|№ 2 (2017)||Anthocyanins contents is maize grain of different colour||Annotation|
Anthocyanins contents is maize grain of different colour
Pselova A. O.*, Derkach K.V., Bielikov Ie. I., Satarova T.M. Grain Crops, 2017, 1 (2), 242–247.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof naas, 14 Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, ukrainе, 49027,
Key words: Zea mays L., anthocyanins, inbred line, population, contents, colour.
In Ukraine, the work towards the development of maize genotypes with controlled contents of anthocyanins in grain is only beginning to develop. The purpose of our study was to determine the contents of anthocyanins and their glucosides in grain of maize genotypes, which differed in colour of grain. The research material was represented by following maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes: yellow grain inbred line IKC3202, purple grain population K1, and the population C1 with dark blue grain. The contents of antho-cyanins were determined by the modified method of differential spectrophotometry. The total contents of anthocyanins in grain, the contents of 5 fractions of nonglucosylated anthocyanins (cyanidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin, malvidin and peonidin) and of 5 fractions of their glucosylated forms (cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside) were determined.
The total contents of anthocyanins in the investigated genotypes varied within 1385,3–6014,4 mg/kg of grain, that was 0,13853–0.60144% of grain weight. The total contents of anthocyanins in the yellow grain of the IKC3202 inbred line was 1385,3 mg/kg. With the intensification of colour up to purple in the grain of the population K1, this value increased to 2691,0 mg/kg, that was 1,9 times higher. In the dark blue grain of C1-population it was 6014,4 mg / kg, which was 4,3 times higher than in IKC3202 and 2,2 times higher than in K1.
Nonglucosylated forms of anthocyanins accounted for about one third of their total amount in the grain of investigated samples. The total contents of nonglucosylated anthocyanins, as well as the contents of their individual forms, with the exception of malvidin in IKC3202 and K1, significantly differed between three genotypes, growing simultanously with the intensification in the specific grain colour. The highest contents of nonglucosylated forms of anthocyanins was for dark blue grain of the population C1 (1973,7 mg/kg).
Glucosylated anthocyanins in the studied genotypes comprised about two thirds of their total grain contents. In particular, the contents of glucosylated forms of anthocyanins in grain exceeded the contents of nonglucosylated ones in IKC3202 by 2,7 times, in K1 by 2,9 times, and in C1 by 3,1 times. The total contents of glucosylated anthocyanins, as well as the contents of their individual forms, with the exception of cyanidin-3-glucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside in IKC3202 and K1, also significantly differed between three genotypes and increased from yellow grain to purple and dark blue ones.
The proportion of nonglucosylated forms of anthocyanins in the investigated genotypes was within 32,8–37,1 % of their total amount. It decreased with the intensification of grain colour from yellow in IKC3202 (37,1%) to purple in K1 (34,5%) and dark blue in C1 (32,8%). Accordingly, glucosylated forms comprised 62,9–67,2% of the total contents of anthocyanins, depending on genotype. Their part somewhat increased with the transition from yellow grain (62,9%) to purple (65,5%) and dark blue (67,2%).
Thus, the analysis of the contents of anthocyanins in grain of maize samples of different colours showed that the change from yellow to purple and blue grain occured primarily due to an increase of total contents of anthocyanins. Colour enhancement is also accompanied with the intensification of the covalent modification of certain species of anthocyanins via glucosylation, resulting in the increase of total proportion of glucosylated forms in purple grain and, in particular, in dark blue grain compared to yellow one. The intensification of colour and growth of the total contents of anthocyanins were accompanied with the redistribution of their individual fractions. First, in the grain of the dark blue colour, in contrast to the yellow one, the contents of malvidin-3-glucoside increased sharply, more than twice. Certain changes touched upon the ratio of other fractions: the proportion of non-glucosylated delphinidin and malvidin, decreased as well as cyanidin and peonidin in both non-glucosylated and glucosylated forms. The fraction of delphinidin-3-glucoside increased, while the proportions of pelargonidin and its 3-glucoside remained unchanged.
|№1 (2017)||Variability of β-carotene con-tent in maize grain during its storage||Annotation|
Variability of β-carotene con-tent in maize grain during its storage
Satarova T. M., Borisova V. V., Goncharov Yu. O., jumei Zhang, Hui Jin. Grain Grops. 2017. Vol. 1. № 1. 40-44.
Key words: maize, β-carotene, inbred, hybrid, grain storage.
The purpose of the research was to determine the content of β-carotene in the grain of maize lines and hybrids, depending on storage duration. The grain of two maize self-pollinated lines of different harvest years was the material for the study: DK239 harvested in 2011 and 2015 and DK633/325MV harvested in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Also, the grain of two maize crosses, DN Sofia and Pochaevskj 190 MV, both harvested in 2014 and 2015, was examined. The analysis of β-carotene content was carried out for all samples in November 2016. That is, the grain of the DK239 at the time of analysis was kept for 1 and 5 years, the grain of DK 633/325MV − 0.08, 1 and 2 years, the grain of crosses DN Sofia and Pochaevskj 190 MV − 1 and 2 years. Grain preservation was carried out at + 5 °C in the dark.
The content of β-carotene was determined by ultra-efficient liquid chromatography (UPLC) on a Xevo TQ-S device (StepWave TM, USA).
The content of β-carotene in the grain of the analyzed inbreds varied from 0,54 to 1,61 μg/g. The range of variation in the years of research for DK239 was 0,54–1,61 μg/g, but for DK633/325MV it was only 0,54–0,61 μg/g. For DK239 a significant difference in β-carotene content between the grain harvested in 2011 (preserved until the analysis for five years), and the grain harvested in 2015 (preserved one year before the analysis) has been shown. For DK239 the grain which was yielded in 2015 contained three times more β-carotene than the grain which had been yielded in 2011. For DK633/325MV the content of β-carotene in grain of 2014, which lasted two years before the analysis, was significantly different from the same of yields of 2015 and 2016. In particular, it was higher in 2015 and 2016 compared to 2014, but only in 1.13 and 1,10 times respectively. A comparative analysis of the content of β-carotene in grain of 2015 showed its 2,6-fold higher level in DK239 relatively to DK633/325MV.
It can be assumed that 2015 was the year of the best conditions for plant cultivation of DK633/325MV for β-carotene accumulation among three research years (2014, 2015 and 2016). Its content in the grain harvested in 2015 was significantly higher than in the grain of 2014, and did not differ from 2016, although the grain of 2015 was stored until November 2016 for a year longer than the grain of 2016.
The content of β-carotene in the grain of the crosses varied from 0,42 to 1,63 μg/g. According to the results of two-year observations, the β-carotene content in DN Sofia grain significantly exceeded this index in Pochaevskj 190 MV. The true difference in grain β-carotene content between years of harvesting for DN Sofia has not been established. Pochaevskj 190 MV for different storage terms has shown significant differences, with β-carotene content in grain of harvest 2014 (two years of storage) 1,43 times higher than in grain of harvest 2015 (one year of storage). Both crosses, DN Sofia and Pochaevskj 190 MV, were grown simultaneously in 2014 and 2015. The content of β-carotene in the grain of DN Sofia was higher than in Pochaevskj 190 MV almost twice as much for harvest 2014 and nearly three times for harvest 2015. This fact indicates a different rate of β-carotene loss in grain depending on genotype.
The research shows not only the effect of a genotype of lines or hybrids, but also the effect of the year of cultivation and the storage duration on the content of β-carotene in grain. Consequently, for the comparative analysis of the β-carotene accumulation in grain of different lines and hybrids, it is necessary to use the grain of the same year of plant cultivation, preferably immediately after harvesting. Separately, selection of maize hybrids should be provided to increase the ability not to lose β-carotene for at least a year, which would increase the feed value of maize grain. Since, as shown in this paper, the content of β-carotene in maize grain is dependent on the conditions of plant cultivation and storage duration, the direct determination of β-carotene in grains of various breeding samples can only indirectly testify the potential of a genotype to accumulate β-carotene. It makes more expedient to take into account the favourable alleles of key carotenegenesis genes for breeding improvement of maize grain β-carotene content. – Р. 40–44.
|№8 (2015)||The investigations on physiology and biotechnology in the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe Zone of NAAS Ukraine||Annotation|
The investigations on physiology and biotechnology in the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe Zone of NAAS Ukraine
T. M. Satarova, H. L. Filipov, O. E. Abraimova
The formation, development and further perspectives of fundamental and applied researches in the laboratory of biotechnology, physiology and breeding methods of SE IASZ NAAS are delighted in the article. The laboratory team provides the theoretical investigations on plant physiology, cell and genetic engineering, DNA-technologies and simultaneously fulfills the biotechnological insuring of maize breeding process. During past years the ecological and physiological model of a drought resistant maize hybrid was ela-borated, the methods of selection of maize breeding material on the tolerance to stress conditions (drought, chill, heat, high density, layering) were developed. The great attention in the laboratory is paid to the development of the methods of breeding material complex estimation for adaptive resistance. For the representatives of different maize germplasms the technologies of callus tissue production, plant regeneration in vitro, suspension cultures, the production of haploids and double haploids in anther culture, for getting additional generations in embryo culture were developed by the laboratory staff. For years of the laboratory activity the basic foundations of maize cell selection on the resistance to abiotic factors were elaborated; altogether with the laboratory of early maize hybrids breeding the technology of rapid production of maize homozygous lines by matroclinic haploidy and genetic marking was developed. The investigations on maize genetic transformation for callus tissue of native lines and hybrids and the investigations for molecular estimation of initial and elite breeding maize and sorghum material are carried out. 2015. № 8. Р. 22–27.