|№ 2 (2021)||Technical efficiency of herbicide tank mixtures under sunflower cultivation in the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Technical efficiency of herbicide tank mixtures under sunflower cultivation in the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 504.3:632.5:631.5:633.854.78 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0196
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 356–367
Tkalich Yu.I., Tsyliurik O.I., Kozechko, V.I, Shevchenko S. M., Honchar N. V., Rudakov Yu. M.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhii Yefremov St., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
At the current weed infestation level of chernozem, it is almost impossible to grow sunflowers without the regulated use of the most effective herbicides with different action spectrum on weeds. It was established that tank mixtures of ethametsulfuron-methyl herbicides (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.2 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml/ha and ethametsulfuron-methyl (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.5 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml/ha provided the highest technical efficiency and the lowest air-dry mass of weeds in the oilseed agrocenosis. Their technical efficiency was 61.2–65.8%. Almost all variants of herbicide tank mixtures showed a high phytotoxic effect on green amaranth (Amarantus retroflexus L.) – 51-61%, common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) – 52–76%, field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) – 100%, yellow foxtail (Setaria pumila L.) was the less controlled – 21– 31%.
The variants with the application of herbicide tank mixtures of ethametsulfuron-methyl (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.2 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml/ha showed the highest indicators of the yield structure elements, here the 1000 seed weight was 73.1 g at a maximum basket diameter of 31.5 cm. These indicators were less in 1.2–1.7 times for other studied variants with the herbicide tank mixtures.
When application of the tank mixtures of ethametsulfuron-methyl (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.2 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml / ha and ethametsulfuron -methyl (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.5 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml/ha, it was obtained the maximum yield of sunflower seeds 2.15 and 2.07 t/ha, respectively. Other variants with herbicides and their tank mixtures had significantly lower yield of sunflower seeds – by 23–27 %.
Key words: sunflower, weeds, herbicides, tank mixes, yield, technical efficiency
|№ 2 (2021)||Influence of tillage and fertilization systems with by-products use on the winter wheat productivity in Western Polissia of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of tillage and fertilization systems with by-products use on the winter wheat productivity in Western Polissia of Ukraine
UDC 633: 11: 631.81: 631.51: 631.432 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0197
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 368–373
Furmanets M. H., Furmanets Y. S.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissia of NAAS, 5 Rivnenska St., Shubkiv, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325, Ukraine
The peculiarities of influence of tillage and fertilization systems with use of by-products on the winter wheat productivity were established by research, which was conducted on dark gray podzolic soil the in a four-field short-term crop rotation (winter rape - winter wheat – maize – spring barley). We studied three tillage systems (nonmoldboard plowing to 20–22 cm, shallow tillage to 10–12 cm, and surface tillage to 6–8 cm) and fertilization system with the use of crop by-products on the background of mineral fertilizers N128P90K120 kg/ha of crop rotation area.
The highest plant productivity was formed by moldboard plowing to 20–22 cm and shallow tillage to 10–12 cm in fertilization variants with straw and straw + Ecostern destructor, in this case, the thousand grain weight was 47.1 and 47.9 and 46.4 and 47.0 g, the of grain weight per spike – 2.1 and 2.2 and 1.9 and 2.0 g. And lowest plant productivity was under surface tillage to 6–8 cm and various fertilization systems, where the thousand grain weight was 45.2–45.6 g, and the grain weight per spike 1.8–1.9 g. At moldboard and non-moldboard plowing to 10–12 cm and using straw + destructor, it was observed that an gluten content in winter wheat grain increased to 23.5 and 22.7 %, and protein content – to 12.9–11.7 % compared to with surface tillage, where these figures were 21.5 and 9.5 %, respectively.
It was found that the moldboard plowing to 20–22 cm and shallow tillage to 10–12 cm was effective at winter wheat cultivation, which formed a higher grain yield – 6.80 and 6.32 t/ha. It was clarified that surface tillage to 6–8 cm caused a decrease in grain yield by 1.45 t/ha compared to the moldboard plowing.
On average, over the research years, there was an increase in yield by 0.36 and 0.45 t/ha due to the use of straw as a fertilizer separately and in combination with the Ecostern destructor. By comparison, in the variant without straw, the yield was 5.89 t/ha on average by a factor.
Consequently, we established that for winter wheat cultivation in the Western Polissia of Ukraine, it is expedient to carry out the moldboard plowing to 20–22 cm and the non-moldboard plowing to 10–12 cm and to use fertilization system with straw + Ecostern destructor + N 10 kg (ammonium nitrate) per 1 ton of straw.
Key words: winter wheat, tillage, fertilizers, yield, destructor.
|№ 2 (2021)||Effectiveness of the biodestructor action on the decomposition of rice residues in soybean cultivation technology||Annotation|
Effectiveness of the biodestructor action on the decomposition of rice residues in soybean cultivation technology
UDC 631.572:633.18:631.559:633.34 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0198
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 374–382
Dudchenko V. V. 1, Markovska O. Ye. 2, Sydiakina O. V. 2
1 Institute of Rice of NAAS, 11 Studentska St., Antonivka, Skadovsk district, Kherson region, 75705, Ukraine
2 Kherson State Agrarian and Economic University, 23 Stritenska St., Kherson, 73006, Ukraine
For the implementation of productive potential of soybeans, it was presented an effective method of post-harvest residue destruction with the biologics in rice crop rotation. The research was conducted at the Institute of Rice of NAAS during 2016–2018. In autumn, post-harvest rice residues were treated with the Biocomplex-BTU Ecostern biodestructor (1l/ha) in combination with carbamide (concentrated amide water-soluble fertilizer) (30 kg/ha). The variant with the carbamide application (30 kg/ha) in autumn was a control.
The application of the Biocomplex-BTU Ecostern biodestructor (1 l/ha) in combination with carbamide increased the total number of pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi in the soil from 65.5 to 80.5 thousand/g of soil, or 22.9 %. Thus, the pathogenic microflora content in the studied variant was lower than in the control (carbamide application at rate of 30 kg/ha) by 21.8 %, and the number of saprotrophs increased 3.3 times. When Ecostern biodestructor and carbamide were combined for application, the number of antagonistic fungi doubled, while the number of toxin-forming fungi reduced by 9.4 %. Soybean yield at the combined application of Ecostern biodestructor and carbamide increased by 0.6 t/ha, or 17.9 % compared to the control (carbamide – 30 kg/ha). In addition, in this variant, the content of post-harvest rice residues in the soil at the soybean sowing was lower by 1.25 g/kg of soil, or 20.3 % compared to the control, which created favorable conditions for seed germination. It was observed that the yield increased due to the higher plant density and the number of beans per plant. Before harvesting, the soybean plant density due to the high field germination of seeds in the studied variant was 45 pcs/m2, which is 9.7 % more than the control (41 pcs/m2). The number of beans was 24 and 28 pcs/plant, and exceeded the control by 16.7 %; the thousand grain weight was 156.2 and 157.5 g which is more than the control by 0.8 %.
Key words: post-harvest residues, microorganisms, fertilizers, soil, rice, soybeans, grain yield, thousand grains weight.
|№1 (2021)||Change of agrophysical properties of ordinary chernozem under the tillage in crop rotation and on recultivated land in the steppe zone of Ukraine||Annotation|
Change of agrophysical properties of ordinary chernozem under the tillage in crop rotation and on recultivated land in the steppe zone of Ukraine
UDC 633.854.78 : 631.51 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0167
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 93-101.
TsyliurykО. І., ChornaV. І., GavryushenkoО. О., DesiatnykL. М.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Serhii Yefremov St., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49009,ukrainе
It is found that 0–30 cm arable layer density was in the range from 1.09 to 1.32 g/cm3 regardless of the tillage system at the beginning of spring field work. The compaction of 0–30 cm soil layer (by 0.02–0.14 g/cm3) was at the shallow mulching due to the loosening depth reduction to 12–14, 14–16 cm. There is an inversely proportion between soil porosity and density, i.e. the higher density, the lower pore volume in the soil. We can increase the porosity (up to 54.3 %) and improve the soil aeration (30.3–32.4 %) due to the primary tillage (especially plowing and chisel loosening) and crop residues, which leads to soil decompaction and the significant pore formation.
At the end of field crop vegetation, there was a natural compaction of the soil due to natural and technogenic factors. As a result, the pore volume decreased by an average of 2.7–5.7 % under moldboard plowing and differentiated tillage system and by 1.5–3, 5 % – shallow nonmoldboard loosening. In the spring and during the growing season, the compaction of porous soil under the moldboard plowing and differentiated tillage system has always been more intensive compared to shallow nonmoldboard tillage.
It is established that on the recultivated lands the total porosity and aeration porosity indicators in the model with zonal soil at long-term use of fertile layer gradually increased (52.5 → 59.2 → 60.3 %), however with the completion of intensive use of perennial agrocenosises they decreased to 56.4 %. For the model with loess-like loams, the patterns were similar. The increase of total porosity and aeration porosity in model with clays compared with the initially formed technosoils was observed.
Key words: field crops, tillage system, density, porosity, chisel tillage, disking, bulk fertile layer.
|№1 (2021)||Adaptive system of primary tillage for white mustard (Sinapis alba)||Annotation|
Adaptive system of primary tillage for white mustard (Sinapis alba)
UDC 631.31.633 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0168
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 102-106.
Kyryliuk V. P., Krychkivskyi V. N., Kovalchuk N. V.
Khmelnytskyi State Agricultural Experimental Station of the Institute of Feed and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS, 1, Samchyky St., Samchyky village, Starokostiantyniv district, Khmelnytskyi region, 31182, Ukraine
The research results of influence of the continuous application of the various systems of primary tillage and fertilization on the productivity of mustard white (sinapis alba) were presented.
It was found that the highest yield of white mustard seeds (1.89 t/ha) on the background of N60P60K60 fertilizers was formed under moldboard plowing. Against the background of organic and mineral fertilization (predecessor residues and application of N30P30K30), the highest seed yield (1.90 t/ha) was provided by the moldboard plowing. The use of traditional fertilizer of N60P60K60 for white mustard compared to the combination of crop residues and N30P30K30 fertilizers was economically unprofitable.
It is established that against the background of organic and mineral fertilization compared to mineral, the thinning of white mustard crops under minimal nonmoldboard cultivation reached almost 40–50 %. In general, the density of mustard plants on the background of organic and mineral fertilization was 1.5–1.55 mln plants/ha, and on the mineral – 1.65–1.7 mln plants/ha, i.e. on average it was lower by 10 %.
Analysis of the economic efficiency of growing white mustard showed that the subsurface tillage on the background of organic and mineral fertilization (predecessor residues and the application of N30P30K30) can be considered as the most promising and adapted to current weather conditions. The profitability of white mustard seed production was 263 %; almost such indicators of profitability were noted under chisel tillage – 259 %. It was found that the introduction of any subsurface tillage for white mustard on the background of organic and mineral fertilization is more profitable.
Key words: white mustard, yield, tillage, fertilizers, soil.
|№ 2 (2020)||Modern systems of agriculture and a new interpretation of cultivated value of agricultural crops||Annotation|
Modern systems of agriculture and a new interpretation of cultivated value of agricultural crops
Shevchenko, M. S., Decyatnik L. M., Derevenets-Shevchenko K. A., Shvets N. V.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 319–329.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskoho Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
Based on a broad experimental study of crop rotation productivity in different locations of the steppe zone, a correlative model for estimating the role of predecessors in the formation of post-crop yields has been developed. The connection between quality of agrotechnologies and change of degree of crop rotation competitiveness of culture is presented.
A retrospective analysis of the efficiency of farming and crop rotation systems showed that the constant improvement of varieties and hybrids of crops and technologies for their cultivation created objective agrobiological grounds for reassessment of predecessors in crop rotation. The main motive for this transformation was that in modern agricultural systems, high-potential biotechnological resources allow to obtain higher crop yields on the worst predecessors than on the best in the past.
In order to universalize the evaluation of crop rotation efficiency and model their productivity, it is proposed to introduce a crop rotation depression coefficient, which shows the share of yield remaining after individual predecessors compared to its baseline level after black pair. The most favorable conditions developed after crops with a coefficient above 0,80 – winter wheat, barley, rape, rye, spring barley, oats. At the same time, the development of post-rotational crops was significantly inhibited by sunflower, corn for grain and silage, beets, sorghum and soybeans, the coefficient of which was 0,66–0,78.
The proposed methodology of system analysis for the assessment of predecessors opens wider opportunities for the formation of adapted crop rotations, optimize the set of crops to market requirements, make important adjustments to crop rotations in extreme conditions, regulate crop rotation productivity taking into account agrotechnological modernization.
Keywords: crop rotation, tillage, fertilizers, crops, grain, predecessors, harvest, minimization.
|№ 2 (2020)||The state of heat resources and yield dynamics of the field crops in the conditions of the northern Steps of Ukraine||Annotation|
The state of heat resources and yield dynamics of the field crops in the conditions of the northern Steps of Ukraine
UDC 633:551.524 (292.486) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0142
Chaban V. I.,KliavzoS. P., Podobed O. U.,HorbatenkoA. І.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 330–338.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyra Vernadakyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainy
The most important environmental factors for the environment and habitat of plants include temperature. Agro-industrial production requires up-to-date information on the state of thermal resources and the response of plants to global warming within each region.
The purpose of the research is to evaluate the state of thermal resources and the dynamics of crop yields in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine. Material for the research was the results of observations of the temperature regime of the AISW Dnipro (1961–1990 and 1991–2018) and data of winter wheat, spring barley, corn, sunflower in stationary experiments on control variants (DPDG “Dnipro”). Statistical data were used to evaluate the data by period: arithmetic mean (M); standard deviation (S); confidence interval (CL0.05) probability (P); repeatability (P × 100 %). Statistical processing was performed using applications in Excel 2003 and Statistica (version 6).
Analysis of the thermal regime data showed that in 1991–2018, the average temperature for the year increased by 1.0 °C compared to the climatic norm (1961–1990), by 0.9 °C during the warm and cold periods. vegetation period of early cereals and late crops – by 0.8–1.0 °С. The average rate of increase in the average annual temperature in 1961–2018 was 0.31 ° C/10 years. Between 1991 and 2018, there were 15 cases with temperatures above 9.5 °C, with a recurrence rate of up to 53 %. The last decade (2009–2018) is characterized by a further increase in temperature during the year – by 1.5 ° C, the vegetation of early cere-als – by 1.6 °C, and late crops – by 2.0 °C. It is established that the warming is due to the temperature increase in the cold season – in January, February and March by 1.1,71.7 °C. Positive anomalies occur in July and August (+1.5 ° C).
For estimating thermal resources, the important characteristics are the average temperature of the coldest and warmest months of the year. January 10-year average temperatures steadily increased from (-6.5) °C in 1961–1970, to (-4.0) °C in 2011–2018. Their annual variability decreased. The recurrence of high temperature (> -5 °C) in January increased from 34–35 % in 1961–1980 to 73 % in 2011–2018.
The average values of July temperatures for 10 annual cycles have steadily increased from 20.8 to 23.0 °C since 1970. The recurrence of temperature> 23.0 °C for 1961–1970 was 2 cases and has increased 2.5 times in recent years. This increases the likelihood of sleepless periods. The positive trend leads to a shift in the dates of the steady transition of the average daily air temperature through 5 °C and the duration of the growing season. Over the last 18 years (2001–2018), it increased by 11–16 days (225 and 209–214). The incidence of such cases increased from 22 % to 44–50 %. At the same time, the increase in the duration of the period with an average daily temperature of ≥10 °C is not statistically significant.
The average sums of effective temperatures ≥5 °C over the 10-year cycles in 2011–2018 were 2711 °C, which is 347 °C higher than the base period (1961–1990). Temperature totals increase linearly from 1971 to 2018. However, their recurrence (≥2711) in 2011–2018 sharply increases to 50%. A close correlation (R2 = 0.75) was established between the duration of the period at ≥5 °C and the sum of effective heat ≥5 °C. A similar trend is typical for effective temperatures at ≥10 °C.
The results of the accounting of crops show that for the whole period of observations their average values were: winter wheat (steam) – 4.44 t/ha; spring barley – 2.40 t/ha; corn – 4.32 t/ha; sunflower – 2.15 t/ha. Their distribution was characterized by significant fluctuations due to the variability of weather conditions. However, its maximum levels were noted in the post base period.
Against the background of increasing supply of thermal resources in the region, there is an increase in their average yield: steam of winter – by 36 % (3.76 and 5.12 t/ha); spring barley – 24 % (2.14 and 2.65 t/ha ), corn – 11 % (4.14 and 4.59 t/ha), sunflower – 30 % (1.86 and 2.42 t/ha). The probability of forming the optimal yield level of steam winter, spring barley, corn and sunflower (≥4,44; ≥2,40; ≥4,32; ≥2,15 t/ha, respectively, for crops) in the post base period reaches 56–76% whereas in 1961–1990 it was 25–43%.
Keywords: thermal resources, sum of temperatures,field crops, yield dynamics, adaptive properties.
|№ 2 (2020)||Influence of methods of basic tillage on the dynamics of productive moisture reserves in spring barley crops in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of methods of basic tillage on the dynamics of productive moisture reserves in spring barley crops in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.51: 633.16 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0143
Tsyliuryk O. I.1, Chorna V. I.1, Desyatnyk L. M.2, Horshchar V. I.1
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 339–352.
1Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
2 SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The yield of spring barley significantly depends on the reserves of soil moisture, which ensures the implementation of all important life processes, including seed germination and rooting of seedlings, transpiration, thermoregulation and supply of nutrients to the plant. The productivity of spring barley is directly proportional to its moisture content. With sufficient soil moisture, favorable conditions for the growth and development of field crops, and ultimately increases their yield. In the northern steppe, high productivity of spring barley, provided timely and full germination, is formed due to moisture reserves accumulated in the deep layers of the soil during the autumn-winter period of the year.
The purpose of the study was to study the influence of the methods of basic tillage on the accumulation and dynamics of soil moisture in spring barley crops and the level of its yield.
Experimental studies were performed during 2004–2015 in a stationary field experiment at the Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
The presence of wavy nanorelief during chiselling, as well as plant remains on the ridges contributed to a significant reduction in wind speed in the aboveground layer. Snowfall was concentrated in the depressions and was reliably protected from blowing. Due to this, the height of the snow cover here, according to our data, was the highest and amounted to – 14.3 cm, and as a result faster thawing of the soil and better accumulation of water. At the same time, the intensity of wet accumulation during the autumn-winter period when treated with chisel tools outweighed the options of shelf plowing by an average of 17.9 mm, and disking – 9.2 mm. The increased assimilation of cold precipitation during chiselling can also be associated with strip loosening of the soil in the furrows, which is typical for chisel units.
It is established that in the northern steppe the use of canning (chisel) with a differentiated tillage system for spring barley increases the accumulation of moisture by 91.0–179.0 m2/ha in the autumn-winter period due to plant residues that retain more snow, especially in warm snowless winters.
It is proved that the use of a fine mulching system of tillage, despite the reduction of grain yield, contributes to a more economical consumption of moisture per unit of crop in 1.1–1.2 times when growing spring barley.
It was found that the use of annual shelf and differentiated tillage on average over the years of research provides the maximum level of yield, and the minimization of tillage in most years led to its reduction by 0.22–0.55 t/ha. The use of chiseling in a differentiated tillage system is most effective in dry years and even outweighs plowing due to the greater accumulation of productive moisture due to the presence of a significant portion of post-harvest residues of the predecessor that retain moisture under the mulch.
Key words: spring barley, tillage, soil moisture, fertilizers, disking, yield.
|№ 2 (2020)||Dynamics of soil fertility parameters in the Zaporizhzhya region and the ways of its restoration||Annotation|
Dynamics of soil fertility parameters in the Zaporizhzhya region and the ways of its restoration
UDC 631.452. https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0144
RomanenkoO. L., KushchI. S., AgafonovaA. V., TenyukhYu. O., SolodushkoM. M., UsovaN. M.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 353–362.
1Zaporizhzhya Branch of SE “Soils Protection Instituteof Ukraine”, 94, Doslidnastansia Str., Zaporizhzhya, 69031, Ukraine
2SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, VolodymyrVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
3 Institute of Oil crops of Ukraine, 1, Institutskaya Str., Zaporozhye district, Zaporozhye region, 70417, Ukraine
During 2000–2018, the results of the application of organic and mineral fertilizers in dynamics and their effect on the content of humus and nutrients in the soils of the Zaporizhzhya region were reviewed. To control the state of soil fertility use the calculation of the balance of humus and nutrients. This makes it possible to determine the extent to which the application of nutrients with fertilizers covers their removal by crop yields.
Negative tendencies have been identified, which have led to the deterioration of soil fertility in the Zaporizhia region. Measures are proposed to achieve a deficit-free balance of humus and nutrients.
On average, in 2000–2018, the level of mineral fertilizer application in the Zaporizhia region remained low – 38 kg/ha (nitrogen – 28 kg, phosphorus – 7, potassium – 3 kg), and manure – only 0.2 t/ha.
According to the results of agrochemical certification of agricultural lands, the dynamics of changes in the content of humus, easily hydrolyzed nitrogen, mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium over the past 18 years has been determined. The average weighted content of humus in the soils in the VIII round was 3.44 %, IX – 3.52, X – 3.40, XI (2016–2018) – 3.57 %, which indicates the stability of this indicator. The weighted average nitrogen content, which is easily hydrolyzed during all rounds, has close values (83.6–90.3 mg/kg) and corresponds to a low level of its supply. The content of mobile phosphorus compounds during the VIII – IX rounds was quite stable (97.1–101.6 mg/kg), and in the X–XI rounds there was even an increase to 123.3–123.4 mg/kg. The phosphorus regime of soils is stable and corresponds to the increased level of security, except for the ninth round (average). Potassium regime of the soil for eighteen years also remains stable and refers to a high level of security (159.6–176.8 mg/kg).
The balance of humus and nutrients in the soils of the region remains negative. There is a tendency of positive changes if we compare the results for the first (2003–2014) and second (2003–2018) periods. Thus, to achieve a positive balance of humus it is necessary to apply 2 t/ha of straw (+400 kg/ha), 20 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizers and 6.4 t/ha of manure, and in 2003–2018 – respectively 2 t / ha straw (+400 kg/ha), 20 kg/ha of nitrogen, 5.8 t/ha of manure.
Key words: soil, balance, dynamics, humus, fertility, organic and mineral fertilizers.
|№1 (2020)||Weeding of maize agrocenoses under the influence of tillage and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Weeding of maize agrocenoses under the influence of tillage and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 152–159.
Tsyliuryk O. I.1, Desyatnyk L. M. 2, Berezovskiy S. V.2
1 Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25, Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
2 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
An important limiting factor in corn cultivation technology is weed infestation, so the effectiveness of measures aimed at increasing grain yields is significantly reduced. Even with the widespread introduction of modern high-performance herbicides, weeds remain harmful targets, reducing corn yields by more than a third.In recent decades, in the steppe agriculture due to crises and declining levels of agricultural culture, the potential contamination of the arable layer of chernozems with vegetative reproductive organs (150–300 thousand shoots/ha) and seeds (0.5–1.0 billion pieces / ha) has increased. While the soil (cultural condition of the soil) is generally considered to be clean, in the arable layer of which there are less than 1 thousand /ha of perennial roots and 10 million pieces/ha of similar seeds of perennial weeds. Due to excessive potential soil contamination in row crops during the growing season, up to 1.5–2.0 thousand seedlings of perennial and 15–30 sprouts or shoots of perennial root-sprouting weeds can appear per 1 m2.
Recently, in the technology of growing corn, shallow (mulching) non-board soil tillage has become relevant, which eliminates the possibility of turning the arable layer. The limited amount of information on the effectiveness of mulching non-board soil tillage in the technology of growing corn, as well as the ambiguous attitude of scientists to different methods of tillage, encourages further research in this direction to ensure optimal conditions for plant growth and development and maximum grain yield at minimum production costs. and high profitability of production.
The purpose of the study is to establish the patterns of species composition of the main weeds and their quantitative dynamics, to determine the impact of different methods of basic tillage on weediness of corn crops, as well as to determine the level of yield and grain quality depending on the methods of basic tillage and fertilization.
The evolutionary adaptation of weeds has been shown to be characterized by extremely powerful regenerative energy, which can easily overcome technological barriers aimed at destroying unwanted vegetation. Weed biodiversity cannot be completely neutralized, it is now only possible to maintain minimal damage below the economic threshold. The species composition of weeds in maize crops depends on their adaptability and the structure of sown areas in crop rotation.
The species composition of weeds is formed depending on their adaptability and structure of sown areas of crops. Weed dominance in the agrobiocenosis is based on herbicide resistance, a wide range of seed germination, morphological plasticity and the presence of neotenic traits.
It was found that the introduction of mulching non-board soil tillage (chisel, flat tillage) in the technology of growing corn leads to an increase in weediness of its crops by 1.4–1.8 times, which in turn requires additional regulations for the use of soil and post-emergence herbicides. Plowing and chiseling have been shown to have a minimal advantage over maize yields both on unfertilized background and with the application of N30P30K30, due to slightly better plant nutrition conditions and less weediness. With an increase in the proportion of nitrogen (N60P30K30) in the fertilization of corn, more effective is the shallow non-board soil tillage of the chips, due to which it is possible to obtain the same relative to plowing and chiseling grain yield by leveling the above factors. The methods of basic tillage with low total weediness of crops (9.0–12.6 pieces/m2) do not significantly affect the quality of corn grain. When applying mineral fertilizers (especially nitrogen) there is a tendency to increase the protein content in the grain and decrease - carbohydrates, in particular starch.
Key words: corn, tillage, weeding, fertilizers, mineral fertilizers, yield.