|№1 (2020)||Index of A. Saser - H. Fredin and its use at evaluation of youth pigs for living and meat qualities||Annotation|
Index of A. Saser - H. Fredin and its use at evaluation of youth pigs for living and meat qualities
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 179–184.
Khalak V. I.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The article presents the results of studies of fattening and meat characteristics of young pigs of large white breed of different breeding lines using the of index estimation A. Sazer - H. Fredin.
It is established that the young pigs under control of the herd (LLC "Agro-Elite» of Dnipropetrovsk region) are characterized by sufficiently high indicators of fattening and meat quality. By the age of reaching 100 kg live weight, the length of the chilled carcass and the thickness of the pelvis at 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, they exceed the minimum requirements by class «elite» an average of 5.92%.
The correlation coefficient between the indicators "average daily weight gain for the period of fat-tening from 30 to 100 kg, g", "age of reaching live weight 100 kg, days", "feed consumption per 1 kg of inc-rease in live weight, feed units", "thickness of the spine at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, mm" and "area of the "muscular eye", cm2" and evaluation indices ranges from -0.527 (P <0.001) to +0.528 (P <0.001).
On the basis of the above we propose in the conditions of breeding plants and reproducers, as well as industrial complexes, to evaluate the young pigs and animals of the main herd, both according to the requirements of the Instruction on pig testing, and based on the use of the index of A. Sazer - H. Fredin.
Keywords: young pigs, breed, fattening and meat quality, indexes evaluative, variability, correlation
|№1 (2020)||Productivity of charolais bulls in pasture-free forage conditions of the Dnieper region||Annotation|
Productivity of charolais bulls in pasture-free forage conditions of the Dnieper region
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 185–189.
Kozyr V. S.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
In the course of studies of the French beef cattle Charolais, an experiment was conducted on the cultivation of experimental bulls in pastureless feed conditions. up to 30 months of age. The morphological composition of carcasses and the chemical composition of muscle tissue in Charolais have been studied by many scientists.
Their studies were conducted in a temperate humid climate and were completed, as a rule, at 18–24 months of age of the animals. Given the long-growing, we raised gobies without pasture for up to 30 months in the hot steppe zone of Ukraine. The suction was free, the calves were weaned at 8 months of age, the slaughter at 12, 18, 24, 30 months (5 goals each). According to the methodology generally accepted in laboratory practice, lifetime indicators of meat productivity (average daily, absolute and relative gains) and slaughter qualities (carcass weight and yield, its morphological composition, muscle tissue quality) were studied. We kept primary records of feed intake.
French beef cattle Charolais is able to use the nutrients of the feed for a continuous build of muscle without obesity. The process of fat formation in them occurs in the late stages of ontogenesis. In the conditions of the Dnieper region, animals show significant growth energy, high lethal qualities. With age in experimental gobies from 12 to 30 months. the moisture content in the carcasses gradually decreased by 5%, the protein increased from 12 to 18 months by 1%, up to 24 months – by 16%, up to 30 months – by 9% and dry matter, respectively, by 6.24 and 32%. Naturally, the ratio of protein to fat decreased from 1.3: 1 in 12 months. up to 0.8: 1 in 30 months. Similar changes have occurred in the muscle tissue of carcasses, which is the main food product. 1.07 contained 4.07–4.79 MJ.
The economic characteristics of the breed confirm the advisability of raising bulls up to 30 months of age, which will contribute to the efficient use of livestock and increase the production of competitive beef. Profitability of production increased to 115%. The rational organization of the rearing of young specialized meat breeds of cattle should be coordinated with the conditions of economic feasibility.
The optimality of the terms of slaughter of animals should be regulated taking into account the intensity of their growth, the level of growth on the day of life and how much meat is received per 1000 MJ of feed.
Keywords: cattle, breed, bulls, charolais, age, beef, quality.
|№1 (2020)||Search of optimized solutions in developing the technology of the production of pig breeding products in SE||Annotation|
Search of optimized solutions in developing the technology of the production of pig breeding products in SE
Grain Griops. 2020. 4 (1). 190–196.
Voloshchuk V. M., Pidtereba M. O.
Institute of Pig Breeding and agroindustrial production of NAAS, 1, Shvedska Mohyla Str., Poltava, 36013, Ukraine
The research on optimized solutions for the calculation of the number of livestock of different technological groups and the breakdown of the premises into blocks for their housing was carried out by computer modeling of production processes using the technological data of work of the pig farm at SE “SE”Drabivske” of Cherkasy experimental station of bioresurses of NAAS.
Works on the search of optimized technological solutions with the determination of the level of production indexes was carried out in order to translate the work of the farm from the round to the current system of receiving farrows, with simultaneous reconstructing the premises where the pigs of all technological groups are to be housed. Modeling the production processes was carried out with the development of an algorithm created for a computer program that would allow to make the necessary calculations based on the introduction of variables zootechnical and production parameters. The software involved in the calculations assumes that it can be used on modern computer equipment equipped with the latest software. Thus, by carrying out the repeated consecutive calculations, a solution was found, which was taken as the basis for the development of technology for the transfer of a farm from the round to the current system of receiving farrows. Searching for optimized solutions takes into account the size of the machines, the number of their livestock according to the norms of technological design, the length of stay of animals in the technological blocks according to a given rhythm step.
The developed model of technological stepping move of livestock it is maximally takes into account the production capacity of the enterprise, the genetic characteristics of the breed of pig livestock and the economically feasible indexes of the farm work on the production of pig breeding products, and it is also took into account the features of the proposed current technology.
Key words: pig breeding, computer modeling, optimization of zootechnical indexes, development of technology of transfer, round and current system of receiving of farrows.
|№1 (2020)||Growth characteristics of young gray Ukrainian cattle breed, taking into account its origin||Annotation|
Growth characteristics of young gray Ukrainian cattle breed, taking into account its origin
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 197–201.
Dimchia G. G., Denisyuk O. V., Maystrenko A. N.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Vladimir Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The research was conducted in 2018 under the conditions of the State Enterprise "Experimental farm "Polivanivka", Dnipropetrovsk region. In the conditions of scientific and industrial experiment, the study of live weight of cows of related groups of four maker bulls of gray Ukrainian breed was studied. The evaluation of livestock on the basis of development indicators was conducted taking into account absolute and relative indicators.
Analysis of the dynamics of growth of live weight shows that under identical conditions of feeding and keeping, cows for live weight throughout the experiment do not differ significantly. Thus, with almost identical live weight at birth, at the age of 8 months, a heifer of a related group of Perventia 5027 (Group I) and a related group of Zaporozhtia 1260 DU-59 (Group IV) surpassed their peers from related groups of Snigur 5285 CHРУ-2 (Group II) and Hybrid 4125 KCU-53 (Group III) was 2 kg (1,03 %, (Р<0,95) and 4 kg (2,06 %, P<0,95), respectively. Based on the data obtained, it was found that during the subsistence period, the genetic origin and milk productivity of mothers did not significantly affect the mass of calves.
By the end of the 12-month period, the differences existing only in animals of the third group. Average live weight of heifers of the III group was less than that of peers from groups I and IV for 11 kg (4,28 %, (Р<0,95). It should be noted that for live weight of heifers, Group II was almost overtaken by animals of the I and IV groups and the lag was reduced to 1 kg (0,39 %). In the subsequent developmental stages of the heifers of the I and IV groups, the growth rate of the heifers decreased, while the heifers of groups II and III, on the contrary, accelerated and at the age of 36 months they had a live weight of 470 and 474 kg, respectively, or an average of 3,74 % more.It is important to note that the heifers of the related groups of Perventia 5027 and Zaporozhets 1260 DU-59, which in the subsystem period were marked by higher increments, subsequently their development slowed down and at the end of the observation period they were already lagging behind the animals of the related groups of Snigur 5285 CHRU-2 and the Hybrid 4125 HCU-53 averaged 16,67 %.During the period of rearing from birth to weaning, the heifers of group I differed with a slightly higher relative growth rate. They surpassed 1,2 % of peers from II and III groups and 3,09 % of IV. In the future when growing from 13 to 36 months of age, the highest relative rate of growth was characterized by cows of the III group, which was primarily due to the influence of genetic factors in the formation of productivity.
In general, for the entire period of growth from birth to 36 months of age, the largest values of relative growth rate differed heifers of the III related group Hybrid 4125 CHCU-53, and the smallest value of the investigated index had their analogs with the IV related group of Zaporozhtia 1260 DU-59.
Keywords: cattle, young animals, gray Ukrainian breed, sibling group, live weight, growth.
|2 (2019)||The morphological composition of anatomic carcass parts in young piglets that belong to different breeds||Annotation|
The morphological composition of anatomic carcass parts in young piglets that belong to different breeds
R. L. Susol 1, V. I. Khalak 2, L. O. Susol 1, O. V. Tatsiy 1 Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 337–344.
2SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The results of studies morphological composition of anatomical carcass parts in young piglets that belong to different breeds and with different preslaughter mass have been presented.
It has been established that the specific weight of shoulder-scapular part is reduced with the increase of slaughter weight in carcasses of piglets Large White breed and Pietrain breed but the dorsal lumbar part is increased. The specific weight of pelvic femoral part in carcasses of both breeds remains practically unchanged.
Specific peculiarities of meat Pietrain breed include increased pH levels, poorer tenderness, moisture retention, color intensity, and more significant weight loss during heat treatment. In addition, pork of Pietrain breed has reduced dry matter content, but it has a tendency to increase the protein content and pork of Large White breed has increased fat content. Such increased fat content in pork of Large White breed was caused its difference in energy value. According to the indicators of dry matter and melting point, the preference for the fat of Large White breed was established, which confirms its higher quality compared to the fat of Pietrain breed. The tasting evaluation proved that broth and meat of Pietran breed received significantly lower marks due to aroma, taste and tenderness indices compared with the meat and broth of Large White breed.
Keywords: pigs, young piglets, large White breed, Pietrain breed, physicochemical properties, chemical composition, muscle tissue, anatomical cuts, carcass, morphological composition, tasting evaluation.
|2 (2019)||Fodder conversion in the growth of goblets mature and long meat breeds||Annotation|
Fodder conversion in the growth of goblets mature and long meat breeds
Kozyr V. S.1, Shevchenko T. V.2 Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 345–349.
1SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str.,
Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 9, Mikhail Emelyanovich-Pavlenka Str., Kiev, 01010, Ukraine
A comparative study of the conversion of energy and dietary protein into products in gobies of Hereford and Charolese breeds was carried out. Animals of the studied breeds showed a high conversion of feed to live weight gain and slaughter rates.
It was found that feed conversion depends not only on the breed, but also on the age of the animals. In the conditions of the steppe zone of Ukraine, with balanced feeding from an industrial and economic point of view, it is possible to grow bulls of both early Hereford and long-growing Charolese breeds for meat.
Hereford bulls after 18 months and especially after 24 months ages exhibit increased fat deposition in carcass and pulp. Long-growing charolais up to 30 months of age intensively build muscle tissue and their meat was lean throughout the entire experimental period.This is reflected in the economic indicators of livestock rearing. It has been proven that it is cost-effective to fatten young stock up to 30 months and get competitive beef in the Dnieper.Animals of early meat breeds of cattle, as a rule, are not large at a comparatively young age (12–13 months), physiologically mature and have puberty, intensively grow at a young age (up to 18 months, ave-rage daily gain of up to 1 kg), But this period is short, and subsequently their growth energy decreases, car-casses settle, the weight of watering and internal fat increases rapidly, in their body the fat is twice as much as protein (ratio 2: 1). Meat ripening also occurs by the age of 12 months (moisture to fat ratio is about 30).The livestock of long-growing meat breeds of cattle is characterized by the ability to increase live weight for a long period (up to 2.5 years) (growths exceed 1 kg per day), they have puberty and physiological maturity relatively later (16–18 months), their carcasses are heavy, meat is not fatty (ratio fat: protein 1: 1). They significantly differ from low-productive indigenous tuberous breeds, which grow slowly for a long time, average daily growths are low (400–500 g), carcasses are not fat (protein: fat ratio 1.5: 2), lean meat.
In the conditions of the steppe zone of Ukraine, with balanced feeding from an industrial and economic point of view, it is possible to grow bulls of both early Hereford and long-growing Charolese breeds for meat.
Keywords: animals, breed, bulls, age, growths, carcass, flesh, cost, profitability, beef.
|2 (2019)||Directed formation of dairy cows of the South of Ukraine with help of polymorphism of structural genes||Annotation|
Directed formation of dairy cows of the South of Ukraine with help of polymorphism of structural genes
Gill M. I. 1, Karateyeyva E. I. 1, Galushka I. A. 1, Smetana A. Yu. 1, Volkov V. A. 2, Tribrate R. A. 1, Gorbatenko I. Y. 1.
Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 350–360.
1 Mykolayiv National Agrarian University of MSE of Ukraine, Heorhyya Honhadze Str, 9, Mykolayiv, 54010,
2 PJS «Breeding plant «Steppe», Zapovitne, Kamensk-Dneprovsky district, Zaporozhye region, 71333, Ukraine
A comparative analysis of the DNA polymorphism of structural genes has been carried out and their effect
on the signs of milk productivity has been evaluated depending on the intensity of the formation of the organism
and linear distribution of cows. The study was carried out in the conditions of cattle herds of Ukrainian black-motley
and red dairy, red steppe breeds. Within each of them, two groups of animals were formed – with a moderate and
fast type of intensity of formation of the organism. A comparative analysis of the genetic structure of these rocks
and lines with polymorphism of the CSN3, BLG, GH and LEP genes using the PCR-RFLP method, as well as an
analysis of their milk productivity, was performed. The results obtained did not establish an unambiguous
dependence of the productive indices of cows on their pedigree in the examined loci. But it should be noted
on the CSN3 gene that the AB genotypes of most research groups, which had higher milk yields during
ontogenesis, and CC and TT homozygotes for LEP. Representatives of the rapid intensity of body formation,
regardless of homo- or heterozygosity, are marked by high productive indicators, excluding the leptin locus,
where representatives of the slow growth rate predominantly prevailed. The data obtained indicate that
alleles of the CNS3 locus were included in the intergroup differentiation of the considered livestock lines,
but without radically different characteristics.The livestock of the Hannover RED and Starbuck lines behind
the BLG locus had a close percentage of heterozygotes (50,0and 52,4%, respectively), however, in the
Valiant and Starbuck experimental groups, the BLG B allele frequency revealed close values of 0,577
and 0,500.Studies have established that, indeed, the Ukrainian black-motley dairy breed, as a daughter
to the Holstein breed, has the highest occurrence of the GH V allele, especially among the Elevation,
Annas Adema, Hannover RED and Starbuck lines.
Key words: body formation rate, polymorphism, locus, kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin,
|2 (2019)||Relationship of biochemical parameters of blood serum with fattening and meat qualities and physicochemical properties of the longest back muscles of young pigs of large white breed||Annotation|
Relationship of biochemical parameters of blood serum with fattening and meat qualities and physicochemical properties of the longest back muscles of young pigs of large white breed
Khalak V. I. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 361–368 .
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
Studies have shown that young pigs of large white breed of controlled herd are characterized by sufficiently high rates of fattening and meat quality. Thus, the average daily weight gain for the period of control fattening is 805.3 g, the age of reaching the live weight of 100 kg – 175.8 days, the thickness of the pelvis at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, mm – 22.3 mm, the length of the cooled carcass – 96.3 cm. The complex index of fattening and meat qualities (B. Taylor's index) equals 202.55 points, the index "T-factor" - 0.232 points.
According to the age of reaching the live weight of 100 kg, the young pigs of the experimental group exceed the minimum requirements for the elite class by 14.2 days or 7.47%, the thickness of the sleeve at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae – by 8.7 mm or 28.06%, in length chilled mascara – by 3.3 cm or 3.42%. It was established that the biochemical parameters of the serum of young pigs of large white breed correspond to the physiological norm of clinically healthy animals, namely: total protein content is 71.28 g/l, urea content – 4.50 mmol/l, alkaline phosphatase activity – 291.99 units/l.
An important group of traits are the traits that characterize the qualitative composition of pig muscle tissue, namely its physicochemical properties. Studies have shown that the moisture-holding capacity of the longest back muscle in young white pigs is 60.10%, and the intensity of color is 73.60 units. х 1000, active acidity (pH) – 5.62 units, tenderness – 9.43 sec.
The number of high-quality specimens according to the Meat Quality Scale of the long-lasting back muscle is 8%, the color intensity is 20%, and the tenderness is 8%, according to the physico-chemical quality index.
The coefficient of variation of fattening and meat quality, biochemical parameters of blood serum and physico-chemical properties of muscular tissue of young pigs of large white breed ranges from 1.62 to 21.43%. It is established that the strength of correlation between the signs, according to the Cheddock scale varies from weak to very high, the number of direct relationships is 40.0, the inverse – 60.0%. Significant values of this biometric indicator were established between the following pairs of traits: age of liveweight 100 kg х complex fattening and meat index (B. Taylor) (-0.477±0.1832), average daily live weight gain during the control fattening period х complex fat and meat index (B. Taylor index) (0.502±0.1803), fat thickness at 6–7 thoracic vertebrae х complex fat and meat index (B. Taylor index) (-0.755±0,1367), the thickness of the spike at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae х index «T-factor »(0,989 ± 0,0308), color intensity х muscle activity of alkaline phosphatase (-0,483 ± 0,1826).
Keywords: young pigs, breed, feeding and meat qualities, serum biochemical parameters, selection index, variability, correlation.
|2 (2019)||Modern approaches in determining the technological parameters and developing new volume-planning decisions for the reconstruction of pig premises||Annotation|
Modern approaches in determining the technological parameters and developing new volume-planning decisions for the reconstruction of pig premises
Voloshchuk V. M., Smyslov S. Yu., Pidtereba M.O., Pidtereba O.I. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 369–376.
Institute of Pig Breeding and agroindustrial production of NAAS, 1Shvedska Mohyla Str., Poltava, 36013, Ukraine
The low efficiency of work of farms which produce pig breeding products has given rise to the challenge of finding new volumetric-planning decisions that would allow more efficient use of existing production areas and increase the reproductive capacity of sows and increase of pig breeding products without increasing the maternal live-stock.
By means of computer modeling of production activity it was found out the optimized technological and production indexes, which were the basis for the development of technology for the transfer of pig farms from the round to the current system of receving farrows, while simultaneously conducting the reconstruction and division of the production area under sections with animals of different technological groups.
It has been determined the fact that preliminary computer modeling of production processes allows to quickly find optimized values of zootechnical and production indexes and to correctly distribute the production area under the livestock of different technological groups taking into account the sows multiplicity, the level of technological waste, the percentage of the realized of weaned livestock for population, the intensity growth and therefore the length of stay of the animals in blocks of rearing and fattening.
The use of software greatly simplifies the process of determining the number of machines and the area for their placement, depending on the number of livestock in each section, the duration of the rhythm and the number of animals in the step group, to find the optimal balance between the desired and actual technological, zootechnical and production indexes.
Key words: technology, reconstruction, round and current farrowing system, optimization, livestock movement.
|1 (2019)||Growth, fattening and guality parameters among young pigs with different snp genotypes of melanocortin - 4 receptor gene (Mc4r)||Annotation|
Growth, fattening and guality parameters among young pigs with different snp genotypes of melanocortin - 4 receptor gene (Mc4r)
V. I. Khalak Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). C. 127-132
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The results of researches of absolute and integrated growth parameters, fattening and meat qualities of young pigs of different genotypes according to the receptor gene of melanocortin 4 (Mc4r) are presented, and the level of correlation relations between the features is calculated.
Studies have shown that according to the live weight indices at the 2–4-month of age, the age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg and the thickness of the fat at the 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, the young pigs of the large white breed of the control herd (Druzhba-Kaznacheyivka LTD of the Dnipropetrovsk region) meets the requirements of class I and elite class. It was found that young pigs of the genotype AA for the receptor gene of melanocortin 4 (Mc4r) prevails on the peers of the genotype AG on the basis of growth on average by 5.62 %, and on fattening qualities – by 3,09 %. The thickness of the fat at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae is the difference in favor of young pigs of large white breeds of genotype AG of 6.75 %.
The correlation coefficient between absolute and integrated growth rates, fattening and meat qualities in young pigs of different genotypes according to the receptor gene of melanocortin 4 (Mc4r) varied from – 0.863 ± 0,0958 (thickness of fat at 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, mm х SI5 – selection index of fattening and meat qualities of young pigs, points) to + 0,675 ± 0,1374 (live weight at 2 months of age, kg х index «intensity of formation» (Δt), points).
Key words: young piglets, genotype, ontogenesis, integrated growth indices, fattening qualities, correlation.