|№ 2 (2020)||Innovational system of quality control of seeding material in corn seed growing||Annotation|
Innovational system of quality control of seeding material in corn seed growing
Kyrpa M.Ya., StasivO.F., Lukyanenko T.M.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 243–250.
1 State institution Institute of grain crops NAAS, 14, Vladimir VarnadskyStr., Dnepr, 49027, Ukraine.
2 Agricultural institute of Carpathian region, NAAS,5, GrushevskyStr. v. Obroshino, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
Results of quality investigations of corn hybrids seeds that are formed at the growing phases, post-harvest processing and storage are expounded. Quality control system which is based on the acting (standardized) and additional indexes and also methods of their definition is worked out. Seeds viability on the cold germination method, energy and growth force, uniformity and damage are additional indexes, they have high correlation level with sowing qualities and plenteous hybrids properties.
Cold germination method includes variable temperatures 8 – 10 and 18 – 20 degrees Celsius that reproduces conditions of “sowing – seedling” corn period in the field. The uniformity is determined by the method of separating seeding material and determination of some fractions content on seeds size 9, 8, 7, 6 mm in it. The damage is defined by looking-over seedlings through a magnifying glass and their separating into 3 groups: seeds which are not damaged, with macro- and micro- damage of germ and endosperm, also seeds with damage in the kind of plucked veil are separately distinguished. The largest level of additional indexes correlation determined by new methods is within r= 0,583 – 0.781 and refers to the field seeds germination, individual plant productivity of corn hybrids.
On the base of acting and additional indexes conditioned seeds are offered to be evaluated in accordance with 3 indexes of sowing suitability. If seeds of the first and the second (high and medium) indexes are used marketable seeds of corn hybrids productivity can be increased on 15–18%. The highest index seeds viability on the method of cold germination must be 85–100%, quantity of strong plantlets – no less 81%, uniformity – 91% and more, content of seeds with macro damage – till 5% and micro damage – till 29%.The system of quality control is recommended to be used in the process of seeds preparation and on the phase of their certification.
Key words: corn, hybrids, seeds, system of quality, indexes and methods.
|№1 (2020)||Peculiarities of corn seeds germination depending on their coarseness||Annotation|
Peculiarities of corn seeds germination depending on their coarseness
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 46–52.
Kyrpa M.Ya., Kovalov D.V.
SЕ Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The aim of research was identifying the dynamics of water absorbing by grain, determination of its laboratory similarity and the strength of growth depending on coarseness and fraction composition.
The hybrid corn breeding of SE of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS was used while researching, which were separated on sieves with round and long holes. After separating six fraction of each hybrid were got, they were different by line size, among them three – according to the width of the seed (sieves with round holes) and three – according to the thickness (sieves with long holes). While researching, three fractions were separated into large, average and tiny, which were different by according to dynamics of water absorbing, similarity and strength of seed germination.
It was identified that the fraction which consisted of tiny grain absorbs water the most intensively, its mass increases to 2,9–6,1% in comparison with large and average. The amount of water needed for germination of grains, which were researched, was 35,8% from the starting mass of grain.
The dynamics of germination of seeds of different coarseness was special. In the beginning the tiny grains were germinating the most intensively, after 24 hours the amount of germinated grains has already been 31–37%, after 48 hours – 59–73%, after 72 hours – 88,3–95,3%, which was 2,3–42,0% higher, than the results received from grains of average and large size. But after 96 hours of germination the amount of germinated seeds from different fractions was almost the same.
The strength of germination was researched in the depth of planting seeds in 5, 9 and 13 cm, imitating the period of sowing-germination in the field. The highest strength of germination during sowing was identified for the seeds of large and average fractions in comparison with tiny seeds, but only in case, when the fraction is formed according to the «width of seeds».
While forming the fraction according to «thickness of seeds» the regularity was broken, strength of germination was almost independent of fraction coarseness.
The identified peculiarities should be taken into consideration in the technologies of seed separating into different fractions according to size, and in agricultural equipment for breeding corn hybrids.
Key words: corn, hybrid, fraction, water absorbing, germination, strength of germination.
|2 (2019)||Features of storage of seeds of maize hybrids||Annotation|
Features of storage of seeds of maize hybrids
Kirpa N. Ya., Bazileva Yu. S. Loy O. Yu.
Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 226–232.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences,14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str.,
Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The peculiarities of seed storage of maize hybrids of different botanical groups (toothlike, flinty, sugary, delusional) were investigated. The technical and technological factors that extend their economic life up to 3–5 years and more are revealed. This low moisture content of the grain (2–4% lower than standard), storage in a sealed container (polyethylene), selection for storage of large fractions (within the fractional composition for each hybrid). For the first time the effect of size (fraction) on the biological longevity of seeds of hybrids, depending on the duration of its storage, was established – the most noticeable influence of this factor was manifested in relation to sugar hybrids. The economic longevity of hybrid seeds has been determined. Its greatest duration is the seeds of siliceous and dilute hybrids, the smaller – sugar. It has been found that biological longevity is a high-quality trait and depends on the genotype.
The purpose of the work is to investigate the viability of seeds of corn hybrids (tooth-like, flinty, sugary, scaly) as storage objects, to establish the technical and technological indicators that ensure the long-term storage of seed material.
The seeds of hybrids with moisture content of 13–14; 10–11; 7–8%, which were stored in paper and polyethylene, and their sowing fractions (by seed size) were studied: the first – relatively large, the second – medium, the third – small. In order to evaluate the quality of the seed, its laboratory and field germination and yield were determined according to current methods.
When storing the seeds of corn hybrids under tight conditions, in plastic bags, the moisture content in it remained almost unchanged. But its sowing and yielding properties underwent changes – 10–11% and 7–8%, and 13–14%, respectively, were positive in moisture.
The factors that extend its shelf life include: low moisture content (2–4% below standard), tight conditions, increased size (within fractional composition). When combined with all these factors, the viability of the seeds with a germination rate of at least 92% was 3–5 years and more dependent on the botanical group of the hybrid.
The effect of chemical treatment (etching) during the long storage of the seed material was investigated, and it was found that it was advisable to carry it out immediately before sowing.
Keywords: corn, hybrids, storage, durability, seed quality, chemical treatment.
|1 (2019)||Effect of maximum and minimum dose of herbicide harness on the seed germination of parent forms of corn hybrids||Annotation|
Effect of maximum and minimum dose of herbicide harness on the seed germination of parent forms of corn hybrids
UDC 633.15:632.954 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0057
Aldoshyn А. V., Kravets S. S., Svinitskyi L. M. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 31–36.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
Effect of herbicide Harness 90 e.c.was studied on seeds of registered and prospective parent components of corn of different subspecies: siliceous (Zea mays indurateSturt.), odontoid (Zea mays indentataSturt.), siliceous-odontoid (Zea mays semidentataKulesh.), saccharine (ZeamayssaccharataKoern.). In the experiments, the seeds of 18 parent components (14 self-pollinating lines and 4 hybrids) were used. The herbicide Harness 90 e.c. was applied by presowing spraying of the soil using its maximum (3,0l/ha) and minimum (2,0 l/ha) dosesaccording to the manufacturer's recommendations for loamy soils and soils with high humus content. It was found that the maximum dose of the herbicide more negatively affects the seeds germination of parent components of corn hybrids compared to the minimum dose. The specific reaction of the seeds of parent components to the maximum and minimum doses of the herbicide Harness 90 e.c. was noted.The parent components studied were divided into three groups according to the reaction to the contrast doses of the herbicide Harness 90 e.c. Specific doses were identified and recommendations were made for the application of Harness 90 e.c. in the crops of the parent components of each group.
The results indicated significant effects of weather conditions on the system «corn seeds – herbicide Harness». The maximum dose of this preparation (3,0 l/ha) is characterized by more negatively affects the seeds germination of parent components of corn hybrids compared to the minimum dose (2,0 l/ha). The presence of different response of corn genotypes to herbicide Harness was established.
According to the revealed features of the seeds reaction of the parent components to the herbicide Harness we recommend to use this preparation in the seed on the areas of corn breeding and hybridization as follows:
1. In the cultivation of parent components of corn hybrids included in the first group (DK 633/325 MV, DK 3070 MV, Cross 289 С) of which seeds didn’t reduce or not significantly reduced germination under the influence of both minimum and maximum doses of the herbicide Harness apply from 2,0 to 3,0 l/ha, depending on the degree of crop weediness.
2. In the cultivation of parent components of corn hybrids included in the second group (DK 744 M sterile, Cross 250 M, DK 680 MVZS, Cross 255 M, DK 315 M sterile, Cross 254 M, SE 414), of which seeds didn’t reduce germination under the influence of the minimum dose of the herbicide Harness and significantly reduced germination under the influence of the maximum dose, use 2,0 l/ha.
3. In the cultivation of parent components of corn hybrids included in the third group (DK 959 MV, DK 239 MV, DK 2323 MV, DK 8141 MV, DK 2064 MV, BSM-5, DK 2442 MV, DK 5002 SVZM), of which seeds significantly reduced germination under the influence of both minimum and maximum doses of the preparation, we don’t recommend to use the herbicide Harness.
Keywords: parent components, self-pollinating line, hybrid, herbicide, Harness 90 e.c., dose of application, field germination.
|2 (2018)||Energy-saving drying of corn seed and its technic and economic efficiency||Annotation|
Energy-saving drying of corn seed and its technic and economic efficiency
UDC 633.15:631.53.026 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0029
Kyrpa M. Ya. 1, Kulyk V. O. 1, Yova O. V. 2 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 226–231.
1 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2 LTD «Agrosfera», 64 Zarichna Str., Oleksandrivka vilage, Dniprovs'kyj district, Dnipropetrovs'ka region, 52041, Ukraine
In the process of post-harvest processing of corn seeds, drying of wet swaths is the most responsible and energy-consuming process. Quality and value of the product – seed and its competitiveness on the market of seeds depend on it. Today, the problem of energy saving is becoming increasingly relevant due to the significant increase in energy prices, which cost about 90 % of all drying costs. The purpose of the work is based on the determination of the technical and economic efficiency of drying corn swaths using such types of fuel as corn cobs, diesel and gaseous. The main costs of the drying process, which include the cost of fuel, electricity and wages, are established. According to the duration and volume of drying, labor costs amounted to 40.3 thousand UAH in case of use of corncobs and 28.7 thousand UAH – traditional types of fuel. Electricity costs varied depending on the type of fuel system of the dryer. So, when using a heat generator for burning biomass, the cost of electricity was higher by UAH 6528-9798 for the entire drying period compared with fuel systems for diesel and gaseous fuels.The cost of consumed fuel for the entire drying period was: diesel – 509.3 thousand UAH; gaseous – 269,3 thousand UAH; cobs of swaths – 37,7 thousand UAH. It is established that due to the use of the pockets of cobs, the cost of drying is reduced by 60–80 % relative to other traditional types of fuel, while the negative effect on the technological process of drying is not observed – its duration, dynamics and uniformity of drying of swaths. After drying in the energy-saving complex, the seed and yield properties of the seeds were at the control level or exceeded it.
Key words: corn cobs, chamber dryer, energy saving drying, fuel types, technical and economic indicators.
|№ 1 (2018)||Biological life of seeds and economic suitability of grain crops, depending on the peculiarities of its treatment and storage||Annotation|
Biological life of seeds and economic suitability of grain crops, depending on the peculiarities of its treatment and storage
UDC 631.364.6 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0004
Kirpa N.Ya., Bazileva Yu. S.,Loy O. Yu. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1). 29–37. SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The organization of seed production of any culture is closely connected with the establishment of proper storage of seed. The smallest period of time is allocated for storage of the seeds of the current year of use, in particular winter crops – wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale),
etc. In such a short period of time, the seeds do not even have time to pass the stage of post-harvest ripening, especially, if you collect it wet and in low temperature. Post-harvest maturation can be accelerated by drying, active ventilation, pre-sowing heating.
The aim of the research is to find out what the biological durability and economic suitability of the seeds is and to establish ways to extend the shelf life of the grain by the example of corn.
Various storage regimes of the cereal masses were established by analysis, in the dry state, cooled and by the method of sealing. In the experiments, the features of the effect of moisture, temperature and oxygen content in the grain mass on the germination were elucidated. We considered two methods of storing seeds: in paper bags – under conditions of free moisture-gas exchange with the environment and polyethylene – under conditions of limited moisture-gas exchange.
Analysis of the results of studies showed that the longevity of seeds depends on a complex of biotic and abiotic factors, the main ones being: moisture and temperature of the grain, access to oxygen, the level of damage to the grain mass by microflora during storage. Depending on the combination of these factors, the shelf life of the seeds is significantly extended or, conversely, markedly reduced. In addition to the main factors, the biological properties and physiological characteristics of the crop, the conditions for growing it, the timing of the onset of full ripeness, and the technology of post-harvest processing influence the seeds' longevity.
In the course of our studies, it was found that, when stored in the cooling regime, seed germination remained practically unchanged, but the dynamics of germination underwent noticeable changes (Table 5). For example, at a temperature of 8–10 and 3–5 °C, the seeds germinated, reaching the conditioned values (germination not lower than 92%) already on day 4, and the maximum – on day 7. When stored at low temperatures (-1 – -3 °C), the dynamics of seed germination slowed down: germination on day 4 was 83–92%, and at 7 – 89–95%. In this case, seeds with lower moisture values were more stable when stored at low temperatures.
In addition to studying the influence of the main factors – moisture, temperature and storage methods, we also investigated the effect of grain size on the storage time. On the example of winter wheat and corn, it is established that large seeds, with a larger mass of 1000 grains, are more stable and do not lose high germination for a long time.
Other technical and technological factors that cause active respiration, aging and rapid loss of germination are also traumas in the stages of harvesting and post-harvest seed treatment, the content of impurities in the grain mass, infection with diseases, the degree of primary germination, and the like.
In order to mitigate the negative impact of the above-mentioned technical and technological factors in industrial seed production, as a rule, chemical treatment and dressing of seeds with various preparations is used. Chemical treatment of maize seeds can be carried out in advance, during post-harvest processing. But recently, due to the unstable realization, the seeds are dressed just before sowing. Therefore, in order to study the effect of etching, we considered the following options: first – storage and seeding of NOT etched seeds; the second is the dressing and storage of seeds; the third is the storage and dressing of seeds before sowing. During storage and sowing of NOT etched seeds (the first variant), the field germination and yield of maize hybrids decreased significantly. In the case of seed dressing and storage for a long time, its laboratory germination somewhat decreases due to the toxic effects of the preparations on the fetus. It was revealed that in the third variant the field germination of seeds increased by 3–8%, and the yield by 0.24–0.95 t/ha (4.1–19.4%) compared to the second one, where the seeds were stored with etched seeds.
Based on the results of the research, factors that significantly affect the biological durability and economic suitability of seeds are established. On the type of storage technology (GOST 2240-93), the period of the economic life of the seed is nearly 3 years, the biological durability – 15 years or more, depending on the biological properties of cultural, technical and technological factors of its cultivation, harvesting and postharvest processing of seeds. To prolong recommended based on the following factors shelf life of the seeds of maize: grain moisture 9–10%, the temperature is 3–10 °C, storage in a sealed condition, moisture limited gas exchange. If these conditions are met, the seeds do not lose their conditioning germination (at least 92%) for 4–5 years or more. To determine the germination of seeds that were stored at a low temperature (-1– -3 °C), the germination period should be increased to 10 days.
Key words: seeds of grain crops, long-term storage, biological durability, economic suitability, longevity factors.
|№ 1 (2018)||Influence of ground herbicides proponet for easy nutrition of family compounds of hybrides of corn||Annotation|
Influence of ground herbicides proponet for easy nutrition of family compounds of hybrides of corn
UDC 633.15: 632.954 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0005
Kravets S. S., Aldoshin A. V., Lyashenko N.O., Bernatsky M. M. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 38–43.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str.,Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The specific reaction of seeds of parent components of maize hybrids, different on a genetic basis, on doses of soil herbicide is proposed. Specific doses that can be applied to each of the parent components studied were determined.
Studies aimed at identifying the selective action of herbicides have proven that within the same species there are representatives with different herbicide resistance. Data on different varietal reactions of maize on herbicides have been confirmed in the works of many scientists.
Lack of recommendations for the application of herbicides, in the cultivation of parent components, often leads to an uncontrolled decline in the yield of seeds due to the adverse effects of herbicides on corn plants, and sometimes even until complete culling of seed crops.
The results obtained by us testify to the presence of significant influence of weather conditions on the system "corn plant – herbicide Proponit". The maximum dose of this drug (3.0 l / ha) is characterized by a more negative effect on the similarity of the seeds of parent components of maize hybrids than the minimum (2.0 l/ha). The presence of different reactions of maize genotypes to propionate herbicide was established. The most vulnerable to the action of the herbicide was a subspecies of sugarcorns.
According to the revealed features of herbicide Proponit we recommend the use of this drug in the seed in the areas of reproduction and hybridization of maize as follows:
1. In the cultivation of parent components of the maize hybrids included in the first group (DK232MV, DK 296S sterile, Cross 253S sterile, DK 272C sterile, DK239MV, etc.), whose seeds did not decrease or did not significantly reduce the similarity under the influence of the minimum, and the maximum dose of Proponit, apply from 2.0 to 3.0 liters per hectare, depending on the degree of perturbing sowing.
2. In the cultivation of parent components included in the second group (DK744SVZM, Cross 239M sterile, DK233MVSV, Cross 267 Steril, DK253ZSZM, etc.), whose seeds did not reduce the similarity under the influence of the minimum dose of Proponit and significantly reduced the similarity under the influence of the maximum dose, apply 2.0 l / ha.
3. In the cultivation of parent components of the hybrids of maize, included in the third group (DK 2 / 427zS, DK 247MV, DK 411M sterile, DK 6496 with M, SV, DK 257zM, SV, etc.), whose seeds significantly reduced the similarity, as under by the influence of the minimum and maximum dose of the drug, use herbicide Proponit is not recommended.
Key words: parent component, self-pollinated line, hybrid, herbicide Proponit, dose of introduction, field similarity.
|№1 (2017)||Specificities of aerodynamic separation of single-component seed mixtures (by way of corn example)||Annotation|
Specificities of aerodynamic separation of single-component seed mixtures (by way of corn example)
Key words: corn, seed mixture, fraction, aerodynamic separation, technical-technological signs.
Seed material which is harvested and has after-harvesting treatment has form of the multicomponent mixture. So, after harvesting, it is separated by mechanical way, it is divided into separate components (fractions) and received a single-component mixture with different size, weight, specific weight and quality.
Separation is carried out by different ways: bolting of mixtures and sieving on trieurs, treatment on the gravitational tables, on electromagnetic and optical separators, winnowing in the air stream. The last method is according to the aerodynamic separation, which is recommended to use for sorting-calibration of the single-component mixture and definition the most full-blown fractions in it.
The aim of the work was to establish specificities of aerodynamic sorting – calibration process of single-component, to define its influence for output and quality of corn seeds.
The researches were carried out with single-component mixture of corn hybrid seeds, which was cleared at the corn-treatment plant. It was researched such hybrids of Institute cereal crops NAAN: Ushynskiy 167 SV, Piatyhatskiy 270 SV, Borozenskiy 277 MV, Solonianskiy 298 SV, Zbruch. The process of aerodynamic separation-calibration was modeled on the laboratorial classifier KSP‑1.Due the process of separation it was chosen 3 fractions: light, heavy and medial with different output and weight of 1000 seeds. It was defined seed quality: germinability, growing power by the “cold” test, weight, specific weight, capacity, linear size by the valid methods.
In our researches a single-component seed mixture, for stabilization of process aerodynamic division, provi-sionally, was separated on the sieves with outcomes 7–9 mm, and received two fractions (triage, pass) which were separated in air stream severally. These researches shown that the efficiency of separation seed mixture depends on direction of air stream, which can be ascending and horizontal.
The quality of fractions, received in process of aerodynamic separation-calibration, was different, depending on corn hybrids. In all researched hybrids only due separation of hybrid Ushynskiy 167 SV it was received heavy fraction with higher germinability of seed in 3–6 % in comparing with light one. In other hybrids the regularity was not defined. It is defined instability of process aerodynamic separation of single-component seed mixture is explained by changing place of a seed in air stream and aerodynamic resistance of a seed. Sieve separation influenced more on quality seed fractions by sign of seed width. Seed germinability of the triage fraction from the sieve 7–9 mm was in 6–15 % higher than in the pass fraction.
Aerodynamic separation of the single-component seed mixtures is unstable process as in the ascending (vertical) as in the horizontal air stream. The reasons of destabilization are: considerable spontaneity of mixture distribution in air stream, changing windage indexes in it, according to its place and attitude, and also speed and density of air.
Especially it is difficult to carry out aerodynamic separation of seeds with complex shape and with significant different quality, particularly in corn. The hybrids seeds in air stream were allocated in depend on shape, size, capacity, weight of 1000 seeds. And indexes of specific surface and weight (density) had less influence. It was not defined a reliable rectilinear connection between fractions and germinability of seeds in majority of researched hybrids.
Taking noted it is not rationally to carry out aerodynamic separation of single-component mixture of seeds, for example, a corn, with aim its sorting-calibration. This method is recommended to use for clearing seeds with following its deeper sieve and gravitational separation on corresponding machines. – Р. 45–50.
|№1 (2017)||Temperature condition of soil in a time of sowing of sorghum and reaction on him of different sorts and hybrids||Annotation|
Temperature condition of soil in a time of sowing of sorghum and reaction on him of different sorts and hybrids
Keywords: sorghum, hybrid, seed, temperature, germination, likeness
Over the past 40 years aridity of the climate in the Southern Barrens significantly increased. Due to changes in weather conditions, it was necessary to find out what crops spring crops more resistant to drought conditions. One of them may be sorghum, which is better than other crops tolerate lack of moisture.
Especially important in the area of southern steppe with its hot and dry spring is to get timely and valuable stairs. These difficult conditions at sowing sorghum should be taken into consideration and conduct a search operation on adaptation. First, you need to set – hybrid seeds are less responsive to the low temperature of the soil at an earlier sowing or fair brings Alternating heating and cooling the soil during germination.
To this end we have made in 2013. Laboratory experiments testing different sorghum hybrids seed breeding institutions to determine its exposure to changes in temperature conditions during germination. Provedene testing we found that seeds of different varieties and hybrids of sorghum marked uneven reaction to the low temperature at the time of sowing.
For 18 days the temperature 8 ºS number of germinated seeds in all varieties and hybrids increased by 1–10 pc., But the relationship between its originators remained the same as 8 days. This seed selection "Alta Seeds", Crimean Agro-Technological University and VNDISiS "Slavic field" even after 18 days was noted very low germination – 78–83 %. Note relatively high seed germination hybrids Dash-E, Sprint-W, Swift and Aztec selection "Richardson Seed" and grade Eritrea – Henichesk research station Institute crops – 92–96 %. Worst respond to low temperature hybrids 726 Alta Seeds, 752 Alta Seeds and W20 Alta Seeds – 18 days proklyunulosya only 78–80 % of seeds. Besides similarities, we should note the speed as the formation of roots and shoots, and their growth in different varieties and hybrids. For 18 days, the longest roots were mainly varieties and hybrids, created Henichesk research station, "Euralis semens" and "RAGT simens", – 0,31–0,47 cm. Low temperatures inhibit growth of roots especially in seed breeding hybrids " alta Seeds "and VNDISiS" Slavic field "– for 18 days were long, 0,19–0,33 cm.
Increased ambient temperature after 8 days to 14 °C impetus to a significant increase in the number of germinated seeds – at 3,10 percent absolute. The seeds, which had a low germination temperature 8 °C, the rate increased by 7–13 percent absolute temperature increases to 14 °C. This is especially true breeding hybrids "Alta Seeds", VNDISiS "Slavic field" and the Institute of maize and sorghum Moldova. However, even under these conditions germination of seeds of these hybrids was low – 87–90 %, the acein others it reached 92–94 %.
When germination temperature of 8 °C for 8 days over 75–88 % of seeds sprouted, but it was only naklyunulosya and root length of 1–2 mm. This reaction is observed varies hybrid seeds of various origins at low temperatures.
Most were cold-resistant varieties and hybrids of Ukrainian selection. Thus, 8 days proklyunulosya 79-88 % of seeds of varieties and hybrids breeding Breeding and Genetics Institute and 84–89 % – RC Institute crops. Also very high similarity was in selection of seed hybrids "Richardson Seed", "Ahroplazma" and "RAGT simens" – 81–85 %, although its figures were slightly lower than the varieties and hybrids of Ukrainian selection. Poor at 8 ° C prorostalo seed breeding hybrids "Alta Seeds" and Crimean Agro-Technological University – 75–81 %.
In general, the production needs for sowing conditions for soil heating to 10 ° C using better seed varieties and hybrids breeding and research station Henichesk firm "Richardson Seed" and "RAGT simens".
|№10 (2016)||Ecological and economic grounding of territorial location of grain production: the methodical aspects||Annotation|
Ecological and economic grounding of territorial location of grain production: the methodical aspects
Keywords: grain crops, location, losses due to soil erosion, soil fertility, ecological and economic efficiency.
Location and specialization plays an important role in increasing of the efficiency of grain production. The purpose of the article is to give an overview of methods of ecological and economic grounding of grain production location, which is the basis for further definition of the ways for improvement of grain farming location and increase of ecological and economic efficiency of the branch.
In modern science, there are many methodical approaches, which allow to estimate the effectiveness of the plant growing production, including grain. Thus, the criterion of economic efficiency of rational location of grain production is to increase the production of high quality
products at minimum expenses of living and materialized labor. For estimating of the economic efficiency of location and specialization of grain production, a number of indicators are used. These are productivity, product quality, the proportion of a particular culture in the sown areas structure, the output of feed units per 1 hectare of grain feed cultures, the production volume per capita or per 1 hectare of agricultural grounds, the value of gross and marketable products per 1 hectare of agricultural grounds, per 1 UAH of fixed and circulatingfunds, per 1 average annual worker; cost price of products; the volume of profit per 1 UAH of production expenses and per 1 hectare of crops; profitability, etc.
Some scientists also recommend to use the combined reliability rating of location efficiency, which is calculated as the ratio of the yield index to cost index.
It is reasonable to use the integrated index of comparative assessment of grain production efficiency, which is calculated as the ratio of the yield index to product of cost and laboriousness indexes. Another index is defined as the ratio of product of yield index and price index to the product of cost and laboriousness indexes.
In multivariate comparisons it is expedientalso to use the method of multidimensional comparative analysis based on Euclidean distance method.
In modern science the methods of economic-mathematical modeling, including Markowitz model, and cluster analysis methods are also widely used for evaluating the effectiveness of grain production location.
Methodical approaches used to determine the effectiveness of the location of grain and its prognostication for the future should necessarily take into consideration the ecological aspects such as peculiarities of the territory relief, the degree of soil erosion and soil fertility, the level of soil-protective efficiency of grown plants, etc.
Making of decisions in relation to adjustments of grain crops placement by this method should be based on a preliminary ecological and economic assessment of sown areas structure, which is grounded on the calculation of direct and indirect losses due to soil erosion and products shortfall. Economic evaluation of damage from erosion is carried out on two criteria such as the value of resulted expenditures and conditionally net income losses.
In modern conditions in relation to expansion of the use of computer technology and automated data processing methods the task of constructing of economic-mathematical models of optimization of the sown areas structure acquires a great importance. These models take into acco-unt the erosion control measures and are based on the applying of simplex method. Task definition is to determine the optimal composition of crop rotation that will provide maximum ecological and economic benefits according to available land, labor, material and financial resources of production, production parameters such as output of feed, protein, prices, cost, ecological capabilities such as soil damage, its distribution depending on the degree of erosion on slopes, accumulation of symbiotic nitrogen, etc.
The modern economic and mathematical methods in automated mode allow taking into account a large number of limiting factors and indicators, to get more reliable results of optimization of crop rotation structure and territorial location of agricultural cultures, including grain crops, and to obtaine the highest level of ecological and economic efficiency of their cultivation.