|№ 2 (2020)||Physico-chemical properties of muscle tissue of young pigs and their relationship with certain biochemical indicators of blood serum||Annotation|
Physico-chemical properties of muscle tissue of young pigs and their relationship with certain biochemical indicators of blood serum
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 372–377
V. I. Khalak, S.Ye. Cherniavs’kiy, P. T. Chegorka
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The article presents the results of studies of the physicochemical properties of the muscle tissue of young pigs of the large white breed, taking into account their intrabreed differentiation by some biochemical parameters of blood serum, and the correlation links between the signs are determined.
The control fattening of young pigs of large white breed was carried out in the conditions of the farm according to the "Methodology for assessing boars and sows for the yield of offspring in the minds of breeding plants and breeding reproducers". In the blood serum of 5-month-old animals, the cholesterol content (mmol/l) and the concentration of total lipoproteins (mg%) were determined. The physicochemical properties of the longest back muscle (m. Longissimus dorsi) were studied taking into account the following indicators: "water-holding capacity, %", "active acidity 24 hours after slaughter (pH), acidity units", "color intensity, units extract х 1000","tenderness, s "and" losses during heat treatment, %". Biometric processing of the obtained data was carried out according to generally accepted methods using the Data Analysis software module in Microsoft Excel.
It was found that the biochemical parameters of blood serum (cholesterol content (mmol/l) and the concentration of total lipoproteins (mg%) in young pigs of the Large White breed correspond to the physiological norm of clinically healthy animals. The number of samples of the longissimus dorsi muscle (m. Longissimus dorsi) of the category "high quality "according to the indicators" tenderness, s "and" water-holding capacity, % "is 9.09%, according to the" color intensity, units. х 1000" – 18.18%. Reliable coef-ficients of pair correlation are established between the following pairs of signs: concentration of total lipoproteins х active acidity 24 hours after slaughter (pH) (+0.618), concentration of total lipoproteins х water-holding capacity (+0.712), cholesterol content х tenderness (+0.726), cholesterol content х losses during heat treatment (+0.784).
Key words:muscle, tissue,young pigs, blood,biochemical parameters, serum.
|№ 2 (2020)||State and ways of purposeful conservation of gray Ukrainian breed and its use in the future breed formation process||Annotation|
State and ways of purposeful conservation of gray Ukrainian breed and its use in the future breed formation process
UDC 636.2.082.13 (06) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0147
Kozyr V.S., Denisyuk O. V., Dimchia G. G., Maystrenko A. N.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 378–386.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The study of the gene pool of gray Ukrainian cattle on the basis of the State Enterprise “Polivanovka” was carried out in 2018–2020. They relied on retrospective and modern analysis of the population, using genetic, immunogenetic, breeding, zootechnical, statistical and biometric methods. The animals of this herd belong to two lines: Petushok 191U (62 %) and Shamrin XU-41 (38 %) and 20 families. They have a sturdy, dense and rough type of constitution. Average somatometric indicators correspond to the standard. The breed has good slaughter performance and beef properties. Slaughter yield in bulls reaches 58–59 %, fat – 2.5–3 %, protein: fat ratio – 1: 1.5, pulp in the carcass – 72–73 %, bones – 16–17 %, meat index – 4, 4–4.5.
Animals with a high coefficient of inheritance pass on to their descendants specific breed characteristics (color, shape of horns, physique, acclimatization to various natural zones, adaptation to feeding conditions, increased resistance, small fruit size, long growth, stress resistance).
The use of modern techniques made it possible to test erythrocyte antigens, serum proteins, isozyme erythrocytes and tissues, as well as polymorphism, the length of restriction DNA fragments. Of the 49 antigens of blood groups, 48 were found. There was a high frequency of them (45–92 %) A, G3, C1, C2, R2, W, X1, X2, E, F, Y, J, H1, Z and much lower ( 2–10 %) P1, P2, B1, J2, P1, R, C1, L, H2.
Over the past 30 years, the number of alleles of the most informational system B has decreased from 41 to 14, among them breed-specific B, B2, G3, J1, Q, T1, G2, K, V, E, O. The narrowing of the allelic pool to this level indicates that the breed is on the verge of extinction.
Analysis of biochemical markers of blood serum proteins albumin and post-albumin was found in three phenotypes AA, BB, and AB, post-transformation – also in three phenotypes FF, FS, and SS. In terms of hemoglobin, all studied animals of the herd are of type A. Restriction analysis of mitochondrial DNA revealed polymorphism only for endonuclease Eco 471.
Modern selection and genetic methods are able to maintain and preserve the specific properties of the breed, its structure, and genetic variability. Their use in combination with technological methods helps to prevent the disappearance of livestock and provide it with a worthy place in the world heritage of genetic resources. Our proposals are summarized in the "Concept of purposeful conservation of gray Ukrainian cattle and their use in the further breed-forming process."
Key words: cattle, gray Ukrainian breed, condition, direction of use, offers.
|№ 2 (2020)||Reproductive ability of holstina cows in different status of the reproductive system in the postpartum period||Annotation|
Reproductive ability of holstina cows in different status of the reproductive system in the postpartum period
UDC 636.22/28.082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0148
Gonchar A. O., Pishchan I. S., Litvishchenko L. O., Pishchan S. G.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 387–395.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Sergiya Efremova str., Dnipro, 46000, Ukraine
In the article are considered the effect of postpartum course and periodicity of manifestation of dystocia and reproductive capacity of Holstein cows of different age.
The experimental part of the research was performed at the industrial complex for milk production of cows of Holstein breed of “Agro-Soyuz”. Assessment of ease of calving in cows of different age was determined in points (V. Berglund, J. Phillipson et al., 1987): 1 – easy calving; 2 – normal calving, only some help is required (slight dystocia); 3 – heavy calving, full intervention is required (dystocia). And was determined the live weight of the calves (kg).
It is found that about 83 % of cows the calving pass easily enough. At the same time, more than 10 % of the calving, operators had to spend only the final help of the calves release from the animal's birth canal. However, almost 7 % of calving animals care required sufficiently substantial assistance, which included several operators.
It is proved that the age of the cows is not crucial, which determines the dystocia. In this case, a direct relationship was established between the live weight of calves at birth and the display of dystocia during calving of cows. The live weight of the newborn at 37 kg causes a slight dystocia, and weighs about 39 kg – a dystocia. The live weight of the calves at birth at the level of 34 kg provides a normal course of calving. In 74.4 % of first-heifers there is a complication of recovery of the reproduction system after calving. The rate of cows in fourth lactation is quite high – 72.5 %. Close to this indicator are characterized by cows of the second lactation, in which symptomatic infertility is 69.6 %.
The average index of insemination is 1.9 units is typical for cows with a normal postpartum period. Symptomatic infertility leads to a lengthening of the service period by almost a month, compared to calving cows and the postpartum period proceeded normally. Heavy dystocia during calving is characteristic of 12 % of the animals, which were predominantly cows of the first calving.
Keywords: holstein breed, service period, calving, index of insemination, dystocia, symptomatic infertility.
|№ 2 (2020)||New methods of integrated assessment of sows by indicators of reproductive qualities||Annotation|
New methods of integrated assessment of sows by indicators of reproductive qualities
UDC 636.4:082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0149
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 396–403.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The article presents the results of studies of indicators of reproductive qualities of sows of large white breed of various intrabreed differentiation according to some evaluation indices, the criteria for selecting highly productive animals and the economic efficiency of their use are determined. On the basis of experimental data, аppendix 10 to the Instruction on the grading of pigs (correction factor for correcting the weight of the piglet nest at weaning at 60 days of age) has been modified and a new method has been developed for assessing sows according to the indicator "uniformity (uniformity) of a sow's nest in terms of live weight of piglets at weaning time" (IVG60).
The studies were carried out in the «Druzhba - Kaznacheevka» JLLC in the Dnepropetrovsk region and the animal husbandry laboratory of the State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS. The work was carried out in accordance with PSR NAAS No. 30 “Innovative technologies for pedigree, industrial and organic production of pig products (“Pigbreeding”). The assessment of sows in terms of reproductive qualities was carried out taking into account the following characteristics: multiple fertility, head, large fertility, kg, number of piglets at weaning time, head, nest weight at weaning time, kg (actual), nest weight at weaning time of 60 days, kg (calculated), safety, %. A comprehensive assessment of sows in terms of reproducti-ve qualities was carried out according to breeding indices of reproductive qualities of sows (SIVKS) (A. N. Tserenyuk et al., 2010), the index of N.D. Berezovsky (cited by P. A. Vashchenko, 2019), biometric processing of research results – according to the methods of G. F. Lakin (1990).
It was found that 26.4 7 % of sows of the controlled herd, according to the characteristics of reproductive qualities (abundance, head, nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 60 days (calculated), kg) belong to the elite class, 65.44 – I class, 7.35 – II class. The number of animals, according to the average score, are categorized as "out of class" is 0.73 %. The multiplicity of sows is 11.1 ± 0.15 heads. (Cv = 15.76 %), large fruit – 1.41 ± 0.009 kg (Cv = 7.88 %), the number of piglets at weaning time – 9.7 ± 0.13 head (Cv = 16.60 %), weight nests at the time of weaning, kg (actual) – 74.3 ± 0.85 kg (Cv = 13.48 %), weight of the nest at the time of weaning in 60 days, kg (calculated) – 175.9 ± 2.160 kg (Cv = 13.43 %), safety – 87.9 ± 0.49 % (Cv = 6.84 %). The index of uniformity (uniformity) of a sow's nest in terms of live weight of piglets at the time of birth is 5.21 ± 0.076 points (Cv = 17.11 %), at the time of weaning – 8.32 ± 0.156 points (Cv = 21.98 %), selection sow reproductive qualities index (SIVKS) – 88.31 ± 1.118 points (Cv = 14.77 %). Coefficients of pair correlation between the estimated indices IVG0, IVG60, SIVKS and signs of reproductive qualities range from -0.438 (index of uniformity (uniformity) of the nest of a sow in terms of live weight of piglets at the time of weaning, point (IVG60) × large fruit) to + 0.988 ± 0, 0020 (breeding index of reproductive qualities of a sow (SIVKS) × multiple pregnancy). The maximum increase in additional products received from animals of class M+ – 27.60 %, and its cost is equal to 685.33 UAH/head.
Key words: sow, reproductive qualities, integrated assessment, evenness (uniformity) of the nest, variability, correlation, economic efficiency.
|№ 2 (2020)||The influence of sows age on multiple pregnancy and nest weight during weaning||Annotation|
The influence of sows age on multiple pregnancy and nest weight during weaning
UDC 636.4.082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0150
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 404–409.
Institute of Agriculture Steppes NAAN, 2, CentralStr,Sozonovka villege,Kropyvnytskyi district, Kirovograd region, 27602, Ukraine
The results of the study of the indices of the own productivity of sows of Large White breed of different reproductive ages and the influence of this trait on the multiple pregnancy and the weight of the nest when weaning piglets are presented on the basis of using the documentation of the pedigree registration of pigs of the State Enterprise "Experimental farm" Elite "of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe NAAN" for the last three years.
Based on the results of our research, it was found that the multiple births of sows of group I (18–24 months) is 10.4 heads, the weight of the nest at weaning at the age of 60 days is 181.8 kg, the safety of piglets at weaning is 91 %. Similar indicators in animals of the II and III groups (25–36 and 36 months and older) were 11.1–10.2 heads, 193.8 and 174.2 kg, 96 and 93 %, respectively. The variability of quantitative traits, which were the subject of our research, ranges from 9.3 to 17.5 %, that is, it corresponds to low and medium risk.
When determining the influence of the age of mothers on their multiple births and the weight of the nest during weaning of piglets, it was found that the highest correlative relationship – r = 0.44 is observed between the age of the queens 18–24 months and multiple births and weak – r = 0.10 between the age of the uterus 25–36 months and multiple pregnancy. In queens older than 36 months, the correlation between age and productivity is weak and negative, which confirms that with an increase in their age, the reproductive and productive qualities of animals decrease.
Improving selection work depending on age is an important and urgent issue in increasing the efficiency of pig breeding, since the volume of pork production depends on it. The age of sows is one of the key factors that affects the reproductive qualities of animals and determines the terms of the economic use of the broodstock, which, in turn, predetermines the need to study this aspect.
Key words: pigs, age, sows, productivity, multiple pregnancy, influence, correlation, nest mass.
|№1 (2020)||Index of A. Saser - H. Fredin and its use at evaluation of youth pigs for living and meat qualities||Annotation|
Index of A. Saser - H. Fredin and its use at evaluation of youth pigs for living and meat qualities
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 179–184.
Khalak V. I.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The article presents the results of studies of fattening and meat characteristics of young pigs of large white breed of different breeding lines using the of index estimation A. Sazer - H. Fredin.
It is established that the young pigs under control of the herd (LLC "Agro-Elite» of Dnipropetrovsk region) are characterized by sufficiently high indicators of fattening and meat quality. By the age of reaching 100 kg live weight, the length of the chilled carcass and the thickness of the pelvis at 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, they exceed the minimum requirements by class «elite» an average of 5.92%.
The correlation coefficient between the indicators "average daily weight gain for the period of fat-tening from 30 to 100 kg, g", "age of reaching live weight 100 kg, days", "feed consumption per 1 kg of inc-rease in live weight, feed units", "thickness of the spine at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, mm" and "area of the "muscular eye", cm2" and evaluation indices ranges from -0.527 (P <0.001) to +0.528 (P <0.001).
On the basis of the above we propose in the conditions of breeding plants and reproducers, as well as industrial complexes, to evaluate the young pigs and animals of the main herd, both according to the requirements of the Instruction on pig testing, and based on the use of the index of A. Sazer - H. Fredin.
Keywords: young pigs, breed, fattening and meat quality, indexes evaluative, variability, correlation
|№1 (2020)||Productivity of charolais bulls in pasture-free forage conditions of the Dnieper region||Annotation|
Productivity of charolais bulls in pasture-free forage conditions of the Dnieper region
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 185–189.
Kozyr V. S.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
In the course of studies of the French beef cattle Charolais, an experiment was conducted on the cultivation of experimental bulls in pastureless feed conditions. up to 30 months of age. The morphological composition of carcasses and the chemical composition of muscle tissue in Charolais have been studied by many scientists.
Their studies were conducted in a temperate humid climate and were completed, as a rule, at 18–24 months of age of the animals. Given the long-growing, we raised gobies without pasture for up to 30 months in the hot steppe zone of Ukraine. The suction was free, the calves were weaned at 8 months of age, the slaughter at 12, 18, 24, 30 months (5 goals each). According to the methodology generally accepted in laboratory practice, lifetime indicators of meat productivity (average daily, absolute and relative gains) and slaughter qualities (carcass weight and yield, its morphological composition, muscle tissue quality) were studied. We kept primary records of feed intake.
French beef cattle Charolais is able to use the nutrients of the feed for a continuous build of muscle without obesity. The process of fat formation in them occurs in the late stages of ontogenesis. In the conditions of the Dnieper region, animals show significant growth energy, high lethal qualities. With age in experimental gobies from 12 to 30 months. the moisture content in the carcasses gradually decreased by 5%, the protein increased from 12 to 18 months by 1%, up to 24 months – by 16%, up to 30 months – by 9% and dry matter, respectively, by 6.24 and 32%. Naturally, the ratio of protein to fat decreased from 1.3: 1 in 12 months. up to 0.8: 1 in 30 months. Similar changes have occurred in the muscle tissue of carcasses, which is the main food product. 1.07 contained 4.07–4.79 MJ.
The economic characteristics of the breed confirm the advisability of raising bulls up to 30 months of age, which will contribute to the efficient use of livestock and increase the production of competitive beef. Profitability of production increased to 115%. The rational organization of the rearing of young specialized meat breeds of cattle should be coordinated with the conditions of economic feasibility.
The optimality of the terms of slaughter of animals should be regulated taking into account the intensity of their growth, the level of growth on the day of life and how much meat is received per 1000 MJ of feed.
Keywords: cattle, breed, bulls, charolais, age, beef, quality.
|№1 (2020)||Search of optimized solutions in developing the technology of the production of pig breeding products in SE||Annotation|
Search of optimized solutions in developing the technology of the production of pig breeding products in SE
Grain Griops. 2020. 4 (1). 190–196.
Voloshchuk V. M., Pidtereba M. O.
Institute of Pig Breeding and agroindustrial production of NAAS, 1, Shvedska Mohyla Str., Poltava, 36013, Ukraine
The research on optimized solutions for the calculation of the number of livestock of different technological groups and the breakdown of the premises into blocks for their housing was carried out by computer modeling of production processes using the technological data of work of the pig farm at SE “SE”Drabivske” of Cherkasy experimental station of bioresurses of NAAS.
Works on the search of optimized technological solutions with the determination of the level of production indexes was carried out in order to translate the work of the farm from the round to the current system of receiving farrows, with simultaneous reconstructing the premises where the pigs of all technological groups are to be housed. Modeling the production processes was carried out with the development of an algorithm created for a computer program that would allow to make the necessary calculations based on the introduction of variables zootechnical and production parameters. The software involved in the calculations assumes that it can be used on modern computer equipment equipped with the latest software. Thus, by carrying out the repeated consecutive calculations, a solution was found, which was taken as the basis for the development of technology for the transfer of a farm from the round to the current system of receiving farrows. Searching for optimized solutions takes into account the size of the machines, the number of their livestock according to the norms of technological design, the length of stay of animals in the technological blocks according to a given rhythm step.
The developed model of technological stepping move of livestock it is maximally takes into account the production capacity of the enterprise, the genetic characteristics of the breed of pig livestock and the economically feasible indexes of the farm work on the production of pig breeding products, and it is also took into account the features of the proposed current technology.
Key words: pig breeding, computer modeling, optimization of zootechnical indexes, development of technology of transfer, round and current system of receiving of farrows.
|№1 (2020)||Growth characteristics of young gray Ukrainian cattle breed, taking into account its origin||Annotation|
Growth characteristics of young gray Ukrainian cattle breed, taking into account its origin
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 197–201.
Dimchia G. G., Denisyuk O. V., Maystrenko A. N.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Vladimir Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The research was conducted in 2018 under the conditions of the State Enterprise "Experimental farm "Polivanivka", Dnipropetrovsk region. In the conditions of scientific and industrial experiment, the study of live weight of cows of related groups of four maker bulls of gray Ukrainian breed was studied. The evaluation of livestock on the basis of development indicators was conducted taking into account absolute and relative indicators.
Analysis of the dynamics of growth of live weight shows that under identical conditions of feeding and keeping, cows for live weight throughout the experiment do not differ significantly. Thus, with almost identical live weight at birth, at the age of 8 months, a heifer of a related group of Perventia 5027 (Group I) and a related group of Zaporozhtia 1260 DU-59 (Group IV) surpassed their peers from related groups of Snigur 5285 CHРУ-2 (Group II) and Hybrid 4125 KCU-53 (Group III) was 2 kg (1,03 %, (Р<0,95) and 4 kg (2,06 %, P<0,95), respectively. Based on the data obtained, it was found that during the subsistence period, the genetic origin and milk productivity of mothers did not significantly affect the mass of calves.
By the end of the 12-month period, the differences existing only in animals of the third group. Average live weight of heifers of the III group was less than that of peers from groups I and IV for 11 kg (4,28 %, (Р<0,95). It should be noted that for live weight of heifers, Group II was almost overtaken by animals of the I and IV groups and the lag was reduced to 1 kg (0,39 %). In the subsequent developmental stages of the heifers of the I and IV groups, the growth rate of the heifers decreased, while the heifers of groups II and III, on the contrary, accelerated and at the age of 36 months they had a live weight of 470 and 474 kg, respectively, or an average of 3,74 % more.It is important to note that the heifers of the related groups of Perventia 5027 and Zaporozhets 1260 DU-59, which in the subsystem period were marked by higher increments, subsequently their development slowed down and at the end of the observation period they were already lagging behind the animals of the related groups of Snigur 5285 CHRU-2 and the Hybrid 4125 HCU-53 averaged 16,67 %.During the period of rearing from birth to weaning, the heifers of group I differed with a slightly higher relative growth rate. They surpassed 1,2 % of peers from II and III groups and 3,09 % of IV. In the future when growing from 13 to 36 months of age, the highest relative rate of growth was characterized by cows of the III group, which was primarily due to the influence of genetic factors in the formation of productivity.
In general, for the entire period of growth from birth to 36 months of age, the largest values of relative growth rate differed heifers of the III related group Hybrid 4125 CHCU-53, and the smallest value of the investigated index had their analogs with the IV related group of Zaporozhtia 1260 DU-59.
Keywords: cattle, young animals, gray Ukrainian breed, sibling group, live weight, growth.
|2 (2019)||The morphological composition of anatomic carcass parts in young piglets that belong to different breeds||Annotation|
The morphological composition of anatomic carcass parts in young piglets that belong to different breeds
R. L. Susol 1, V. I. Khalak 2, L. O. Susol 1, O. V. Tatsiy 1 Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 337–344.
2SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The results of studies morphological composition of anatomical carcass parts in young piglets that belong to different breeds and with different preslaughter mass have been presented.
It has been established that the specific weight of shoulder-scapular part is reduced with the increase of slaughter weight in carcasses of piglets Large White breed and Pietrain breed but the dorsal lumbar part is increased. The specific weight of pelvic femoral part in carcasses of both breeds remains practically unchanged.
Specific peculiarities of meat Pietrain breed include increased pH levels, poorer tenderness, moisture retention, color intensity, and more significant weight loss during heat treatment. In addition, pork of Pietrain breed has reduced dry matter content, but it has a tendency to increase the protein content and pork of Large White breed has increased fat content. Such increased fat content in pork of Large White breed was caused its difference in energy value. According to the indicators of dry matter and melting point, the preference for the fat of Large White breed was established, which confirms its higher quality compared to the fat of Pietrain breed. The tasting evaluation proved that broth and meat of Pietran breed received significantly lower marks due to aroma, taste and tenderness indices compared with the meat and broth of Large White breed.
Keywords: pigs, young piglets, large White breed, Pietrain breed, physicochemical properties, chemical composition, muscle tissue, anatomical cuts, carcass, morphological composition, tasting evaluation.