|1 (2022)||Methods of post-harvest treatment of maize hybrids and their effect on the seed quality during long-term storage||Annotation|
Methods of post-harvest treatment of maize hybrids and their effect on the seed quality during long-term storage
Grain Crops. 2022. 6. (1). 57–63.
M. Ya. Kirpa, N. S. Filipkova
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi, Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
Topicality. The seed stock creation and storage is a prerequisite in seed production of maize hybrids in order to provide sowing material in case of various adverse conditions (crop failure, natural disaster, etc.). Depending on the usage and the storage term, there are the insurance, reserve and breeding seed stocks. During storage, the seed germination may reduce; therefore, seed stock should be refreshed with seeds prepared for long-term storage. Issues. In order to prepare seeds for long-term storage, post-harvest processing aimed at forming longevity of hybrid corn seeds should be carried out. Thus, scientific and practical problem is the definition and optimization of technical and technological processes of the preparation of seeds for storage. Aim. To study the features of the formation of maize hybrid seed longevity, to establish methods and factors of post-harvest processing that ensure long-term storage and high seed quality. Materials and methods. In the experiments, we used maize hybrid seeds developed at the State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS. The moisture levels of the harvested seeds were different, and the seeds were processed for further long-term storage. When harvesting moisture is high, post-harvest processing includes different methods of drying, separation by fractional sieve and gravity methods, chemical treatment (seed dressing). Seeds were stored at different moisture content (7–8, 9–11, 12–14 %), in the different packages (paper, fabric, polyethylene), in the dressing and undressing state for 3–4 years. During storage, we have determined the laboratory germination by various methods, field germination, and the unity of sprout emergence. Results. We have established that the formation of longevity and seed quality of maize hybrids depend on features of harvesting and postharvest processing, such as harvest moisture, methods and temperature regimes of drying, sieve and gravity separation with the selection of various seed fractions, terms of chemical seed dressing. It was found that the laboratory seed germination indicator determined by cold test characterizes the economic suitability of maize hybrids for long-term storage. Conclusions. It was established that to obtain the high-quality seeds capable of long-term storage the following is recommended: to dry the cobs at humidity to temperature ratio of 31–36 % to 36–40 °C or 19–30 % to 40–44 °C; to grade seeds by sieving and gravity separator that to obtain two seed fractions, namely conditionally large and medium; to store undressed seed and carry out the dressing stocks immediately before sowing. Under long-term storage of untreated seeds, it is proposed to protect the seed against harmful objects with a combination of abiotic factors as low seed moisture content, cooling, limiting the oxygen access. When the maize hybrid seed with a moisture content of 9–11 % is hermetically packaged, it is guaranteed the storage period of the seed up to 3–5 years, so this method is most practical and cost-effective. It is recommended to determine the suitability of seeds for long-term storage by the germination indicators determined by the cold test.
Keywords: maize seeds, germination, factors and processes of postharvest processing, long-term storage.
|1 (2022)||Economic efficiency of two-stage separation of maize hybrid seeds.||Annotation|
Economic efficiency of two-stage separation of maize hybrid seeds.
D. V. Kovalov, E. M Fedorenko
Grain Crops 2022. 6. 1. 64–68.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
Topicality. During harvest and post-harvest processing, maize seeds are a mixture that consists of seeds of different quality, size, and weight. Therefore, it is necessary to separate the seeds, i.e. divide the mixture into separate homogeneous fractions. The number of fractions varies depending on the evenness of the mixture and separation methods. Aim. To establish the pattern of fractional separation of maize hybrid seeds, develop methods for their cleaning and sorting in post-harvest processing technologies, and calculate the economic efficiency of a new two-stage separation method. Materials and methods. In the experiments, we used maize hybrids developed by the Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS, which were separated on sieves with round and oblong holes. The two-stage separation method was as follows: the first stage, the sieve of grain separator in the throughs and tailing mode separates the mixture into two groups of seed (the sieve holes with a diameter of 8–9 mm or oblong holes with a width of 5.5–6 mm and a length of 20 mm); the second stage, a grain separator (one or two) sorts each group into a given number of seed fractions (the sieve holes with a diameter of 5–8 mm or oblong holes with a width of 3.75–4.50 mm). Results.Our research has determined the features of separation of the studied hybrid seeds according to various traits and methods.Firstly, the field germination of the seed fractions selected on the trait of seed width was higher compared to seeds selected on the trait of seed thickness. Secondly, separation on the trait of seed thickness is effective only for increasing seed uniformity.The newtwo-stage separation method was tested in the Research Farm LLC Agrofirma ART Zolotoi Kolos (Dnipropetrovsk region) during separation of maize hybrid seeds harvested in 2018–2020. As a result of fractional separation by a new method, it was obtained the standard seeds of maize hybrids with a germination rate of 95–96%, a growth rate of 85–90% without any seed injury.
Conclusions. In the technologies of post-harvest processing and pre-sowing preparation, it is recommended to use a two-stage separation method when the seeds are divided into two sowing groups with further separation into the required number of fractions. Separation is carried out on flat sieves with a size of holes depending on the shape of the seeds. The productivity of grain separators increased by 20%, and the specific energy consumption decreased by 8% due to the two-stage separation. The overall economic effect was in the form of energy savings of UAH 1.8 per ton of seeds. In addition, the net profit from sowing with high-quality seeds was 6,233 UAH per 1 ha.
Keywords: maize, hybrids, separation, field germination, economic efficiency.
|№ 2 (2021)||Influence of technical and technological indicators on the harvest and post-harvest processing seeds of maize hybrids||Annotation|
Influence of technical and technological indicators on the harvest and post-harvest processing seeds of maize hybrids
UDC 633.15:631.53.02 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0182
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 244–251
М. Ya. Kyrpa, Т. М. Lukianenko
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi, Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research result of technical and technological indicators, which largely characterize the seed condition and quality and allow to optimize the harvest and post-harvest processing of maize seeds, was presented. The harvest and post-harvest processing of seeds are particularly affected by such indicators as: size, uniformity, level of damage, the content of self-hulled seeds in the total mass.
In order to optimize the high-quality seed preparation, it is recommended to use for sowing the coarse seeds with a uniformity of more than 80 %. It was found that a uniformity of 80% or less causes the decrease of field seed germination (A) by 2–6 %, the extension of "sowing – full sprouts" period (B) by 6–8 days, and the decrease of index A/B by 32.1–41.0 %. Thus, the low seed uniformity has the negative effect. The indicator of uniformity is controlled by means the seed separation, and it must be at least 81 %.
It is not allowed a presence of self-hulled seeds with embryo damage level more than 10 % in the seed material. With a higher content of self-hulled seeds in the total mass, laboratory germination decreases by 5–7 %, field germination – by 10–17 %, growth rate by number of sprouts – by 6–12 %, by sprout weight – by 8.0–11.6 %.
To reliably predict the moisture loss rate of seeds at drying, it is proposed to determine the coefficient of the specific seed surface by a ratio of outer surface to volume. We established that an increase in the coefficient of specific surface area from 1.053 to 1.167 mm results to increase the moisture loss rate of seeds by 19.1%, and ears – by 30.9 %.
The effectiveness for determination of the seed quality, in particular, its viability was confirmed by the cold test (germination at a temperature of 6–10 ºC).
Key words: maize hybrids, technical and technological indicators, seed quality, harvest and post-harvest processing, fraction, cold test.
|№ 2 (2021)||Influence of treatment of seeds with disinfectants and microfertilizers on seeding quality and yield of spring wheat||Annotation|
Influence of treatment of seeds with disinfectants and microfertilizers on seeding quality and yield of spring wheat
УДК 633.11:631.53.027.2:632.95:631.86:631.559 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0183
A. A.Siroshtan,O. A.Zaima, V. P.Kavunets, S. F. Liskovskyi
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2).252–257 .
The V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS, Tsentralne village, Myronivka district,
Kyiv region, 08853, Ukraine
The research was conducted in 2019–2020 at the Myronivka Institute of Wheat. Seeds of such spring wheat varieties as MIP Zlata, Bozhena, MIP Raiduzhna, Diana were used in the experiment. When determining the sowing qualities of spring wheat seeds, depending on the treatment with the disinfectant, it was found that these preparations had a positive effect on them. Seed treatment was carried out with disinfectants Maxim Star 025 FS (1.5 l/t), Yunta Quattro FS 373.4 (1.5 l/t), Cruiser 350 FS (0.5 l/t) in combination with microfertilizer Orakul nasinnia (0,5 l/t). Seed treatment with the studied chemicals revealed an increase in seed germination activity by 5–15 % and a slight increase in seed vigor and laboratory germination.
The highest seed germination activity of the studied varieties was observed at treatment with combination of Cruiser 350 FS + Orakul nasinnia, highest indicator of seed vigor – Celest Max 165 FS + Orakul nasinnia, and laboratory germination – Yunta Quattro 373.4 FS + Orakul nasinnia.
The grain yield was significantly increased due to the seed treatment of spring wheat with dressing chemicals in combination with biological microfertilizers. The increase in grain yield was: MIP Zlata – 0.31–0.35 t/ha, Bozhena – 0.30–0.36 t/ha, MIP Raiduzhna – 0.32–0.38 t/ha, Diana – 0.31–0, 35 t/ha. Higher increases in grain yield of all varieties were observed when seed dressing was carried out with insecticides/fungicides together with the biological microfertilizer Orakul nasinnia.
On the basis of the conducted researches, it was established that grain yield and sowing seed qualities of spring wheat under seed treatment with combination of seed dressing chemicals with microfertilizer were significantly increased. As a result, we suggest seed farmers to apply the foregoing seed dressing chemicals.
Key words:spring wheat, seed dressing chemicals, microfertilizer, seed treatment, sowing quality, yield
|№ 2 (2021)||Seed quality indicators of maize hybrids for long-term storage||Annotation|
Seed quality indicators of maize hybrids for long-term storage
УДК 633.15:631.527.541/.563.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0184
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 258–266
Kyrpa M. Ya.1, Filipkova N.S.2
1State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, st. Volodymyr Vernadsky, 14, Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
2Dnipropetrovsk Regional Training Center for Training, Retraining and Advanced Training of AIC, 76/1,
Dmytro Yavornytskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research results about the influence of various factors on seed quality of maize hybrids during their long-term storage are presented. The main of them is seed moisture content and a packaging type. These factors largely determine the intensity of physiological and biochemistry processes, acidity, surface microflora affection level, and also influence the seed viability and germination.
It was found that the seed moisture content over one year during seed storage in airtight conditions (for example, in plastic bags) ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 %. This indicator did not exceed the critical level, which for maize consist of 15 %. During storage of seeds in paper bags, the seed moisture content ranged from 1.9 to 4.1 %, its maximum was 15.9 %; if in fabric bags, the indicator ranged from 2.8 to 5.1 %, with maximum of 16.8 %. It was established that: firstly, at storage for one year, the seed moisture content largely increased in the winter and spring, reaching a critical level; secondly, during further storage of seeds, namely in the summer, the moisture content was reduced, but did not reach the initial values in the experiment.
It was found that the storage longevity of seeds is extended by storage in airtight containers, in particular, in plastic bags, at a seed moisture content of 7–8 and 10–11 %. Under such conditions, for 3–4 years, the seeds have low acceptable acidity, low levels of bacterial and fungal affection, and are fully suitable for sowing, with conditioned laboratory germination and field germination – at 80 % and above.
Given the above, the guaranteed term of economic suitability of the seed material of maize hybrids should be no less than 3–4 years.
Key words: maize hybrids, quality, seeds, factors and conditions of long-term storage, germination.
|№1 (2021)||Influence of abiotic factors on seed quality of maize hybrids in the process of its storage||Annotation|
Influence of abiotic factors on seed quality of maize hybrids in the process of its storage
UDC 633.15:631.527.5/.564 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0155
Kyrpa M. Ya., Bazilieva Yu. S., Stasiv O. F.
GrainCrops. 2021. 5 (1). 25-30.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Science, 14, VolodymyrVernadskyi St.,
Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
Institute of Agriculture in the Carpathian region NAAS, 5, Hrushevskyi St., Obroshino village, Pustomyt district, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The research results of influence of various abiotic factors on seed quality of maize hybrids during long storage are given. The most effective of them are: temperature regime, seed moisture content and oxygen access. The storage methods (dry and cold, and controlled atmosphere storage) that have the greatest impact on the seed quality were established.
It was found that the optimal moisture content of seed depends on the storage duration, if for 1–2 years – 10–11 %, 3 years and more – 7–8 %. In order to stabilize the moisture content, it is recommended to store the seeds in airtight containers, limiting the humidity access from the outside. During the long-term seed storage, particularly for the breeding purposes, the temperature range should advisably maintain within 8–10 °C in seed storage place. With that the laboratory germination of seeds increased by 3–5 %, field germination – by 6–8 %, growth rate by number of sprouts– by 5–9 % and by the weight of sprouts – by 2–5 g compared to the 18–20 °C temperature in a typical storage.
Methods of pre-sowing improvement of seed quality were established – it is separation and chemical treatment (seed dressing). Separation is the sifting of the seed mass through sieves with round holes in order to divide from the smallest fraction, the content of which was 15–23 % depending on the seed uniformity of maize hybrids.
It was found that in order to assess objectively the effectiveness of different chemicals and establish their suitability for presowing seed treatment, it is necessary to determine laboratory germination, especially the growth rate by the number of sprouts and weight of 100 sprouts. Premature chemical treatment of seed should be avoided.
Key words: maize hybrids, storage methods, abiotic factors, seed quality, presowing treatment.
|№1 (2021)||Formation characteristics of watermelon seed productivity under intercropping||Annotation|
Formation characteristics of watermelon seed productivity under intercropping
UDC 631.961:635.615:635.67:635.652 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0156
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 31-36.
Semenchenko O. L.,1 Melnyk O. V.,2 Zavertalyuk V. F.,3 Zavertalyuk O. V.3
1Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Serhii Yefremov Sr., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
2Institute of Vegetable and Melon Growing of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine,
1, Institutska St., Selektsiine settlement, 62478, Ukraine
3Dnipropetrovsk Research Station of Institute of Vegetable and Melon Growing of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1, Opytna St., Oleksandrivka settlement, 52041, Ukraine
Characteristics of watermelon seed formation in intercropping were studied. Different growing methods of watermelon seeds depending on its interaction with intercrops (sugar maize and common bean) and their planting schemes in melon fields were investigated. The developed elements of the watermelon seed growing technology reduced the impact of high temperatures on this melon crop (the number of fruits with sunburn decreased by 7.1 % compared to control).
The results of phenological observations and analysis of yield components, seed productivity and quality of Favoryt watermelon variety in the intercropping with sugar maize and common bean were presented.
It was established that the developed elements of the watermelon growing technology in intercropping under high temperatures and low relative air humidity in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine increased of watermelon yield and the full-value seed formation.
It was found that intercropping of watermelon with sweet corn under proper cultivation gave positive results (watermelon seed yield gain by 12.4 % and 0.7 t/ha ears of sweet maize in milky-wax ripeness were received additionally), and with common bean (watermelon seed yield gain by 8.9 % and additional 75 kg/ha of beans). Methods and planting schemes of watermelon and intercrops were established: sugar maize in the rows of watermelon according to scheme 2.8 x 1 m, common bean in the rows of watermelon according to scheme 1.4 x 0.5 m.
It was found that under intercropping of watermelon with sweet maize the full-value seed yield per one fruit increased up to 88.5 %, and with common bean – to 84.9 %.
Key words: watermelon, sugar maize, common bean, intercropping, seed yield.
|№ 2 (2020)||Innovational system of quality control of seeding material in corn seed growing||Annotation|
Innovational system of quality control of seeding material in corn seed growing
Kyrpa M.Ya., StasivO.F., Lukyanenko T.M.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 243–250.
1 State institution Institute of grain crops NAAS, 14, Vladimir VarnadskyStr., Dnepr, 49027, Ukraine.
2 Agricultural institute of Carpathian region, NAAS,5, GrushevskyStr. v. Obroshino, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
Results of quality investigations of corn hybrids seeds that are formed at the growing phases, post-harvest processing and storage are expounded. Quality control system which is based on the acting (standardized) and additional indexes and also methods of their definition is worked out. Seeds viability on the cold germination method, energy and growth force, uniformity and damage are additional indexes, they have high correlation level with sowing qualities and plenteous hybrids properties.
Cold germination method includes variable temperatures 8 – 10 and 18 – 20 degrees Celsius that reproduces conditions of “sowing – seedling” corn period in the field. The uniformity is determined by the method of separating seeding material and determination of some fractions content on seeds size 9, 8, 7, 6 mm in it. The damage is defined by looking-over seedlings through a magnifying glass and their separating into 3 groups: seeds which are not damaged, with macro- and micro- damage of germ and endosperm, also seeds with damage in the kind of plucked veil are separately distinguished. The largest level of additional indexes correlation determined by new methods is within r= 0,583 – 0.781 and refers to the field seeds germination, individual plant productivity of corn hybrids.
On the base of acting and additional indexes conditioned seeds are offered to be evaluated in accordance with 3 indexes of sowing suitability. If seeds of the first and the second (high and medium) indexes are used marketable seeds of corn hybrids productivity can be increased on 15–18%. The highest index seeds viability on the method of cold germination must be 85–100%, quantity of strong plantlets – no less 81%, uniformity – 91% and more, content of seeds with macro damage – till 5% and micro damage – till 29%.The system of quality control is recommended to be used in the process of seeds preparation and on the phase of their certification.
Key words: corn, hybrids, seeds, system of quality, indexes and methods.
|№1 (2020)||Peculiarities of corn seeds germination depending on their coarseness||Annotation|
Peculiarities of corn seeds germination depending on their coarseness
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 46–52.
Kyrpa M.Ya., Kovalov D.V.
SЕ Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The aim of research was identifying the dynamics of water absorbing by grain, determination of its laboratory similarity and the strength of growth depending on coarseness and fraction composition.
The hybrid corn breeding of SE of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS was used while researching, which were separated on sieves with round and long holes. After separating six fraction of each hybrid were got, they were different by line size, among them three – according to the width of the seed (sieves with round holes) and three – according to the thickness (sieves with long holes). While researching, three fractions were separated into large, average and tiny, which were different by according to dynamics of water absorbing, similarity and strength of seed germination.
It was identified that the fraction which consisted of tiny grain absorbs water the most intensively, its mass increases to 2,9–6,1% in comparison with large and average. The amount of water needed for germination of grains, which were researched, was 35,8% from the starting mass of grain.
The dynamics of germination of seeds of different coarseness was special. In the beginning the tiny grains were germinating the most intensively, after 24 hours the amount of germinated grains has already been 31–37%, after 48 hours – 59–73%, after 72 hours – 88,3–95,3%, which was 2,3–42,0% higher, than the results received from grains of average and large size. But after 96 hours of germination the amount of germinated seeds from different fractions was almost the same.
The strength of germination was researched in the depth of planting seeds in 5, 9 and 13 cm, imitating the period of sowing-germination in the field. The highest strength of germination during sowing was identified for the seeds of large and average fractions in comparison with tiny seeds, but only in case, when the fraction is formed according to the «width of seeds».
While forming the fraction according to «thickness of seeds» the regularity was broken, strength of germination was almost independent of fraction coarseness.
The identified peculiarities should be taken into consideration in the technologies of seed separating into different fractions according to size, and in agricultural equipment for breeding corn hybrids.
Key words: corn, hybrid, fraction, water absorbing, germination, strength of germination.
|2 (2019)||Features of storage of seeds of maize hybrids||Annotation|
Features of storage of seeds of maize hybrids
Kirpa N. Ya., Bazileva Yu. S. Loy O. Yu.
Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 226–232.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences,14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str.,
Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The peculiarities of seed storage of maize hybrids of different botanical groups (toothlike, flinty, sugary, delusional) were investigated. The technical and technological factors that extend their economic life up to 3–5 years and more are revealed. This low moisture content of the grain (2–4% lower than standard), storage in a sealed container (polyethylene), selection for storage of large fractions (within the fractional composition for each hybrid). For the first time the effect of size (fraction) on the biological longevity of seeds of hybrids, depending on the duration of its storage, was established – the most noticeable influence of this factor was manifested in relation to sugar hybrids. The economic longevity of hybrid seeds has been determined. Its greatest duration is the seeds of siliceous and dilute hybrids, the smaller – sugar. It has been found that biological longevity is a high-quality trait and depends on the genotype.
The purpose of the work is to investigate the viability of seeds of corn hybrids (tooth-like, flinty, sugary, scaly) as storage objects, to establish the technical and technological indicators that ensure the long-term storage of seed material.
The seeds of hybrids with moisture content of 13–14; 10–11; 7–8%, which were stored in paper and polyethylene, and their sowing fractions (by seed size) were studied: the first – relatively large, the second – medium, the third – small. In order to evaluate the quality of the seed, its laboratory and field germination and yield were determined according to current methods.
When storing the seeds of corn hybrids under tight conditions, in plastic bags, the moisture content in it remained almost unchanged. But its sowing and yielding properties underwent changes – 10–11% and 7–8%, and 13–14%, respectively, were positive in moisture.
The factors that extend its shelf life include: low moisture content (2–4% below standard), tight conditions, increased size (within fractional composition). When combined with all these factors, the viability of the seeds with a germination rate of at least 92% was 3–5 years and more dependent on the botanical group of the hybrid.
The effect of chemical treatment (etching) during the long storage of the seed material was investigated, and it was found that it was advisable to carry it out immediately before sowing.
Keywords: corn, hybrids, storage, durability, seed quality, chemical treatment.