|№1 (2021)||Resistance of modern maize hybrids to smut diseases in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Resistance of modern maize hybrids to smut diseases in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.15:632.4 (251.1-17:477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0170
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 138-144.
Pedash T. M., Sudak V. M., Gyrka T. V., Yavdoshchenko M. P.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research results of the resistance determination of the maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) of different maturity groups to the affection by boil (Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Unger) and kernel (Sphacelotheca reiliana (Ruhn) Clint) smuts in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine were provided. During 2016–2018, the experiments were conducted in the fields of the State Enterprise “Experimental Farm “Dnipro” of the State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS. The assessment scale of maize hybrids resistance to smut was given. Over the years of research, 52 samples were analyzed.
It was found that the common boil smut was widely distributed in 2016, when the hybrids disease average was 2.7 %; only on plants of DN Burshtyn medium-ripe hybrid the infection was not detected. 2017 was unfavorable for the spread of the disease: only 23 % of maize hybrids of medium-ripe and medium-late ripening groups had smut tumor, the average disease degree was 0.4 %. In 2018, half of the studied samples showed no boil smut symptoms, the average degree of disease was 0.9 %, and DN Galateia middle-early hybrid had a maximum degree of disease – 6.7 %.
The analysis of the received data testifies that for years of researches there were most resistant to affection by boil smut such hybrids as: DB Lada, DN Rubin, Dniprovskyi 181 SV, DN Adzhamka, DN Burshtyn, DN Veles, DN Astra, DN Sarmat, DN Bulat, DN Palanok and DN Dnipro, and they belonged to different maturity groups. According to the hybrids resistance scale to boil smut, all studied samples were highly resistant and resistant. The tumor was the most often found on the ears, less often on the stems and other parts of the plant.
Regarding kernel smut, the survey results indicated a tendency to increase of the disease spread level in the Northern Steppe. In 2016 a 40 % of hybrid samples was affected by kernel smut with an average affection of 0.9 %; in 2017 these indicators were 71.0 and 3.7 %, and in 2018 – 86.0 and 5.9 %, respectively. Over the years of research, it was determined that the DN Astra middle-early hybrid is the most resistant to kernel smut compared to plants of DN Palanok, DN Vesta, DN Demetra, DN Bulat and Pochaivskyi 190 MV hybrids, which were affected annually. According to the hybrids resistance scale to kernel smut, it was found that in 2016 all samples were in the highly resistant group, and the disease degree did not exceed 10 %. In 2017, more than 10 % of plants of DN Adzhamka, DN Vesta, DN Hetera and DN Nazar hybrids were affected, so they were classified as resistant forms, other samples – as highly resistant. In 2018, only the DN Palanok hybrid was estimated as medium-resistant, 6 hybrids (DB Lada, Pochaiivskyi 190 MV, Nur, Korund, DN Galateia, DN Dnipro) belonged to the resistant group, the rest – to the highly resistant group. Regarding the affected hybrid plants, kernel smut was mainly detected on the ears and partly on the panicles (sometimes simultaneously).
It was found that 2016 was favorable for the maize hybrids affection by boil smut, and 2018 – by kernel smut. It was found that the degree of plants affection by smut diseases did not depend on the maturity group of the hybrids. All tested samples are highly resistant and resistant to both types of smut.
Key words: hybrids, maize, affection, kernel smut, boil smut.
|№1 (2021)||Species composition of harmful organisms in rape winter depending on tillage and protection system||Annotation|
Species composition of harmful organisms in rape winter depending on tillage and protection system
UDC 633.1; 632.9 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0171
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 145–152.
Snizhok O. V., Yuvchyk N. O.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissia NAAS, Rivnenska st. Shubkiv village, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325, Ukraine
Based on the results of research conducted in Western Polissia, it was found that tillage is important for controlling the number of pests in winter rape crops, especially the number of weeds. It was found in the experiment variants without herbicide spraying of rape plants that the most weeds were on the background of surface tillage – 407.9 pcs/m2, which is 1.8 times more than under the moldboard plowing (228.1 pcs./m2). Thus, the technical efficiency of herbicides against the background of moldboard plowing was 93.7 %.
It is established that tillage has a lesser effect on the development and spread of diseases and pests, as the best results showed chemical protection. When spraying winter rape plants in the flower bud stage, the technical effectiveness of Borei insecticide (0.14 l/ha) against Pentatomids (Eurydema oleracea L., Eurydema ventralis Kol.), Mirids (Lygus pratensis L.) and Flea Beetles (Phyllotreta vitata F., Phyllotreta nemorum L.) consisted 100 %, Pollen Beetles (Meligethes aeneus F.) – 95.1–95.9 %, Cabbage Seed Weevils (Ceuthorrhynchus assimilis Payk.) – 92.5–94.6 %. The technical efficiency of Mospilan insectici-de (0.15 kg/ha) at the spraying of plants in the flowering stage against Pollen Beetles was equal to 91.7– 95.7 %, Cabbage Seed Weevils – 92.4– 94.6 %.
According to the research results, it was found that the largest technical efficiency of Colossal Pro fungicide (0.5 l/ha) against Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria brassicae) was revealed 14 days after fungicide spraying of winter rape plants and was 84–88 %.
Due to tillage, it was possible to obtain an yield increase of winter rapes in the range of 0.09–0.22 t/ha. However, due to the implementation of an integrated system of crop protection on different backgrounds of tillage, seed yield increased by 0.64–0.85 t/ha. Depending on tillage and plant protection, the winter rape yield ranged from 2.20 to 3.27 t/ha.
Key words: tillage, species composition, weeds, diseases, pests, herbicides, fungicides, insec-ticides.
|№ 2 (2020)||The effectiveness of applying herbicides incorn growing technology||Annotation|
The effectiveness of applying herbicides incorn growing technology
UDC 633.15 : 632. 954 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0145
SudakV. M., Horbatenko А. І., MatiukhaV. L., Kulyk А. О.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 363–371.
State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS, 14, VolodymyrVernadsky str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine.
Studies conducted on the chernozems of the steppe zone of Ukraine have revealed a direct relationship between thephytosanitary condition of an agricultural ecosystem and the amount of productive moisture used by corn plants from the 0 to 150 cmsoil layer during the period from sowing to harvest. In absolutely cleancrops, corn plants used soil water to the 156 mm depth, while in the plotsfrom which the weeds were not removedsoil water was used to 203 mm and on theherbicide-treated soilto 168–171 mm depth. Full or partial control of weediness of crops makes it possible to save 320–470 m3/ha moisture reserves, which is equal to the average monthly precipitation that fell during the growing season (2018–2019).
Effectiveness of the tested crop chemical protection systems was to a large extend determined by the hydrothermal conditions in April-May. High air temperature, lack of agronomically useful rains and dry winds caused drying out of the upper soil layer and decreasedphytotoxicity of pre-emergence herbicides. In this case (2018), the largest percentage of the first wave weeds (89.1%) was destroyed by a tank mixture of crop protectionagents contained in Frontier Optima(0.8 l/ha + Stellar (0.8 l/ha) + Metolat(0.8 l/ha). In favorable weather, to ensure manifestation of toxicological properties of soil herbicides (2019), the following combined technological schemes for harmful species control in the first stages of corn organogenesis had an advantage: Dual Gold (1.5 l/ha) (before sowing), Stellar (1.25 l/ha) +Metolat(1.25 l/ha) (after emergence of seedlings) and Acris(3 l/ha) (before sowing), Kelvin Plus (0.35 kg/ha) + Hasten (1 l/ha) (after emergence of seedlings). The technical efficiency of the herbicide application reached 98–100%.
In 2018, the highest yield of corn grain (7.85 t/ha) in the protected plots was obtained after application (in the phase of development of 3–5 corn leaves) of the following tank mixture: Frontier Optima (0.8 l/ha) + Stellar (0.8 l/ha) + Metolat(0.8 l/ha). This combination turned out to be the most effective in terms of cost effectiveness of grain production, providing a profitability of 213%. In 2019, we managed to increase the yields by combining soil and crop protection herbicides. Given the cost and consumption rate of the herbicides used per 1 ha, a combination of synthetic agrochemicals Avatar (2.5 l/ha) (before sowing) + Prima (0.5 l/ha) (after emergence of seedlings)was the best in terms of the main product cost (1579 UAH/t) and profitability (134%).
Key words: weeds, herbicidal system, technical efficiency, productivity, profitability of production.
|№1 (2020)||Resistance of winter wheat varieties to head smut agents in the northern steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Resistance of winter wheat varieties to head smut agents in the northern steppe of Ukraine
UDC 632.938:11 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0122
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 174–178
M. P. Yavdoshchenko, M. M. Solodushko, T. M. Pedash
State Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Science, 14, Vоlodymyr Vernadsky str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The results of studies on the stability of winter wheat varieties of domestic and foreign breeding aga-inst pathogens of hard soot on an artificial infectious background are presented.
|1 (2019)||The influence of pesticides of different pu-rpose on the recovery of winter wheat in conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
The influence of pesticides of different pu-rpose on the recovery of winter wheat in conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.11’’324’’:632.95(251.1)(1-17)(477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0068
Yavdoschenko M. P., Pedash T. M., Sudak V. M., Gyrka T. V. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 120–126.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 VolodymyraVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
In recent years one of the promising directions of ecologization of the chemical method of plant protection is the creation and introduction into production of immunity inducers – preparations based on compounds with the ability to increase the resistance of plants against pathogens and phytophages. Such substances are plant growth regulators, which differ from pesticides with non-biocidaland bioregulatory action, safe for the environment, humans and animals,and are used in the minimum rates of consumption.
The great potential of this approach to plant protection is still insufficiently disclosed, and the feasibility and feasibility of combining the use of pesticides and growth regulators have been poorly understood.
The purpose of our research was to observe the effectiveness of the multicomponent plant growth regulator Reastim against the disease of winter wheat under the conditions of the steppe zone of Ukraine and the possibility of combining plant spraying with the growth regulatortogether with fungicide Soligor.
The research was conducted in 2014–2016 in the crop rotation of the plant protection laboratory at the Synel’nykoveSelection and Research Station of the Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the natural background of disease.
The spraying of crops against winter wheat diseases was carried out by fungicide Soligor EC425 and the growth regulator Reastim once at the beginning of the exit of the plants into the tube and ear staining phase, as well as twice in both of these phases alone, in tank mixes with the growth regulator recommended norms. Observations on the development of diseases were carried out during the entire vegetation, and the main records of powdery mildew – during the flowering period on the Geshell’s scale, septoriosis spots and brown rust – during the period of milk ripeness of the grain on the scale, respectively, Geshell and Peterson.
Analysis of weather conditions showed, that they differed, both in temperature conditions and in the amount of precipitation during the winter wheat vegetation, so it was possible to obtain reliable data on the influence of chemical agents on major diseases. Favorable weather conditions for the development of powdery mildew were in 2014 and 2015, brown rust in 2014, yellow rust in 2016, and septoriosis in 2014 and 2015. The largest harvests were achieved in 2015.
The results of the research have shown the effectiveness of the “Reastim” against winter wheat diseases at the level of 30.1–84.6%, and the Soligor – 39.0–99.5%.
The harvest of grain when sprayed by Reastim (average for three years) amounted to 5.74–5.87 t/he, which is 0.14–0.27 t/he higher than control, but 0.30–0.40 t/he below variants with Soligor. The highest harvest was obtained with the application of Soligor at the outlet of plants in the tube and two spraying – 6,19 and 6,23 t/he. Joint application of SoligorandReastim in the ear eruption phase contributed to an increase in harvests for all years of research at 0.41–0.63 t/he.
Summarizing the results of the research, it can be highlighted, that one or two-time spraying of crops by Soligor (the output of plants in the tube and earing), depending on the phytosanitary state of winter wheat crops, protects them from diseases and increased harvest by 0.63 and 0.67 t/he. The growth regulator Reastim showed insignificant fungicidal effectiveness against diseases and increased the harvestonly by 0.14–0.27 t/he. Joint usage of fungicide with the growth regulator was only feasible in theearing phase.
Key words: winter wheat, fungicide, growth regulator, powdery mildew, rust, septoriosis, root rot, harvest.
|№ 1 (2018)||Integrated control of weeds when growing winter wheat on summer fallow||Annotation|
Integrated control of weeds when growing winter wheat on summer fallow
UDК 631.581:632.51:633.11 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0017
Sudak V. М., Gorbatenko А. І., MatyukhaV. L. Grain Crops, 2018, 1 (1), 123–131.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
Years-long research aimed at studying the quantitative and mass dynamics and weed species composition and determining the effectiveness of various cultural weed control methods when growing winter wheat on summer fallow was conducted under stationary conditions, on ordinary chernozem (northern steppe), in the field experiment of the Institute of Cereal Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
It has been found that maintenance of the arable land by leaving it fallow for a season is accompanied by an increase in the regenerative capacity of the sow thistle and field bindweed, the appearance of such non-typical weeds for unirrigated farming as dandelion, warmot and pickpocket as well as growth of the common ragweed and pig weed in the fields. Exclusion of the under-winter ploughing system from the technology of preparing a summer fallow leads to the weed seeding and reduction of time intervals between cultivation and infestation in winter wheat crops, which requires one-time application of total herbicides (on stubble) on a summer fallow land or bulk shielding of the soil surface with post-harvest plants.
A smaller number of annual gramineous weeds and fallen sunflower on early fallows compared to autumn fallows was recorded, which is due to dehydration of the upper untilled layer of soil where the main part of seeds is located. Cleavers grass, which starts vegetating early and tolerates shading well and therefore is highly harmful for winter crops, was present on the stubble early fallow. In comparison with other variants of the experiment, ploughing of the autumn fallow contributed to the more intensive germination of late spring weeds because of the better warming of the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer and the decrease in physiological toxicity of post-harvest residues due to their more thorough mixing in the soil environment.
According to our observations, the sow thistle grew and developed better on a sunflower fallow than on a stubble one, especially in wet years. In droughty weather, it often fell into a state of deep conservative dormancy and weakly recovered in the second half of the summer. The regenerative potential and adaptation of the perennial to mechanical control measures increase with decreasing the depth of root cutting in the spring to 8-10 cm and lengthening the time intervals between cultivations to more than 20 days after the weed reaches the shooting stage, i.e., the bud-formation stage. With the beginning of the shooting stage, the sow thistle quickly restores the depleted reserves of inulin (reserve nutrient) in its roots and increases its ability to survive. The field bindweed reacts weakly to the fallow precursor. It is characterized by drought tolerance, has a high regenerative capacity and infests the fallow until winter wheat is sown. The methods of regulation of levels of the fallow infestation with perennials provide for an increase in the number of cultivations and the use of spring-tooth harrows which destruct the roots and shoots of plants very well due to vibration effect of spring teeth.
The struggle with the amaranth and pig weed became much more complicated when nitrogen fertilizers introduced for fertilization were not fully used by the previous crop (spring barley) and stimulated the growth of annual weeds on the fallow; in wet weather, their seeds sprouted throughout the entire period of fallowing.
A high abundance (20-30 pcs/m2) of dicotyledonous annual species, the dangerous babies’-breath in particular, is observed under unfavorable conditions for weed seed sprouting in autumn and sufficient soil moisture during spring tillering of grass after soil mulching. Chemical weeding is necessary when the economic threshold of harmfulness of wild species is exceeded (more than 10% of the total biomass of agrophytocenosis).
With the involvement of all by-products of crop rotation in the circuit, the cultivation of winter wheat on summer fallow (surface spring tillage) requires mandatory fertilization of plants in the spring with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 45-60 kg d.r./ha (low supply of soil with nitrates) or 30 -45 kg d.r./ha (normal supply of soil with N-NO3). Optimization of nitrogen nutrition of wheat significantly increases its competitiveness in relation to weeds and ensures an average yield of food grain at the level of 5.52-6.66 t/ha.
Key words: weeds, fallow, winter wheat, soil cultivation, herbicides, grain yield.
|№1 (2017)||Phytosanitary status of winter wheat crops depending on tillage and sowing systems||Annotation|
Phytosanitary status of winter wheat crops depending on tillage and sowing systems
Keywords: winter wheat, soil tillage, seeding, weeds, pests, diseases.
Based on the results of production testing and introduction the soil tillage and sowing systems of winter wheat are presented the features of developing and propagating the hazardous organisms in wheat plantings under the influence of studied factors are determined.
|№1 (2017)||Resistance of corn hybrids to lepidop-terous pests in Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Resistance of corn hybrids to lepidop-terous pests in Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Keywords: hybrids, corn, European corn borer, Bollworm, pest-resistance.
Corn – is a unique crop as a raw material for feed, food and processing industry. Unfortunately, the productive potential of corn hybrids, apart from process flow disruption and abiotic stress factors is limits by hazardous organisms, which caused annual crop losses more than 30%.
The goal of our research was to investigate the resistance of corn hybrids to Bollworm (Helicover-paarmigeraHb.) and European corn borer(OstrinianubilalisHb.) in conditions Northern Steppe of Ukraine.
Researches on adaptive detection for resistance to lepidopterous pests of corn samples were performed in SE Experimental Farm “Dnipro”of SI the Institute of Grain Crops (Dnipropetrovs’k region) on a natural infectious background for the 2011–2015. During the investigations were carried outa comparative resistance assessment to pests of 56 corn hybrids of different maturity groups (about 23–35 samples yearly).
Corn, in experimental plots, grows according to traditional technology. Entomological surveillance carried out by the conventional methods.Weather conditions, during the years of researches,were quite varied, allowing to make a full assess of their impact on the resistance of hybrids to damage by pests.The obtained results shows that the largest damage of corn by the Bollworm for years of research was in 2012 and amounted to 22,0–85,6 %; in 2014, exactly the opposite, was the smallest– 0–7,9 %, in other years – 1,1–51,3 % depending on the hybrid.
In 2011, distinguished with partial resistance to pest damage the hybrids COB 329 CB, Krasyliv 327 MB, Chemerovets’kyi 260 CB and Monica350 MB; in 2012 – Baturyn 287 MB and Orzhytsia237 MB; in 2013 – Anshlag, Whitecorn, Krasyliv 327 MB and Baturyn 287 MB. In 2014 ten maize hybrids had no damage scoops. In 2015 ten corn hybrids were not damaged by Bollworm. The samples, which had the least damages were – DN Svitiaz’, Garant, Orzhytsia 237 MB, Podil’s’kyi 274 CB and DN Julia.Unlike the previous years, level of development the European corn borerfor years of researches was not significant, negligible damage bypest (up to 1,1 %) was observed in 2011 on hybrids Pochaivskyi 190 MB, Nemyriv and Sokolov 407 MB; in 2012 (up to 0,5 %) – Bystrycia 400 MB, Novyi, Chemerovets’kyi 260 CB, Solonians’kyi 298 CBand Zbruch; in 2013 (up to 0,8 %) – Kvitnevyi 187 MB and DN Argo. It may be assumed, that in conditions of Northern Steppe of Ukraine observed thedepressive position ofevolvement thelepidopterous pest. But the danger of spread the phytophaganremains real and requires annual monitoring.
As can be seen from the above, the minimal damage of cornplants by the European corn borer in the Northern Steppe zone of Ukraine made it impossible to assess the resistance of corn hybrids to the pest. At the same time due to significant damage by the Bollworm it has been able to identified the hybrids, which have shown partial resistance for several years – Orzhytsia 237 MB, Baturyn 287 MB, Podil’s’kyi 274 CB, COB 329 CB, Krasyliv 327 MB and Garant.
|№10 (2016)||Innovations on grain-crops protection||Annotation|
Innovations on grain-crops protection
Keywords: innovations, scientific-technical production, grain-crops protection, pest organisms.
There are innovations on grain-crops protection from pest organisms. The main directions of the Institute of Plant Protection NAAS innovation activity on this problem are elaboration the technologies of creation of resistant plants’ varieties, elaboration the effective methods of forecastting of crops’ phytosanitary situation, determination of the role of agrotechnical method of the crops protection, the optimization of chemical method of the crops protection, elaboration of the biological measures of plant protection from insect pests and diseases, elaboration of effective measures of crops protection and grain reserves from quarantine pest organisms.
|№10 (2016)||Pests identifying in grain stocks and determination of the maximum multiplicity of their treatments with wide usage drugs||Annotation|
Pests identifying in grain stocks and determination of the maximum multiplicity of their treatments with wide usage drugs
Keywords: species composition pests of grain reserves , winter wheat, insecticides.
In recent time the trend was to increase the number of pests of grain stocks in connection with the neglect of preventive measures on disinfection of premises, and incorrect selection of methods and techniques of grain storage. Therefore there is a need to clarify the patterns of distribution, species and quantitative composition of insect pests of grain depending on the type of granaries, conditions and ways of grain storage and to obtain information on the rotation of drugs used to protect grain from pests.
Species composition of pests is established by using the identification keys of insects.
To determine the maximum possible number of treatment it is used drugs: aktellik 500 EC, k.e. is 6 g/t; karate 050 EC, k.e. – 0,1 ml/t; prostor, k. e. – 5 ml/t.
During 2011-2014 the quantitative and species composition of grain pests isn't changed. Only in the farms which are neglected by preventive measures of protection, it is seen their sharp increasing. It is established that plant pests were absent during the storage of various grain crops in synthetic bags, and the fumigation holding in granaries, and cooling in winter. There were obtained different results for the storage of grain in bulk and early treatment of the empty granaries with wet or spray method.
Comparison of the obtained data on the distribution of grain pests of the stocks, depending on climatic zone shows that the number of collar weevil and rhopalocera khruschak with movement to the Northern Ukraine is reduced in 1,5–2 times.
According to the results of studies to determine the maximum possible number of treatment of the grain mass from pests with the drug aktellik 500 ES, k. e. (primos-methyl, 500 g/l) are found that, since the third generation of the experimental insects, its effectiveness were reduced in almost all versions at 20–33 %. Only in the variant with the grain capturecam, a significant reduction in the effect of the drug was observed from the 4th generation.
Drug containing two active substances (prostor), showed fairly steady effectiveness over the first three generations of insects. A significant reduction of the agent is installed with the fourth generation of pests.
Thus, during the years of research in selected samples the grain insects are met 7 most common types of pests: granary and rice weevils, rhopalocera small flour khruschak, grain kapturnek, south gate moth, grain moth. The shipment of grain in polyethylene bags into the fumigation storage accommodation with their cooling in winter provides reliable storage of grain reserves.
If it is necessary the processing of grain and not loaded storage accommodation against the plant pests with the same drug, without compromising its effectiveness, it is advisable to spend no more than three times. The drug aktellik 500 ES, k. e. should be used twice. Pyrethroid karate 050 ES, k. e. (lambda-cyhalothrin, 50 g/l) effectively acted almost all kinds of pests, however, starting with the second generation, there was only a slight increase in the effectiveness of the drug by 1–2 %, its action was reduced to 12–23 % from the third generation.