions for the organization of production at various breeding enterprises had a significant effect on the fertilization efficiency of the sowing stock. The influence of individual technological and pedigree factors acting on the results of the reproduction of livestock repair require further study.
Keywords: repair heifers, live weight gain, sperm sorted by sex, induction of the sexual cycle, synchronization, ovaries, morph functional formations, gonadopathies.
|Development of pig production technology in State enterprise «Experimental farm «Vidrodzhennia» of State Agricultural Experimental Station of NAAS of Ukraine||Annotation|
Development of pig production technology in State enterprise «Experimental farm «Vidrodzhennia» of State Agricultural Experimental Station of NAAS of Ukraine
UDC 636.4.082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0076
Voloshchuk V. M., Smyslov S. Yu., Pidtereba O. I. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 172–179.
Institute of Pig Breeding and agroindustrial production of NAAS, Svedska Mohyla, Str., 1, Poltava, 36013, Ukraine
The low efficiency of work pig farms on production of pig breeding products has given rise to the problem of finding new volumetric-planning decisions for their transfer to a current year-round farrowing system. In the round system, from each main sow it is received 1.6–1.8 farrows per year, and at the current one –2.1–2.3 farrows per year, and accordingly, for a year, they receive not 16–18 but 25–28 piglets. Basedon the production capacity of the farm, it was found that the optimal production cycle is 157 days, which includes: the idle period – 14 days; pregnancy one – 115 days; lactating one – 28 days. This will allow to get from a productive sow to two farrows per year. Stable work will be ensured by obtaining 12.0 piglets for farrowing with 12 % technological withdrawal during the lactating period, 4 % for rearing and 1 % for fattening.
It was determined the fact that the size of the technological group of sows after insemination would be 23 heads and 20 heads of the lactation sows. Each step group involves housing 208 piglets on rearing and 203 heads on fattening. For a year at the farm from 131 sows it will be received 258 farrowers and 3095 piglets. Before weaning, there will be 2,724 heads, and taking into account 3 % of realization, 2642 heads will be handed over to the population, and 2536 heads will be transfer to fattening. Proceeding from the distribution
of the number of livestock in each technological group and the duration of their stay in the section, the new volumetric-planning decisions were developed that will become the basis for the reconstruction with the subsequent introduction of current production.
In developing new volumetric-planning decisions, special attention was paid to the creation of a sanitary-warehousing unit for farm personnel, which provided two toilets, two lockers and showers for staff. This innovation on the farm can reduce the risk of infecting pathogens, increase the level of personal hygiene of workers and keep clean clothes.
To improve the level of comfort of housing pigs of different technological groups, it was proposed to divide the production premises into separate sections where appropriate conditions for housing and feeding animals were created.In particular, in order to improve the reproductive capacity of sows, it was proposed to separate the section for housing unoccupied sows, boars and sows after insemination. This made it possible to improve the selection of sows in estrus, to facilitate their insemination and to determine their pregnancy. It has been separately identified a section on housing the deep-pregnansy sows, a farrowing section and housing the lactating sows, and a fattening section. Each section is an integral part of production, but in the case of epizootics, they can be easily isolated, without interrupting the production of others, and withdrawn from the technological process for veterinary and sanitary purification.
Reducing the duration of the lactating period can reduce the reproductive cycle of the sow and obtain a 2.0–2.3 farrowing per year, which is the most expedient from an economic point of view. But it is necessary to remember that early excommunication, due to stress and the need to establish hierarchical relations, leads to increased intragroup aggressiveness and a decrease in the amount of feed consumed. Additional rearrangements during this period not only do not contribute to the restoration of nutrition of piglets, but also to the appearance of suppressed condition, which adversely affects the condition of piglets and their intensity of growth.
It is noted that in the first 3–4 days after weaning, as a result of the search reflex and interpersonal conflicts, the activity of piglets increases 2–2.5 times. In groups of 30–35 heads in the first day after the merger there are up to 200 fights. But after 2–3 days the activity of the piglets and the number of fights falls, the animals rest after the stress of weaning. When feeding in the form of starter fodder that maximally corresponds to the physiological need of this group of animals with free access to drinking, the number of conflict situations in groups decreases.
Thorough, well-calculated and thoroughly executed reconstruction with the simultaneous change of pig production technology allows not only to improve animal productivity, but also significantly improve the conditions of housing pigs of different technological groups, improve the working conditions of the personnel and make a uniform load and year-round sales of commodity livestock that will significantly improve the financial well-being of the economy.
Key words: technology, reconstruction, round and current system of farrowing, optimization, movement of livestock.
|Possible loin diseases of farm animals during grazing in the natural pastures of Volyn||Annotation|
Possible loin diseases of farm animals during grazing in the natural pastures of Volyn
UDK 636/633.2.03:581.19 (477.41/.42) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0077
Farafonov S. Zh. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 180–190.
Volyn State Agricultural Experimental Station of Institute of potatoesthe National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 2 Shkilna Str., Rokiny, Volyn Region, 45626, Ukraine
The prospects of development of Ukrainian agriculture in the direction of production of organic products are described. The role and possibilities of the development of the livestock industry, and in particular meat cattle breeding in the production of organic products in Ukraine, was determined. Reference is made to legislation regulating requirements for organic livestock production. The main advantages of pasture content as one of the components of organic keeping of animals are revealed. The types of natural pasture lands of the Western Polissya of Ukraine and their yields are described. The main types of harmful and poisonous plants for agricultural animals are presented. It is also described the most prevalent poisoning of various types of pasture plants, signs of poisoning, first aid measures and prevention. The main types of lesions of livestock products, which arise during consumption and external influence on the organism of farm animals, are described. The consequences of the consumption of ruminants by some harmful plants and the results of their influence on the quality of milk and meat, limb lesions and contamination of woolen covers are revealed. Described the toxic effect of cultivated plants when they are eaten at different stages of vegetation. The component composition of grasslands of investigated pasture is established. The results of researches of natural pastures of different farms of the Volyn region for the presence of poisonous plants and their species are presented. The description of toxic organs of plants, organs and systems of the organism of animals that are impressive is given. Recommendations on measures to control poisonous plants of pastures have been developed and substantiated. The recommendations describe in detail what measures should be taken to prevent poisonings in poultry by specific species of poisonous plants. Illustrations of poisonous and harmful plants – typical for pastures of the Polissian zone of Ukraine are presented. Illustrations of toxic and harmful plants characteristic of pastures in the Volyn region are presented. Reference is made to documents describing the measures to combat toxic plants, which are provided by the state authorities of the agro-industrial complex of the Volyn region.
Key words: pastures, pasture productivity, cultivated plants, harmful plants, poisonous plants, poisonous parts of plants, toxins, toxin formation, poisoning, therapy, prophylaxis, destruction methods.
|The influence of pesticides of different pu-rpose on the recovery of winter wheat in conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
The influence of pesticides of different pu-rpose on the recovery of winter wheat in conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.11’’324’’:632.95(251.1)(1-17)(477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0068
Yavdoschenko M. P., Pedash T. M., Sudak V. M., Gyrka T. V. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 120–126.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 VolodymyraVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
In recent years one of the promising directions of ecologization of the chemical method of plant protection is the creation and introduction into production of immunity inducers – preparations based on compounds with the ability to increase the resistance of plants against pathogens and phytophages. Such substances are plant growth regulators, which differ from pesticides with non-biocidaland bioregulatory action, safe for the environment, humans and animals,and are used in the minimum rates of consumption.
The great potential of this approach to plant protection is still insufficiently disclosed, and the feasibility and feasibility of combining the use of pesticides and growth regulators have been poorly understood.
The purpose of our research was to observe the effectiveness of the multicomponent plant growth regulator Reastim against the disease of winter wheat under the conditions of the steppe zone of Ukraine and the possibility of combining plant spraying with the growth regulatortogether with fungicide Soligor.
The research was conducted in 2014–2016 in the crop rotation of the plant protection laboratory at the Synel’nykoveSelection and Research Station of the Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the natural background of disease.
The spraying of crops against winter wheat diseases was carried out by fungicide Soligor EC425 and the growth regulator Reastim once at the beginning of the exit of the plants into the tube and ear staining phase, as well as twice in both of these phases alone, in tank mixes with the growth regulator recommended norms. Observations on the development of diseases were carried out during the entire vegetation, and the main records of powdery mildew – during the flowering period on the Geshell’s scale, septoriosis spots and brown rust – during the period of milk ripeness of the grain on the scale, respectively, Geshell and Peterson.
Analysis of weather conditions showed, that they differed, both in temperature conditions and in the amount of precipitation during the winter wheat vegetation, so it was possible to obtain reliable data on the influence of chemical agents on major diseases. Favorable weather conditions for the development of powdery mildew were in 2014 and 2015, brown rust in 2014, yellow rust in 2016, and septoriosis in 2014 and 2015. The largest harvests were achieved in 2015.
The results of the research have shown the effectiveness of the “Reastim” against winter wheat diseases at the level of 30.1–84.6%, and the Soligor – 39.0–99.5%.
The harvest of grain when sprayed by Reastim (average for three years) amounted to 5.74–5.87 t/he, which is 0.14–0.27 t/he higher than control, but 0.30–0.40 t/he below variants with Soligor. The highest harvest was obtained with the application of Soligor at the outlet of plants in the tube and two spraying – 6,19 and 6,23 t/he. Joint application of SoligorandReastim in the ear eruption phase contributed to an increase in harvests for all years of research at 0.41–0.63 t/he.
Summarizing the results of the research, it can be highlighted, that one or two-time spraying of crops by Soligor (the output of plants in the tube and earing), depending on the phytosanitary state of winter wheat crops, protects them from diseases and increased harvest by 0.63 and 0.67 t/he. The growth regulator Reastim showed insignificant fungicidal effectiveness against diseases and increased the harvestonly by 0.14–0.27 t/he. Joint usage of fungicide with the growth regulator was only feasible in theearing phase.
Key words: winter wheat, fungicide, growth regulator, powdery mildew, rust, septoriosis, root rot, harvest.
|Еconomic and bioenergy efficiency of application of different preparati-ons and growth regulators at growing soybean in the conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Еconomic and bioenergy efficiency of application of different preparati-ons and growth regulators at growing soybean in the conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDK 631.1:631.815:620.93:633.34 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0078
Artemenko S. F., Kovtun O. V. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 191–198.
Soybean is the leading legumes in the world, the area under soybean ranked fourth, second only to wheat, rice and maize. Soybeans grow over 40 countries with a total area of over 100 million hectares. Such a spread of soya is due to the unique chemical composition, which determines the universality of its use as an important food, technical, fodder and agrotechnical culture.
After the cultivation of soya in the soil remains 60–90 kg/hectare of biofixed nitrogen, it clears the field from weeds, therefore, it is a good predecessor for various crops. At that, for the formation of 100 kg of seeds, this culture needs 7,2–10,0 kg of nitrogen, 1,7–4,0 kg of phosphorus and 2,2–4,4 kg of potassium. The present amount of macro-element of phosphorus in our soils is not enough and it is necessary to ensure the needs of soybeans throughout the growing season.
In the Erastivska research station of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAASof Ukraine in 2011–2015 researcheshave been conducted to ground not only agricultural but also economic and energy aspects of growing soybeans with the effective use of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus with incrustation of seeds and foliar fertilization of soybeansin the concrete soil and climatic conditions of NorthernSteppe.
The soil research site is ordinary little humus heavy loamy chernozem. Characterizing the weather conditions during the period of the research should be noted that 2011, 2013 and 2015 were quite favorable in relation of moisturing, and 2014 were drought in different degree, uttery drough appeared 2012.
The complicated local character of the weather conditions, in a certain way, allowed to more fully study the impact of the measures developed.
According to the results of the researches, positive effect of sunflower seeds treatment and plant nutrition has been established, namely: application of 200 g/t of water-soluble phosphorus-containing preparation Antistress for incrustation of soybean seeds, in combination with the pretreatment, ensured the formation of high productivity – 2.58 t/ha. At the same time, the lowest cost was noted, and profitability was at the level of 167 %. Induced feeding with Antistress (1.5 l/ha) slightly inferior to economic indicators – the cost increased by 5%, and profitability decreased by 13 percentage points. Regarding energy indicators of soybeans it is established that maximum accumulation of gross energy is formed on variants with the use of a pretreatment granivite and a preparation Antistress for seeds treatment and its application into the phase of the third triangular leaf. The highest coefficient of energy efficiency 6.9 was obtained with the use of an anti-stress and antistress agent for seed treatment
Keywords: soy, costs of production, cost, profit, profitability, total energy expenditures, energy consumption, energy efficiency coefficient.