|№1 (2020)||Weeding of maize agrocenoses under the influence of tillage and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Weeding of maize agrocenoses under the influence of tillage and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 152–159.
Tsyliuryk O. I.1, Desyatnyk L. M. 2, Berezovskiy S. V.2
1 Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25, Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
2 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
An important limiting factor in corn cultivation technology is weed infestation, so the effectiveness of measures aimed at increasing grain yields is significantly reduced. Even with the widespread introduction of modern high-performance herbicides, weeds remain harmful targets, reducing corn yields by more than a third.In recent decades, in the steppe agriculture due to crises and declining levels of agricultural culture, the potential contamination of the arable layer of chernozems with vegetative reproductive organs (150–300 thousand shoots/ha) and seeds (0.5–1.0 billion pieces / ha) has increased. While the soil (cultural condition of the soil) is generally considered to be clean, in the arable layer of which there are less than 1 thousand /ha of perennial roots and 10 million pieces/ha of similar seeds of perennial weeds. Due to excessive potential soil contamination in row crops during the growing season, up to 1.5–2.0 thousand seedlings of perennial and 15–30 sprouts or shoots of perennial root-sprouting weeds can appear per 1 m2.
Recently, in the technology of growing corn, shallow (mulching) non-board soil tillage has become relevant, which eliminates the possibility of turning the arable layer. The limited amount of information on the effectiveness of mulching non-board soil tillage in the technology of growing corn, as well as the ambiguous attitude of scientists to different methods of tillage, encourages further research in this direction to ensure optimal conditions for plant growth and development and maximum grain yield at minimum production costs. and high profitability of production.
The purpose of the study is to establish the patterns of species composition of the main weeds and their quantitative dynamics, to determine the impact of different methods of basic tillage on weediness of corn crops, as well as to determine the level of yield and grain quality depending on the methods of basic tillage and fertilization.
The evolutionary adaptation of weeds has been shown to be characterized by extremely powerful regenerative energy, which can easily overcome technological barriers aimed at destroying unwanted vegetation. Weed biodiversity cannot be completely neutralized, it is now only possible to maintain minimal damage below the economic threshold. The species composition of weeds in maize crops depends on their adaptability and the structure of sown areas in crop rotation.
The species composition of weeds is formed depending on their adaptability and structure of sown areas of crops. Weed dominance in the agrobiocenosis is based on herbicide resistance, a wide range of seed germination, morphological plasticity and the presence of neotenic traits.
It was found that the introduction of mulching non-board soil tillage (chisel, flat tillage) in the technology of growing corn leads to an increase in weediness of its crops by 1.4–1.8 times, which in turn requires additional regulations for the use of soil and post-emergence herbicides. Plowing and chiseling have been shown to have a minimal advantage over maize yields both on unfertilized background and with the application of N30P30K30, due to slightly better plant nutrition conditions and less weediness. With an increase in the proportion of nitrogen (N60P30K30) in the fertilization of corn, more effective is the shallow non-board soil tillage of the chips, due to which it is possible to obtain the same relative to plowing and chiseling grain yield by leveling the above factors. The methods of basic tillage with low total weediness of crops (9.0–12.6 pieces/m2) do not significantly affect the quality of corn grain. When applying mineral fertilizers (especially nitrogen) there is a tendency to increase the protein content in the grain and decrease - carbohydrates, in particular starch.
Key words: corn, tillage, weeding, fertilizers, mineral fertilizers, yield.
|№1 (2020)||Dynamics of productive soil moisture and spring barley yield depending on tillage and fertilizers||Annotation|
Dynamics of productive soil moisture and spring barley yield depending on tillage and fertilizers
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 160–166.
Shevchenko M. S., Desyatnyk L. M., BokunO. I.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The results of studying the influence of different methods of basic tillage (plowing by 20–22 cm,subsurface tillage by 14–16 cm; No-till) and fertilizers (vegetable residues of the predecessor without fertilizers; plant residues and mineral fertilizers N45P45K45) on the water regime of soil (black earth heavy loam) and the productivity of spring barley in the northern Steppe during 2016–2018are presented.Productive soil moisture reserves in the soil were determined in the spring before sowing, in phase of barley ears and before grain harvesting.
The level of productive moisture reserves during the sowing of barley in the soil layer 0–150 cm depending on the basic tillage hesitated within 173–185 mm. But already in this period there was a tendency to decrease the amount of accumulated moisture with a decrease in the depth of basic tillage. When applying plowing and subsurface tillage maximum moisture reserves reached 158–165 mm, and in the case of direct sowing – 143 mm.
From sowing to the phase of ears with plants of ungrounded barley crops 47.6–54.4% of the before sowing moisture reserves were used, in the case of mineral fertilizers application – 58.9–61.7%. The highest moisture costs are observed in the direct sowing variant, the difference between other tillage variants is insignificant – within 2–3 %.
From phase of ears to full ripeness of grain barley crops grown on plowing spent 19.8% (in control) and 15.7 % (in fertilizers option) of initial moisture supply; on subsurface tillage – 21.4 and 15.6 %, and by No-till technology – 19.9 and 15.6% respectively.
The weather conditions were most unfavorable in 2016, when the yield of spring barley varied within 1.81–2.45 t/he, in 2017 and 2018 it was 2.03–3.36 t/he. But in different weather conditions reducing the depth of cultivation caused a decrease in grain yield.
On average over the three years ofstudiesin options of plowing in the control without fertilizers 2.5 t/h of grain were obtained, on the background of subsurface tillage– by 8 % and in the case of direct sowing – by 23.2% less. When using N45P45K45 fertilizers, the reduction of grain yield compared to plowing was 13.6% and 26.5%, respectively.
Fertilizers had a positive influence on grain yield formation of spring barley. In the field of plowing in the fertilized experience option, yield increase was 20.8%, on the background of subsurface tillage – 13.5%, in the experience option with direct sowing – 15.6%.
As the depth of tillage decreased, the water consumption coefficient increased, which confirms the less efficient use of moisture when using No-till technology: in the unfertilized option the efficiency of wa- ter consumption in the direct sowing version was 21% (123.9 mm/t) smaller compared to plowing (102.3 mm/t), when soil was fertilizing this difference increases to 28% (110 and 86.9 mm/t, respectively). Indicators of water consumption of barley plants in the variant with subsurface tillage differ from similar data on plowing only by 5–13 %.
Therefore, to increase the level of spring barleygrain harvest and more efficient use of soil moisture, mineral fertilizers should be applied, which will allow to obtain an additional 13–21 % of thegrain crop.The efficiency of water consumption and the level of grain yield of spring barley decreased with the decrease in the depth of the basic tillage.The most effective basic tillage was plowing by 20–22 cm. The alternative to plowing can be subsurface tillage by 14–16 cmbecause it was more economical from the energy point of view. Direct sowing in untreated soil was the least effectiveregarding the grain yield formation.
Key words: spring barley, basic tillage, fertilizers, yields, reserves of productive moisture, wet-consumption.
|№1 (2020)||The influence of fertilizer systems on the formation of fertility of gray forest soil in short-rotational crop rotation under spring barley||Annotation|
The influence of fertilizer systems on the formation of fertility of gray forest soil in short-rotational crop rotation under spring barley
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 167–173.
Kachmar O. Yo., Vavrynovych O. V., Dubytska A. O., Dubytsky O. L., Shcherba M. M.
Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region of NAAS, 5, Grushevsky Str., Obrocshyno village,
Pustomytovsky district, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
It is established that the highest fertility level of gray forest surface-covered soil is formed in grain-fodder and short-rotation crop rotations under barley spring in the variants of intensive fertilizer system - application per hectare of crop rotation area 10 tons of manure and N45,0- 5,5,5-52,5 directly under culture - N60P60K60.
Our studies conducted in short rotation crop rotations under barley spring revealed that, on average, for three years of studies during the period of seedlings of the crop on uncoated variants, the field moisture content in the 0–20 cm layer of soil was 16,5–17,1 %, productive – 29,7–31,2 mm, in the 20–40 cm layer respectively 17,7–18,4 % and 35,8–36,9 mm.
In the mowing phase, the field moisture in the arable (0–20 cm) layer increased to 16,8–18,1 % in the unfertilized variants and to 18,0–19,1 % when applied directly under N60P60K60 culture. At the end of the growing season, during the onset of waxy ripeness of spring barley, due to the long period with low rainfall (June-July), the field moisture content of the soil decreased and amounted to 13,4–14,9 % at the control, using full doses of mineral fertilizers – 14,8–15,7 %.
Stocks of productive moisture varied according to the phases of vegetation of the crop in direct dependence on the indicators of field humidity and at the onset of wax ripeness in the arable layer of soil were: 27,0–28,3 mm and 29,1–30,3 mm, respectively, according to fertilizer variants.
The study of the patterns of changes in the dynamics of the content and directions of nutrient transformation in short rotational rotations under barley spring showed that the best level of provision of mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium during the entire period of vegetation of culture provided an intensive organo-mineral system of fertilization of N60P60K60. At the time of germination in both forage and fruiting rotations, the content of light hydrolysis nitrogen compounds was 123,1–124,5 mg/kg of soil, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, respectively, 127,5–128,4 and 112,8–114,7 mg/kg soil in the arable (0–20 cm) horizon.
In the alternative fertilizer system at the level of mineral nutrition N30P30K30, the indices in both crop rotations were lower and amounted to 112,4–113,0, 113,4–115,5 and 109,0–110,6 mg/kg of soil, respectively.
By the end of the spring barley vegetation, the number of mobile forms of the basic nutrients was diminished due to the use of their culture for growth and bioproduction. In the full ripeness phase, in the two variations, the contents were at 98,7–100,5, 111,7–112,6, and 96,1–97,5 mg/kg of soil for intensive and 90,8–91,9, 100,4–101,6 and 93,1–94,3 mg/kg of soil under alternative fertilizer systems, respectively, of light hydrolysis nitrogen and mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium.
The results of our studies showed that during the growing of spring barley, higher values of mobile humic substances were formed in grain-forage crop rotation on variants of an intensive fertilizer system. Thus, when introduced directly into the N60P60K60 culture at the time of sprouting, the content of labile humus was 457,23, water-soluble – 18,27 mg/100 g of soil. Half doses of mineral fertilizers (N30P30K30) on the background of by-products – winter wheat straw in an alternative fertilizer system formed these indicators at the level of 408,17 and 15,86 mg/100 g of soil. In fruiting rotation on these variants of fertilizers unstable humic substances acquired values: 394,27 and 17,89 and 339,24 and 15,01 mg/100 g of soil.
Effective indicator of the action of a complex of dynamic and functional components of soil fertility is the crop yield and the quality of the products obtained. On average, over three years of research, the highest yields of spring barley grain were obtained on variants where mineral fertilizers were applied at a dose of N60P60K60 against the backdrop of 40 tons of manure. Under these conditions, its values varied from 3,59 t/ha in the forage crop rotation with the winter wheat precursor to 3,68 t/ha in the fruit-bearing crop with the potato precursor. Reducing the fertilizer dose by half on straw-pomegranate backgrounds reduced the yield by 0,66–0,62 t/ha. On the variants without fertilizers, the lowest yield of spring barley of 2,03–2,15 t/ha was formed in the studied crop rotations.
Key words: soil tillage systems, fertilizers, soil fertility, humus regime, labile humus, water-soluble humus.
|2 (2019)||The role of complete fallow in water accumulation and restoration of water balance in crop rotation||Annotation|
The role of complete fallow in water accumulation and restoration of water balance in crop rotation
UDC 631.51: 631.8: 633.854.78
Tsyliuryk O. I., Shevchenko M. S. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). 318–330.
Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
In the conditions of the northern steppe due to fallow, irrespective of its predecessors (spring barley, sunflower, maize), soil cultivation methods and care features for winter wheat sowing, it is possible to achieve almost complete restoration of soil moisture resources (151,7–180,7 mm), which, even in the absence of rain during the spring-summer vegetation of the plants, guarantees a stable grain yield and prevents the harmful effects of drought. The presence of fallow in short crop rotation causes the restoration of productive soil humidity, especially after field crops that exceed the 1,5-meter layer of soil (sunflower).
Early fallow in the steppe (after barley) formed a dense protective screen formed by stubble, crushed straw and dead vegetation during steady cooling. Within the undisturbed background, there was a significant decrease in wind speed in the surface air space, earlier, gradual and uniform accumulation of snow, increasing its viscosity and density. Combined with the high buffering and holding capacity of early fallow, this reduced water loss to runoff, evaporation, freezing and blowing, increased the sediment absorption coefficient and the additional moisture accumulation in the root layer of soil (0–150 cm), compared to tillage and chisel cultivation an average of 105–131 m3/ha. Fallow lost more moisture in deep-loosened areas in autumn and less in variants of shallow disc tillage, which has explained by the formation of a compacted soil layer (10–20 cm) and a sufficiently high degree of projective coverage of its surface by plant residues.
A shallow non-board soil tillage system had the advantage in grain and fallow crop rotation, where a bit more moisture (by 3,2 mm) had accumulated in the cold autumn-winter period than the board system, which has explained by the presence of mulch after cereals here and better moisture accumulation in early fallow. Regarding the other indicators, the same pattern has observed as in the grain-fallow-cutting rotation. Total moisture consumption during the growing season increased by 7,0 mm per board system compared to shallow (non-board).
The water regime of the soil in the crop rotation with the field of sunflower was more intense than in the grain-fallow with the field of barley, as evidenced by lower moisture reserves before sowing crops – by 7,2–13,4 mm and higher total moisture costs – by 25,9–28,5 mm during the growing season. The water consumption here was also higher by 34,8–39,2 mm/t, which can be explained by the presence of sunflower in this crop rotation, which is able to use moisture from deep soil layers – more than 1,5 m. That is, the soil tillage systems had a smaller impact on forming a moisture balance than a set of crop rotations.
The total soil moisture costs varied within a narrow range (306,2–310,4 mm) and remained almost unchanged depending on the tillage systems. It is necessary to note the more economical use of water by field crops under the shallow mulching system of soil tillage, as evidenced by the decrease of the index of water consumption by 13,4 mm/t to compare with board tillage.
Keywords: winter wheat, fallow, early fallow, predecessors, basic tillage, mulching, fertilizer system, yield.
|2 (2019)||The impact of ecologically safe fertilizer systems of the winter wheat on the biological activity of the soil under conditions of climate chang||Annotation|
The impact of ecologically safe fertilizer systems of the winter wheat on the biological activity of the soil under conditions of climate chang
UDC 574.4: 631.8: 633.11
Dubitska A. O., Kachmar O. Yo., Dubitsky O. L., Vavrynovych O. V. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2). С. 331–336 .
Institute of Agriculture of Carpathian Region of NAAS, 5, Grushevskogo Str., v. Obroshyne, Pustomyty district,
Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The abiotic factors, including climatic ones, which, together with agronomic measures, determine the course of biological processes in the soil, have a significant impact on the productivity, ecological status, and functioning of the agroecosystems. Therefore, the study of concrete agronomic measures, in particular the impact of ecologically safe fertilizer systems(ESFS) on changes of the soil biological activity and adaptation of agroecosystems to climate change, is timely and relevant.
In agrocenoses of the winter wheat, under conditions of the introduction of ESFS, a general tendency has been found to improve the course of biological processes in the soil, namely, a weakening of the mineralization processes, an increase in the nitrification ability of the soil, and an increase in CO2 emission.
Sufficient amount of precipitation and an increase in air temperature relative to the perennial average values of spring 2018 had a positive effect on the metabolic activity of microorganisms, providing a high level of biological activity on variants of organo-mineral fertilizer systems.
The unsatisfactory conditions of the spring period of 2017, which were due to increased temperature conditions, insufficient rainfall, and therefore a lack of moisture, led to a deterioration of the biological regime of the soil. This was manifested in a decrease in the intensity of CO2 emission from the soil surface, and a decrease in nitrification ability. However, under application of humus or microbiological fertilizer on the background of pea straw + N30P45K45, this trend is partially levelling. Obviously, that in conditions of insufficient moisture and an increased temperature background, the use of organic fertilizers (humus-containing or microbiological) and secondary crop production (straw) helps to conserved moisture in the soil, ecological stability and the activity of microbiocenosis.
Analysis the regularity of changes of the biological activity in soil under the conditions of ESFS makes it possible to minimize the negative effects of extreme fluctuations of soil temperature and humidity on its fertility.
Key words: biological activity of the soil, gray forest soil, winter wheat, ecologically safe fertilizer systems, weather conditions.
|1 (2019)||Technogenic level of arable farming and associative variability of weeds in agrocenoses||Annotation|
Technogenic level of arable farming and associative variability of weeds in agrocenoses
UDK 631.5:631.51 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0064
Shevchenko M. S.1, Shevchenko S. M.2, Derevenets-Shevchenko K. A.1, Shvets N. V.1 Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (1). 83–92.
1 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
2Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
On the basis of multiyear field time and stationary experiments on the study of the effectiveness of herbicides, the distribution of weeds and the impact of agricultural factors, features of the transformation of their species composition were established. It was established that the high regulatory capacity against the botanical composition of weeds was determined by herbicides, the structure of sown areas, the phytocoenic density of crops and the intensity of soil cultivation.
The most characteristic of the newest cycle of development of agriculture was the universalization and growth of phytotoxic action of herbicides up to 90–97% and the transition to minimizing soil cultivation. The theoretical conclusion about necessity of constant correction of phytotoxic spectrum of herbicides and differentiation of cultivation of soil in crop rotation is made.
It is established, according to which agro-ecological scenario can develop the situation in the herbological, herbicidal and agro-system agriculture. In the conditions of intensive diversification of agrarian production and concentration of markets, the new meaning is filled with the concept of crop rotation and system alternation of crops. At the forefront is no longer the dependence of the productivity of culture from the predecessor, and the permissibility of saturation with their toxicants herbicide origin. Avoid the uncontrolled spread of herbicides should be a scientifically grounded alternation of pesticide-containing (corn, sunflower) and phytocoenocisal-resistant (winter wheat) crops.
To overcome the negative effects of herbicides on crops in crop rotation, it is necessary to introduce into the agricultural practice the accounting of used herbicides in each rotational line.
A trend that accelerates the use of combined herbicides can be an additional impetus for accelerating by the weeds acquired resistance to the active substance of preparations of different chemical classes. Therefore, in order to prevent the evolutionary occurrence of herbicide immunity, every 10 years it is necessary to change the phytotoxic concept on the basis of new mechanisms of depression of weeds.
Key words: agriculture, weeds, herbicides, crop rotations, agricultural crops, weedeness, phytoto-xicity, species composition, transformation, prognosis.
|1 (2019)||Effect of basic soil cultivation for damage by pests and defeat by diseases of grain crops||Annotation|
Effect of basic soil cultivation for damage by pests and defeat by diseases of grain crops
UDC 631.51: 631.8: 633.854.78 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0065
Tsyliuryk O.I. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 93–101.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhii Efremov Str., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
Significant limiting factors for the cultivation of grain crops are the degree of defeat by diseases and pest damage. Despite the widespread introduction of modern high-performance chemical protection products, they continue to be harmful objects that reduce crop by more than a third.
The purpose of the work is to determine the peculiarities of damage by pests and defeat by diseases of the main grain crops (corn, winter wheat) depending on the methods and the system of basic soil cultivation and fertilizer.
The experimental part of the work was conducted during 2001–2015 in accordance with the generally accepted methodology of the research in the long-term stationary experiments of the DPDG «Dnipro» in the Institute of Agriculture of steppe zone of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Dnipropetrovsk region). Experiments are laid out in triple repetition, the total area of sown area is 330 m2, and accounting area is 100 m2.
There was a tendency to increase the damage by wireworms (seedlings – 15,2–16,4 %, seeds – 15,1–17,6 %) of corn plants for mulching soil cultivation (flat cutting) with abandonment on the surface and wrapping in the upper layer (0–16 cm) of the plant residues of the predecessor (spring barley). The conducting of board cultivation contributed to the removal of many wireworms (Elateridae) on the surface of the soil, where it died due to physical drying under the influence of sun rays and destroyed by birds in the fall immediately after cultivation. In this case, the damage to seedlings and seeds decreased to 10,9–13,0 and 9,2–12,8 % respectively, or by 3,4–4,3 and 4,8–5,9 % less than that of the shallow mulching system. The system of differentiated cultivation occupied an intermediate position with respect to corn damage by wireworms (seedlings – 13,6–14,8 %, seeds – 12,9–15,2 %). Incorporation of fertilizers under corn in a dose of N60P30K30 contributed to better growth and endurance (tolerance) of plants irrespective of the system of cultivation, damage of seedlings and seeds by wireworms was reduced by 1,2 and 1,4 times, respectively.
The corn damage by corn moth was at a low level and fluctuated within 1,4–2,5 % with increasing damage in a shallow mulching system of cultivation in 1,5–1,7 times, due to the presence of plant remains in it, in which well preserved and wintering dolls of corn mothes in contrast to the board cultivating system, where, on the contrary, they burrow in the lower layers of the soil and die.
There was a tendency to decrease the development of root rot in the variants of board soil cultivation, in comparison with disk, chisel and non-board cultivation in 1,1–1,25 times, as well as on the uncoated background in relation to fertilizer, which is explained by the plowing of the cultivars and reduction of the period of infection non-nourished plants due to their premature maturation and drying.
The use of boardand differentiated soil cultivation systems for corn growing provides for the most complete destruction of pathogens (mold seedlings and root rot, plants with bile ducts, early illnesses) and pests (wireworms, stalk mothes, cotton scoops) that hibernate and remain in plant remains. Indicators of defeat by diseases and damage by pests are reduced by 1,4–1,6 times as a result of tillage of plant remains along with pathogens in the lower layers of the soil. The use of shallow mulching cultivation requires additional regulations on the control of pests and diseases, provided they exceed the economic thresholds for their harmfulness, which requires additional costs of material resources, especially in the years of significant manifestation of harmful objects.
The damage of winter wheat plants to root rotates decreases in areas with board soil cultivation by 1,1–1,25 times, as well as in the unpolluted background in relation to fertilized by tillage postbreeding remains and the reduction of the period of infection of non-fertilized plants due to their premature maturation and drying.
Key words: winter wheat, corn, damage by pests, defeat by diseases, basic soil cultivation, fertilizer system.
|1 (2019)||Structural and aggregate composition of soil depending on the tilling method in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Structural and aggregate composition of soil depending on the tilling method in conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.452: 631.512 (477.6) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0066
Medvedyev E. B. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 102–109.
Lugansk Institute of Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 Oktyabrska Str., Village of Metalist, Slavyanoserbsk district, Lugansk region, 93733, Ukraine
The article shows the results of studies on the impact of the main tillage methods on the soils structural-aggregate composition in the link of grain-fallow-tilled crop rotation (winter wheat – peas – winter wheat) under conditions of the northern plains of Ukraine in 2010–2012.
It was found that when growing peas after winter wheat on the corn of milky-wax ripeness in all the years of research, plowing compared with beard lesstreat ment contributed to the formation of the best agronomical structure in the upper (0−10 cm) soil layer. So, on average over the years of research in the spring before applying the pre-sowing treatment of the soil, the difference in the content of agronomically valuable aggregates (10–0.25 mm) and the value of the structural coefficient in this layer in favour of plowing was, respectively, 3.5% and 0.19. This was due to a decrease in the number of structural units with a size of >10 mm. On average, over the years of research, there were less of them by 3.9% at the mouldboard plowing compared to aboardless treatment. By the time of harvesting, this trend continued, except for 2012, in which the difference in these indicators in terms of treatment options was almost not observed during this period. Significant differences in the addition of structural aggregates in soil layers of 10–20 and 20–30 cm have not been established for the experimental variants.
The studies revealed a tendency to an increase in the number of pulverescent aggregates
Regarding aggregates of size >10 mm, by the time of harvest, there was a tendency to reduce their number in the entire arable layer of soil in all crops of the crop rotation link mainly during all the years of research, which contributed to the improvement of its structural indicators.
The indicators of the structural aggregate composition of the soil with different ways of its procthreessing did not lead to the emergence of a significant difference in the water regime, bulk density, microbiological activity in the soil, the crop yield of the crop rotation link, which is confirmed by our previously published studies.
Key words: soil treatment, structural-aggregate composition, pea, winter wheat, soil layer.
|1 (2019)||Influence of the basic soil cultivation systems and fertilization on yield of winter wheat after fallow in Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of the basic soil cultivation systems and fertilization on yield of winter wheat after fallow in Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.581: 631.51: 631.432 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0067
Tsyliuryk O. I. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 110–119.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhii Efremov Str., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
The level of crop yield and gross collection of winter wheat grain is determined by the general level of production and the state of food security of Ukraine. Therefore, the use of modern technologies, one of which elements is the optimal dosage of fertilizers, and the right choice of methods for basic soil cultivation, in combination with other elements of technology and weather conditions, provide maximum level of productivity of plants. The mutual influence of various factors on the size of the grain crop related to the soil cultivation is complex, sometimes somewhat different depending on the years and the growing zone, and therefore requires additional research to determine the optimal methods and systems of soil cultivating in order to increase the yield of winter wheat, especially in recent decades of global warming.
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of the formation of a grain yield of fallowwinter wheat under the influence of different systems of basic soil cultivation and fertilization and the determination of the optimal variant of arable land tillage.
Different ways of the basic cultivation of fallow (disk, chisel, board) provided in the experiments practically the same productivity of winter wheat. It should be noted the tendency to reduce the yield of grain in the early fallow after barley, compared with fallow against the background of no fertilizer at 0,10–0,20 tons/ha, or 2,7–3,8 %.
Deep board cultivation of fallow did not have advantages compared to shallow disk cultivation, as opposed to spring-like, loose soil tillage, where lower fertilizer yields were obtained within individual fertilizer options (no tufts, N30P30K30). At the same time, application of N60 in spring in combination with P30K30 under pre-sowing cultivation provided grain yield at the control level (tillage – 5,50, early fallow – 5,52 t/ha).
Use of board cultivation with the addition of N30P30K30 contributed to extra grain yield of 0,28 t/ha, disk – 0,38, flat cutter – 0,33 t/ha, and N60P30K30 – respectively 0,26; 0,43 and 0,48 t/ha. The low growth of grain yield from mineral fertilizers, in particular nitrogen, is due to lack of rainfall during the formation of reproductive organs in plants.
During the experiment, the deep tillage of fallow on all agrophons without exception allowed the production of food grain with the content of protein 11,6–12,4 %, and gluten 23,3–26,2 %. Autumn disk and spring flat cutting of the fallow field caused the annual receipt of grade 3 grain only when N60P30K30 was added (protein – 11,6–12,3 %, gluten – 22,6–24,6 %).
When engaging in the crop rotation of the by-products of crop rotation, the introduction of N30P30K30 under winter wheat, placed on a fallow, contributed (as compared to the unhealthy background) to increasing the content of protein in the grain by 0,6–1,0 %, gluten – by 1,9–2,6 %, and N60P30K30 – by 0,8–1,4 % and 2,0–3,0 % respectively.
Thus, the use of an early fallow after sunflower during winter wheat cultivation provides crop at the level of board, chiuzel and disc cultivation, that is, different pairs and methods of cultivating them are equivalent. At the same time, the introduction of an early fallow after a corn forehead (barley) and after corn in the process of engaging in the cycle of all the by-products of cultivated crops leads to a partial immobilization of nitrogen compounds of soil under wintering in the spring and to a tendency to decrease the grain yield by 0,10–0,20; 0,02–0,15 t/ha (or 2,70–3,80 and 0,10–0,15 %) compared to other soil cultivation.
Key words: winter wheat, basic soil cultivation, fertilizer system, early fallow, predecessors, grain yield.
|2 (2018)||Methodology for determination of soil moisture: classical errors and objective physical parameters||Annotation|
Methodology for determination of soil moisture: classical errors and objective physical parameters
UDC 631.5:432.2 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0041
Shevchenko M. S. 1,Desyatnyk L. M. 1, Shvets N. V. 1, Shevchenko S. M. 2 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 309–313.
1 SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
Based on the long-term study of the water regime and water availability in crop rotations and agro-systems, the factor dynamics of moisture in agrocenoses has been determined and corrections have been made to the methodology for determining the soil moisture reserves. In the process of research in mul-tifactorial field experiments, the complexity of the wet consumption of certain components of agrocenoses was revealed. Due to the use of comparison and exclusion methods, the mechanisms for distributing water between cultural and harmful objects are disclosed, using the methods of comparison and exclusion, the mechanisms of water distribution between cultural and harmful objects are disclosed.It is established that the most influential factors of the regulation of productive use of moisture in agrocenoses are crop rotations, weeds, pests and diseases, soil cultivation, etc.In this case, additional mobilization of volumes of moisture content of cultivated plants can reach 20–120 mm. It is proved that the existing method of determination of moisture content of soil and moisture content reduces the objectivity of these indicators and does not correspond to the current perceptions of the percentage (%) content of the constituent part in the whole object.The fundamental change in the mechanism of calculation is that the moisture content is determined from the moist soil sample, and not from the dry one, as was done by this time. At the same time, the coefficient of water-physical ratio is introduced into the moisture determination formula.
Key words: soil, humidity, formula, methodology, factors, moisture content, moisture reserves, coefficients, culture.