|№ 2 (2020)||Modern systems of agriculture and a new interpretation of cultivated value of agricultural crops||Annotation|
Modern systems of agriculture and a new interpretation of cultivated value of agricultural crops
Shevchenko, M. S., Decyatnik L. M., Derevenets-Shevchenko K. A., Shvets N. V.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 319–329.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskoho Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
Based on a broad experimental study of crop rotation productivity in different locations of the steppe zone, a correlative model for estimating the role of predecessors in the formation of post-crop yields has been developed. The connection between quality of agrotechnologies and change of degree of crop rotation competitiveness of culture is presented.
A retrospective analysis of the efficiency of farming and crop rotation systems showed that the constant improvement of varieties and hybrids of crops and technologies for their cultivation created objective agrobiological grounds for reassessment of predecessors in crop rotation. The main motive for this transformation was that in modern agricultural systems, high-potential biotechnological resources allow to obtain higher crop yields on the worst predecessors than on the best in the past.
In order to universalize the evaluation of crop rotation efficiency and model their productivity, it is proposed to introduce a crop rotation depression coefficient, which shows the share of yield remaining after individual predecessors compared to its baseline level after black pair. The most favorable conditions developed after crops with a coefficient above 0,80 – winter wheat, barley, rape, rye, spring barley, oats. At the same time, the development of post-rotational crops was significantly inhibited by sunflower, corn for grain and silage, beets, sorghum and soybeans, the coefficient of which was 0,66–0,78.
The proposed methodology of system analysis for the assessment of predecessors opens wider opportunities for the formation of adapted crop rotations, optimize the set of crops to market requirements, make important adjustments to crop rotations in extreme conditions, regulate crop rotation productivity taking into account agrotechnological modernization.
Keywords: crop rotation, tillage, fertilizers, crops, grain, predecessors, harvest, minimization.
|№ 2 (2020)||The state of heat resources and yield dynamics of the field crops in the conditions of the northern Steps of Ukraine||Annotation|
The state of heat resources and yield dynamics of the field crops in the conditions of the northern Steps of Ukraine
UDC 633:551.524 (292.486) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0142
Chaban V. I.,KliavzoS. P., Podobed O. U.,HorbatenkoA. І.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 330–338.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyra Vernadakyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainy
The most important environmental factors for the environment and habitat of plants include temperature. Agro-industrial production requires up-to-date information on the state of thermal resources and the response of plants to global warming within each region.
The purpose of the research is to evaluate the state of thermal resources and the dynamics of crop yields in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine. Material for the research was the results of observations of the temperature regime of the AISW Dnipro (1961–1990 and 1991–2018) and data of winter wheat, spring barley, corn, sunflower in stationary experiments on control variants (DPDG “Dnipro”). Statistical data were used to evaluate the data by period: arithmetic mean (M); standard deviation (S); confidence interval (CL0.05) probability (P); repeatability (P × 100 %). Statistical processing was performed using applications in Excel 2003 and Statistica (version 6).
Analysis of the thermal regime data showed that in 1991–2018, the average temperature for the year increased by 1.0 °C compared to the climatic norm (1961–1990), by 0.9 °C during the warm and cold periods. vegetation period of early cereals and late crops – by 0.8–1.0 °С. The average rate of increase in the average annual temperature in 1961–2018 was 0.31 ° C/10 years. Between 1991 and 2018, there were 15 cases with temperatures above 9.5 °C, with a recurrence rate of up to 53 %. The last decade (2009–2018) is characterized by a further increase in temperature during the year – by 1.5 ° C, the vegetation of early cere-als – by 1.6 °C, and late crops – by 2.0 °C. It is established that the warming is due to the temperature increase in the cold season – in January, February and March by 1.1,71.7 °C. Positive anomalies occur in July and August (+1.5 ° C).
For estimating thermal resources, the important characteristics are the average temperature of the coldest and warmest months of the year. January 10-year average temperatures steadily increased from (-6.5) °C in 1961–1970, to (-4.0) °C in 2011–2018. Their annual variability decreased. The recurrence of high temperature (> -5 °C) in January increased from 34–35 % in 1961–1980 to 73 % in 2011–2018.
The average values of July temperatures for 10 annual cycles have steadily increased from 20.8 to 23.0 °C since 1970. The recurrence of temperature> 23.0 °C for 1961–1970 was 2 cases and has increased 2.5 times in recent years. This increases the likelihood of sleepless periods. The positive trend leads to a shift in the dates of the steady transition of the average daily air temperature through 5 °C and the duration of the growing season. Over the last 18 years (2001–2018), it increased by 11–16 days (225 and 209–214). The incidence of such cases increased from 22 % to 44–50 %. At the same time, the increase in the duration of the period with an average daily temperature of ≥10 °C is not statistically significant.
The average sums of effective temperatures ≥5 °C over the 10-year cycles in 2011–2018 were 2711 °C, which is 347 °C higher than the base period (1961–1990). Temperature totals increase linearly from 1971 to 2018. However, their recurrence (≥2711) in 2011–2018 sharply increases to 50%. A close correlation (R2 = 0.75) was established between the duration of the period at ≥5 °C and the sum of effective heat ≥5 °C. A similar trend is typical for effective temperatures at ≥10 °C.
The results of the accounting of crops show that for the whole period of observations their average values were: winter wheat (steam) – 4.44 t/ha; spring barley – 2.40 t/ha; corn – 4.32 t/ha; sunflower – 2.15 t/ha. Their distribution was characterized by significant fluctuations due to the variability of weather conditions. However, its maximum levels were noted in the post base period.
Against the background of increasing supply of thermal resources in the region, there is an increase in their average yield: steam of winter – by 36 % (3.76 and 5.12 t/ha); spring barley – 24 % (2.14 and 2.65 t/ha ), corn – 11 % (4.14 and 4.59 t/ha), sunflower – 30 % (1.86 and 2.42 t/ha). The probability of forming the optimal yield level of steam winter, spring barley, corn and sunflower (≥4,44; ≥2,40; ≥4,32; ≥2,15 t/ha, respectively, for crops) in the post base period reaches 56–76% whereas in 1961–1990 it was 25–43%.
Keywords: thermal resources, sum of temperatures,field crops, yield dynamics, adaptive properties.
|№ 2 (2020)||Influence of methods of basic tillage on the dynamics of productive moisture reserves in spring barley crops in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of methods of basic tillage on the dynamics of productive moisture reserves in spring barley crops in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.51: 633.16 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0143
Tsyliuryk O. I.1, Chorna V. I.1, Desyatnyk L. M.2, Horshchar V. I.1
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 339–352.
1Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
2 SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The yield of spring barley significantly depends on the reserves of soil moisture, which ensures the implementation of all important life processes, including seed germination and rooting of seedlings, transpiration, thermoregulation and supply of nutrients to the plant. The productivity of spring barley is directly proportional to its moisture content. With sufficient soil moisture, favorable conditions for the growth and development of field crops, and ultimately increases their yield. In the northern steppe, high productivity of spring barley, provided timely and full germination, is formed due to moisture reserves accumulated in the deep layers of the soil during the autumn-winter period of the year.
The purpose of the study was to study the influence of the methods of basic tillage on the accumulation and dynamics of soil moisture in spring barley crops and the level of its yield.
Experimental studies were performed during 2004–2015 in a stationary field experiment at the Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
The presence of wavy nanorelief during chiselling, as well as plant remains on the ridges contributed to a significant reduction in wind speed in the aboveground layer. Snowfall was concentrated in the depressions and was reliably protected from blowing. Due to this, the height of the snow cover here, according to our data, was the highest and amounted to – 14.3 cm, and as a result faster thawing of the soil and better accumulation of water. At the same time, the intensity of wet accumulation during the autumn-winter period when treated with chisel tools outweighed the options of shelf plowing by an average of 17.9 mm, and disking – 9.2 mm. The increased assimilation of cold precipitation during chiselling can also be associated with strip loosening of the soil in the furrows, which is typical for chisel units.
It is established that in the northern steppe the use of canning (chisel) with a differentiated tillage system for spring barley increases the accumulation of moisture by 91.0–179.0 m2/ha in the autumn-winter period due to plant residues that retain more snow, especially in warm snowless winters.
It is proved that the use of a fine mulching system of tillage, despite the reduction of grain yield, contributes to a more economical consumption of moisture per unit of crop in 1.1–1.2 times when growing spring barley.
It was found that the use of annual shelf and differentiated tillage on average over the years of research provides the maximum level of yield, and the minimization of tillage in most years led to its reduction by 0.22–0.55 t/ha. The use of chiseling in a differentiated tillage system is most effective in dry years and even outweighs plowing due to the greater accumulation of productive moisture due to the presence of a significant portion of post-harvest residues of the predecessor that retain moisture under the mulch.
Key words: spring barley, tillage, soil moisture, fertilizers, disking, yield.
|№ 2 (2020)||Dynamics of soil fertility parameters in the Zaporizhzhya region and the ways of its restoration||Annotation|
Dynamics of soil fertility parameters in the Zaporizhzhya region and the ways of its restoration
UDC 631.452. https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0144
RomanenkoO. L., KushchI. S., AgafonovaA. V., TenyukhYu. O., SolodushkoM. M., UsovaN. M.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 353–362.
1Zaporizhzhya Branch of SE “Soils Protection Instituteof Ukraine”, 94, Doslidnastansia Str., Zaporizhzhya, 69031, Ukraine
2SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, VolodymyrVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
3 Institute of Oil crops of Ukraine, 1, Institutskaya Str., Zaporozhye district, Zaporozhye region, 70417, Ukraine
During 2000–2018, the results of the application of organic and mineral fertilizers in dynamics and their effect on the content of humus and nutrients in the soils of the Zaporizhzhya region were reviewed. To control the state of soil fertility use the calculation of the balance of humus and nutrients. This makes it possible to determine the extent to which the application of nutrients with fertilizers covers their removal by crop yields.
Negative tendencies have been identified, which have led to the deterioration of soil fertility in the Zaporizhia region. Measures are proposed to achieve a deficit-free balance of humus and nutrients.
On average, in 2000–2018, the level of mineral fertilizer application in the Zaporizhia region remained low – 38 kg/ha (nitrogen – 28 kg, phosphorus – 7, potassium – 3 kg), and manure – only 0.2 t/ha.
According to the results of agrochemical certification of agricultural lands, the dynamics of changes in the content of humus, easily hydrolyzed nitrogen, mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium over the past 18 years has been determined. The average weighted content of humus in the soils in the VIII round was 3.44 %, IX – 3.52, X – 3.40, XI (2016–2018) – 3.57 %, which indicates the stability of this indicator. The weighted average nitrogen content, which is easily hydrolyzed during all rounds, has close values (83.6–90.3 mg/kg) and corresponds to a low level of its supply. The content of mobile phosphorus compounds during the VIII – IX rounds was quite stable (97.1–101.6 mg/kg), and in the X–XI rounds there was even an increase to 123.3–123.4 mg/kg. The phosphorus regime of soils is stable and corresponds to the increased level of security, except for the ninth round (average). Potassium regime of the soil for eighteen years also remains stable and refers to a high level of security (159.6–176.8 mg/kg).
The balance of humus and nutrients in the soils of the region remains negative. There is a tendency of positive changes if we compare the results for the first (2003–2014) and second (2003–2018) periods. Thus, to achieve a positive balance of humus it is necessary to apply 2 t/ha of straw (+400 kg/ha), 20 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizers and 6.4 t/ha of manure, and in 2003–2018 – respectively 2 t / ha straw (+400 kg/ha), 20 kg/ha of nitrogen, 5.8 t/ha of manure.
Key words: soil, balance, dynamics, humus, fertility, organic and mineral fertilizers.
|№1 (2020)||Weeding of maize agrocenoses under the influence of tillage and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Weeding of maize agrocenoses under the influence of tillage and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 152–159.
Tsyliuryk O. I.1, Desyatnyk L. M. 2, Berezovskiy S. V.2
1 Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25, Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
2 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
An important limiting factor in corn cultivation technology is weed infestation, so the effectiveness of measures aimed at increasing grain yields is significantly reduced. Even with the widespread introduction of modern high-performance herbicides, weeds remain harmful targets, reducing corn yields by more than a third.In recent decades, in the steppe agriculture due to crises and declining levels of agricultural culture, the potential contamination of the arable layer of chernozems with vegetative reproductive organs (150–300 thousand shoots/ha) and seeds (0.5–1.0 billion pieces / ha) has increased. While the soil (cultural condition of the soil) is generally considered to be clean, in the arable layer of which there are less than 1 thousand /ha of perennial roots and 10 million pieces/ha of similar seeds of perennial weeds. Due to excessive potential soil contamination in row crops during the growing season, up to 1.5–2.0 thousand seedlings of perennial and 15–30 sprouts or shoots of perennial root-sprouting weeds can appear per 1 m2.
Recently, in the technology of growing corn, shallow (mulching) non-board soil tillage has become relevant, which eliminates the possibility of turning the arable layer. The limited amount of information on the effectiveness of mulching non-board soil tillage in the technology of growing corn, as well as the ambiguous attitude of scientists to different methods of tillage, encourages further research in this direction to ensure optimal conditions for plant growth and development and maximum grain yield at minimum production costs. and high profitability of production.
The purpose of the study is to establish the patterns of species composition of the main weeds and their quantitative dynamics, to determine the impact of different methods of basic tillage on weediness of corn crops, as well as to determine the level of yield and grain quality depending on the methods of basic tillage and fertilization.
The evolutionary adaptation of weeds has been shown to be characterized by extremely powerful regenerative energy, which can easily overcome technological barriers aimed at destroying unwanted vegetation. Weed biodiversity cannot be completely neutralized, it is now only possible to maintain minimal damage below the economic threshold. The species composition of weeds in maize crops depends on their adaptability and the structure of sown areas in crop rotation.
The species composition of weeds is formed depending on their adaptability and structure of sown areas of crops. Weed dominance in the agrobiocenosis is based on herbicide resistance, a wide range of seed germination, morphological plasticity and the presence of neotenic traits.
It was found that the introduction of mulching non-board soil tillage (chisel, flat tillage) in the technology of growing corn leads to an increase in weediness of its crops by 1.4–1.8 times, which in turn requires additional regulations for the use of soil and post-emergence herbicides. Plowing and chiseling have been shown to have a minimal advantage over maize yields both on unfertilized background and with the application of N30P30K30, due to slightly better plant nutrition conditions and less weediness. With an increase in the proportion of nitrogen (N60P30K30) in the fertilization of corn, more effective is the shallow non-board soil tillage of the chips, due to which it is possible to obtain the same relative to plowing and chiseling grain yield by leveling the above factors. The methods of basic tillage with low total weediness of crops (9.0–12.6 pieces/m2) do not significantly affect the quality of corn grain. When applying mineral fertilizers (especially nitrogen) there is a tendency to increase the protein content in the grain and decrease - carbohydrates, in particular starch.
Key words: corn, tillage, weeding, fertilizers, mineral fertilizers, yield.
|№1 (2020)||Dynamics of productive soil moisture and spring barley yield depending on tillage and fertilizers||Annotation|
Dynamics of productive soil moisture and spring barley yield depending on tillage and fertilizers
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 160–166.
Shevchenko M. S., Desyatnyk L. M., BokunO. I.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The results of studying the influence of different methods of basic tillage (plowing by 20–22 cm,subsurface tillage by 14–16 cm; No-till) and fertilizers (vegetable residues of the predecessor without fertilizers; plant residues and mineral fertilizers N45P45K45) on the water regime of soil (black earth heavy loam) and the productivity of spring barley in the northern Steppe during 2016–2018are presented.Productive soil moisture reserves in the soil were determined in the spring before sowing, in phase of barley ears and before grain harvesting.
The level of productive moisture reserves during the sowing of barley in the soil layer 0–150 cm depending on the basic tillage hesitated within 173–185 mm. But already in this period there was a tendency to decrease the amount of accumulated moisture with a decrease in the depth of basic tillage. When applying plowing and subsurface tillage maximum moisture reserves reached 158–165 mm, and in the case of direct sowing – 143 mm.
From sowing to the phase of ears with plants of ungrounded barley crops 47.6–54.4% of the before sowing moisture reserves were used, in the case of mineral fertilizers application – 58.9–61.7%. The highest moisture costs are observed in the direct sowing variant, the difference between other tillage variants is insignificant – within 2–3 %.
From phase of ears to full ripeness of grain barley crops grown on plowing spent 19.8% (in control) and 15.7 % (in fertilizers option) of initial moisture supply; on subsurface tillage – 21.4 and 15.6 %, and by No-till technology – 19.9 and 15.6% respectively.
The weather conditions were most unfavorable in 2016, when the yield of spring barley varied within 1.81–2.45 t/he, in 2017 and 2018 it was 2.03–3.36 t/he. But in different weather conditions reducing the depth of cultivation caused a decrease in grain yield.
On average over the three years ofstudiesin options of plowing in the control without fertilizers 2.5 t/h of grain were obtained, on the background of subsurface tillage– by 8 % and in the case of direct sowing – by 23.2% less. When using N45P45K45 fertilizers, the reduction of grain yield compared to plowing was 13.6% and 26.5%, respectively.
Fertilizers had a positive influence on grain yield formation of spring barley. In the field of plowing in the fertilized experience option, yield increase was 20.8%, on the background of subsurface tillage – 13.5%, in the experience option with direct sowing – 15.6%.
As the depth of tillage decreased, the water consumption coefficient increased, which confirms the less efficient use of moisture when using No-till technology: in the unfertilized option the efficiency of wa- ter consumption in the direct sowing version was 21% (123.9 mm/t) smaller compared to plowing (102.3 mm/t), when soil was fertilizing this difference increases to 28% (110 and 86.9 mm/t, respectively). Indicators of water consumption of barley plants in the variant with subsurface tillage differ from similar data on plowing only by 5–13 %.
Therefore, to increase the level of spring barleygrain harvest and more efficient use of soil moisture, mineral fertilizers should be applied, which will allow to obtain an additional 13–21 % of thegrain crop.The efficiency of water consumption and the level of grain yield of spring barley decreased with the decrease in the depth of the basic tillage.The most effective basic tillage was plowing by 20–22 cm. The alternative to plowing can be subsurface tillage by 14–16 cmbecause it was more economical from the energy point of view. Direct sowing in untreated soil was the least effectiveregarding the grain yield formation.
Key words: spring barley, basic tillage, fertilizers, yields, reserves of productive moisture, wet-consumption.
|№1 (2020)||The influence of fertilizer systems on the formation of fertility of gray forest soil in short-rotational crop rotation under spring barley||Annotation|
The influence of fertilizer systems on the formation of fertility of gray forest soil in short-rotational crop rotation under spring barley
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 167–173.
Kachmar O. Yo., Vavrynovych O. V., Dubytska A. O., Dubytsky O. L., Shcherba M. M.
Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region of NAAS, 5, Grushevsky Str., Obrocshyno village,
Pustomytovsky district, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
It is established that the highest fertility level of gray forest surface-covered soil is formed in grain-fodder and short-rotation crop rotations under barley spring in the variants of intensive fertilizer system - application per hectare of crop rotation area 10 tons of manure and N45,0- 5,5,5-52,5 directly under culture - N60P60K60.
Our studies conducted in short rotation crop rotations under barley spring revealed that, on average, for three years of studies during the period of seedlings of the crop on uncoated variants, the field moisture content in the 0–20 cm layer of soil was 16,5–17,1 %, productive – 29,7–31,2 mm, in the 20–40 cm layer respectively 17,7–18,4 % and 35,8–36,9 mm.
In the mowing phase, the field moisture in the arable (0–20 cm) layer increased to 16,8–18,1 % in the unfertilized variants and to 18,0–19,1 % when applied directly under N60P60K60 culture. At the end of the growing season, during the onset of waxy ripeness of spring barley, due to the long period with low rainfall (June-July), the field moisture content of the soil decreased and amounted to 13,4–14,9 % at the control, using full doses of mineral fertilizers – 14,8–15,7 %.
Stocks of productive moisture varied according to the phases of vegetation of the crop in direct dependence on the indicators of field humidity and at the onset of wax ripeness in the arable layer of soil were: 27,0–28,3 mm and 29,1–30,3 mm, respectively, according to fertilizer variants.
The study of the patterns of changes in the dynamics of the content and directions of nutrient transformation in short rotational rotations under barley spring showed that the best level of provision of mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium during the entire period of vegetation of culture provided an intensive organo-mineral system of fertilization of N60P60K60. At the time of germination in both forage and fruiting rotations, the content of light hydrolysis nitrogen compounds was 123,1–124,5 mg/kg of soil, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, respectively, 127,5–128,4 and 112,8–114,7 mg/kg soil in the arable (0–20 cm) horizon.
In the alternative fertilizer system at the level of mineral nutrition N30P30K30, the indices in both crop rotations were lower and amounted to 112,4–113,0, 113,4–115,5 and 109,0–110,6 mg/kg of soil, respectively.
By the end of the spring barley vegetation, the number of mobile forms of the basic nutrients was diminished due to the use of their culture for growth and bioproduction. In the full ripeness phase, in the two variations, the contents were at 98,7–100,5, 111,7–112,6, and 96,1–97,5 mg/kg of soil for intensive and 90,8–91,9, 100,4–101,6 and 93,1–94,3 mg/kg of soil under alternative fertilizer systems, respectively, of light hydrolysis nitrogen and mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium.
The results of our studies showed that during the growing of spring barley, higher values of mobile humic substances were formed in grain-forage crop rotation on variants of an intensive fertilizer system. Thus, when introduced directly into the N60P60K60 culture at the time of sprouting, the content of labile humus was 457,23, water-soluble – 18,27 mg/100 g of soil. Half doses of mineral fertilizers (N30P30K30) on the background of by-products – winter wheat straw in an alternative fertilizer system formed these indicators at the level of 408,17 and 15,86 mg/100 g of soil. In fruiting rotation on these variants of fertilizers unstable humic substances acquired values: 394,27 and 17,89 and 339,24 and 15,01 mg/100 g of soil.
Effective indicator of the action of a complex of dynamic and functional components of soil fertility is the crop yield and the quality of the products obtained. On average, over three years of research, the highest yields of spring barley grain were obtained on variants where mineral fertilizers were applied at a dose of N60P60K60 against the backdrop of 40 tons of manure. Under these conditions, its values varied from 3,59 t/ha in the forage crop rotation with the winter wheat precursor to 3,68 t/ha in the fruit-bearing crop with the potato precursor. Reducing the fertilizer dose by half on straw-pomegranate backgrounds reduced the yield by 0,66–0,62 t/ha. On the variants without fertilizers, the lowest yield of spring barley of 2,03–2,15 t/ha was formed in the studied crop rotations.
Key words: soil tillage systems, fertilizers, soil fertility, humus regime, labile humus, water-soluble humus.
|2 (2019)||The role of complete fallow in water accumulation and restoration of water balance in crop rotation||Annotation|
The role of complete fallow in water accumulation and restoration of water balance in crop rotation
UDC 631.51: 631.8: 633.854.78
Tsyliuryk O. I., Shevchenko M. S. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 318–330.
Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
In the conditions of the northern steppe due to fallow, irrespective of its predecessors (spring barley, sunflower, maize), soil cultivation methods and care features for winter wheat sowing, it is possible to achieve almost complete restoration of soil moisture resources (151,7–180,7 mm), which, even in the absence of rain during the spring-summer vegetation of the plants, guarantees a stable grain yield and prevents the harmful effects of drought. The presence of fallow in short crop rotation causes the restoration of productive soil humidity, especially after field crops that exceed the 1,5-meter layer of soil (sunflower).
Early fallow in the steppe (after barley) formed a dense protective screen formed by stubble, crushed straw and dead vegetation during steady cooling. Within the undisturbed background, there was a significant decrease in wind speed in the surface air space, earlier, gradual and uniform accumulation of snow, increasing its viscosity and density. Combined with the high buffering and holding capacity of early fallow, this reduced water loss to runoff, evaporation, freezing and blowing, increased the sediment absorption coefficient and the additional moisture accumulation in the root layer of soil (0–150 cm), compared to tillage and chisel cultivation an average of 105–131 m3/ha. Fallow lost more moisture in deep-loosened areas in autumn and less in variants of shallow disc tillage, which has explained by the formation of a compacted soil layer (10–20 cm) and a sufficiently high degree of projective coverage of its surface by plant residues.
A shallow non-board soil tillage system had the advantage in grain and fallow crop rotation, where a bit more moisture (by 3,2 mm) had accumulated in the cold autumn-winter period than the board system, which has explained by the presence of mulch after cereals here and better moisture accumulation in early fallow. Regarding the other indicators, the same pattern has observed as in the grain-fallow-cutting rotation. Total moisture consumption during the growing season increased by 7,0 mm per board system compared to shallow (non-board).
The water regime of the soil in the crop rotation with the field of sunflower was more intense than in the grain-fallow with the field of barley, as evidenced by lower moisture reserves before sowing crops – by 7,2–13,4 mm and higher total moisture costs – by 25,9–28,5 mm during the growing season. The water consumption here was also higher by 34,8–39,2 mm/t, which can be explained by the presence of sunflower in this crop rotation, which is able to use moisture from deep soil layers – more than 1,5 m. That is, the soil tillage systems had a smaller impact on forming a moisture balance than a set of crop rotations.
The total soil moisture costs varied within a narrow range (306,2–310,4 mm) and remained almost unchanged depending on the tillage systems. It is necessary to note the more economical use of water by field crops under the shallow mulching system of soil tillage, as evidenced by the decrease of the index of water consumption by 13,4 mm/t to compare with board tillage.
Keywords: winter wheat, fallow, early fallow, predecessors, basic tillage, mulching, fertilizer system, yield.
|2 (2019)||The impact of ecologically safe fertilizer systems of the winter wheat on the biological activity of the soil under conditions of climate chang||Annotation|
The impact of ecologically safe fertilizer systems of the winter wheat on the biological activity of the soil under conditions of climate chang
UDC 574.4: 631.8: 633.11
Dubitska A. O., Kachmar O. Yo., Dubitsky O. L., Vavrynovych O. V. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). С. 331–336 .
Institute of Agriculture of Carpathian Region of NAAS, 5, Grushevskogo Str., v. Obroshyne, Pustomyty district,
Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The abiotic factors, including climatic ones, which, together with agronomic measures, determine the course of biological processes in the soil, have a significant impact on the productivity, ecological status, and functioning of the agroecosystems. Therefore, the study of concrete agronomic measures, in particular the impact of ecologically safe fertilizer systems(ESFS) on changes of the soil biological activity and adaptation of agroecosystems to climate change, is timely and relevant.
In agrocenoses of the winter wheat, under conditions of the introduction of ESFS, a general tendency has been found to improve the course of biological processes in the soil, namely, a weakening of the mineralization processes, an increase in the nitrification ability of the soil, and an increase in CO2 emission.
Sufficient amount of precipitation and an increase in air temperature relative to the perennial average values of spring 2018 had a positive effect on the metabolic activity of microorganisms, providing a high level of biological activity on variants of organo-mineral fertilizer systems.
The unsatisfactory conditions of the spring period of 2017, which were due to increased temperature conditions, insufficient rainfall, and therefore a lack of moisture, led to a deterioration of the biological regime of the soil. This was manifested in a decrease in the intensity of CO2 emission from the soil surface, and a decrease in nitrification ability. However, under application of humus or microbiological fertilizer on the background of pea straw + N30P45K45, this trend is partially levelling. Obviously, that in conditions of insufficient moisture and an increased temperature background, the use of organic fertilizers (humus-containing or microbiological) and secondary crop production (straw) helps to conserved moisture in the soil, ecological stability and the activity of microbiocenosis.
Analysis the regularity of changes of the biological activity in soil under the conditions of ESFS makes it possible to minimize the negative effects of extreme fluctuations of soil temperature and humidity on its fertility.
Key words: biological activity of the soil, gray forest soil, winter wheat, ecologically safe fertilizer systems, weather conditions.
|1 (2019)||Technogenic level of arable farming and associative variability of weeds in agrocenoses||Annotation|
Technogenic level of arable farming and associative variability of weeds in agrocenoses
UDK 631.5:631.51 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0064
Shevchenko M. S.1, Shevchenko S. M.2, Derevenets-Shevchenko K. A.1, Shvets N. V.1 Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (1). 83–92.
1 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
2Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
On the basis of multiyear field time and stationary experiments on the study of the effectiveness of herbicides, the distribution of weeds and the impact of agricultural factors, features of the transformation of their species composition were established. It was established that the high regulatory capacity against the botanical composition of weeds was determined by herbicides, the structure of sown areas, the phytocoenic density of crops and the intensity of soil cultivation.
The most characteristic of the newest cycle of development of agriculture was the universalization and growth of phytotoxic action of herbicides up to 90–97% and the transition to minimizing soil cultivation. The theoretical conclusion about necessity of constant correction of phytotoxic spectrum of herbicides and differentiation of cultivation of soil in crop rotation is made.
It is established, according to which agro-ecological scenario can develop the situation in the herbological, herbicidal and agro-system agriculture. In the conditions of intensive diversification of agrarian production and concentration of markets, the new meaning is filled with the concept of crop rotation and system alternation of crops. At the forefront is no longer the dependence of the productivity of culture from the predecessor, and the permissibility of saturation with their toxicants herbicide origin. Avoid the uncontrolled spread of herbicides should be a scientifically grounded alternation of pesticide-containing (corn, sunflower) and phytocoenocisal-resistant (winter wheat) crops.
To overcome the negative effects of herbicides on crops in crop rotation, it is necessary to introduce into the agricultural practice the accounting of used herbicides in each rotational line.
A trend that accelerates the use of combined herbicides can be an additional impetus for accelerating by the weeds acquired resistance to the active substance of preparations of different chemical classes. Therefore, in order to prevent the evolutionary occurrence of herbicide immunity, every 10 years it is necessary to change the phytotoxic concept on the basis of new mechanisms of depression of weeds.
Key words: agriculture, weeds, herbicides, crop rotations, agricultural crops, weedeness, phytoto-xicity, species composition, transformation, prognosis.