|№1 (2021)||Yield and economic assessment of grain maize cultivation at different levels of contamination of agroecotopes with pollutants.||Annotation|
Yield and economic assessment of grain maize cultivation at different levels of contamination of agroecotopes with pollutants.
УДК 633.15:338.3.003.13:351.777.6 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0169
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 107-110.
Dovbash N. I., Klimenko I. I., Davydyuk H. V., Shkarivska L. I. Kushсhuk M. A.
National Science Center«Institute of Agriculture of NAAS», 2b, Mashynobudivnykiv St., Chabany settlement, Kyiv-Sviatoshynskyi district, Kyiv region, 08162, Ukraine
In Ukraine, as in the rest of the world, the part of lands contaminated with pollutants, in particular, heavy metals, is growing. However, on these lands it is possible to grow crops that provide safe, economically viable products.
The study of the maize agrocenosis state in the conditions of soil contamination with lead, cadmium, zinc testified that the crops have the high resistance to the increase of metal content in the soil environment. Maize as a grain crop has a high viability and buffer barrier to pollutants. It is able to partially accumulate and fix the metals by the root system, bringing to the commodity part of the crop only a small proportion of them, not exceeding the maximum allowable concentration, and reduce the risk of further expansion of areas contaminated with these ecotoxicants.
The variants are provided by the experiment allowed to obtain a grain yield of 7.36–9.32 t/ha (average level of variation 10.24 %). In plots with 5–100-fold excess of the background of heavy metals, the grain yield tended to a reducing by1.16–1.96 t/ha (LSD05 = 1.88) compared to the control, i.e. the loss of maize yield was 12–21 %.
It was found that soil contamination with pollutants led to a decrease in yield and profit compared to the natural background (control). The maximum income (14 575 UAH/ha) was obtained in the variant with a natural background, which is associated with a high yield of maize grain. The analysis of research results showed that the profitability of maize grain production at the yield of 7.36–9.32 t/ha varied according to the level of ecotope contamination with pollutants and amounted to 31–63 %. The profitability is indicator that makes it possible to comprehensively assess all factors. The cultivation of maize in areas with soil contamination with heavy metals exceeding by 5 and 10 times the natural background provided a level of profitability of 39 and 44 %, respectively, and was economically feasible. This allowed to effectively use the agriculture lands with constantly renewed soil contamination for profit from the cultivation of agricultural products while preventing the expansion of the contamination area.
Key words: corn, heavy metals, yield, profit, economic efficiency, profitability.
|2 (2018)||Estimation of separate indices of soil fertility of natural and agrogenic ecosystems of the Steppe zone||Annotation|
Estimation of separate indices of soil fertility of natural and agrogenic ecosystems of the Steppe zone
UDC 631.452:581.526.62(251.1)(477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0044
Podobed O. U., Chaban V. I. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 330–336.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The soil, as an environmental component, performs important biosphere functions. In agriculture, the soil is the main means of production, and the sustainability of the industry depends on its quality status. Estimation of soil fertility is carried out by quantitative indicators of their properties. The content of humus and nutrients in the soil remains one of the criteria for assessing agro-ecological conditions for growing crops.
The high level of economic development of the steppe zone and the existing type of land use does not contribute to the sustainability of agroecosystems. The spread of degradation factors leads to depletion of soils and changes in their properties. Comparison of the soil properties with the natural state of the arable land gives an opportunity to establish the direction of their anthropogenic transformation. The standard of a natural object may be lealand. Therefore, the study of the qualitative state of soils, depending on the intensity of use, remains relevant. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the degree of changes in the humus state and the microelements fund of сhernozemordinary common for different types of retention.
The research was carried out at the Erastovskay research station of the Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine. There were selected options: perennial arable crops are grown according to zonal technologies, the lealand (about 70 years) with grass-grape phytocoenosis. Soil –сhernozemordinary low-humus heavy-bodied. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0–10; 10–20; 20–30; 30–40 cm with further preparation for analysis (DSTU ISO 11464-2001). The samples of soil were deter-mined by the content of humus and microelements according to Ukrainian methods certified.
The agroactive effect on the soil violates its functioning as an ecologically balanced system. In the first place, this affects the content of organic matter. The content of humus relative to the standard (lealand) decreased by 38 %, and reserves – by 36 %. The agro-chemical indices of the natural fertility of сhernoze-mordinary for a reflux state were renewed. The processes of accumulation of humus more intensively pass in the roots of the horizon of the soil (0–40 cm). The content of humus in an arable layer (0–20 cm) is estimated to be very high (6.67 %), and in the agricultural production sector, it is high (4.17 %). A significant increase in humus content was ensured due to the considerable income of plant remains and their soil humification.
Ensuring soil microelements is one of the criteria for assessing fertility. There are insignificant differences in the content of total microelements forms. In the agrogenic soil, there was a tendency to increase by 12–16 % of the gross content of Ni and Cd in comparison with the lealand, which could be the result of an anthropogenic impact.
The agrogenic effect on the soil is accompanied by a decrease or tendency to reduce the content of labile forms of the majority of the microelements, due to their withdrawal by harvest, ion flow, etc. A tendency to increase in the sod layer (0–10 cm) in the content of acid-soluble forms of Zn in 1,73 times, Mn in 1,51 times, and in 1,20 times in comparison with the old soils. In the next layer (10–20 cm) the difference in their number is insignificant or absent at all. However, in the horizons 20–30 and 30–40 cm, the content of
Zn and Co in the soil of agrocenosis surpassed biocenosis. The greatest increase is typical for Zn (18–31 %). On the background of the general regularity of the gradual decrease in the content of the microelements according to the profile, under the conditions of lealand, there was a sharp differentiation of horizons in the content of potentially accessible forms Zn and Co, while in the arable land, their number was close.
Comparison of the content of mobile forms of the microelements (extraction of AAB pH 4,8) on both sites in most cases did not reveal any significant differences between them in the upper horizons of сhernozem. The exception is Zn, the content of which (0–10 cm) in the soil of the production site is 1.6 times smaller than in the natural analog. Less pronounced dependence (in 1,38–1,41 times) was also manifested for the content of Cu and Co. The tendency of their increase in the ground of reforestation compared with the old ones can be explained by the fact that the number of moving elements of elements decreases when the natural cycle cycles and the annual alienation of elements with the crop are violated, which is not compensated by their receipt of fertilizers. Flows of agro-substances under certain conditions increase the shortage of moving metal forms.
In general, the ecological state of landscapes on the content of trace elements and heavy metals, meets the sanitary and hygienic norms and does not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations. The absence of significant differences in their accumulation in the soil is due primarily to the chemistry of the elements, high buffer capacity of chernozems and, to a lesser extent, the type of land use and use.
Keywords:сhernozem ordinary, lealand, humus state, microelements, ecosystems.
|№ 2 (2017)||Features of microelements accumulation by the sunflower plants depending on the level of the mineral nutrition in the conditions of the Steppe zone||Annotation|
Features of microelements accumulation by the sunflower plants depending on the level of the mineral nutrition in the conditions of the Steppe zone
Keywords: sunflower, fertilizer system, microelements, accumulation of vegetative mass, seeds.
Prolonged application of fertilizers in crop rotation causes changes in the nutrient regime of the soil, including the content of microelements. However, too high revenues the microelements in the biosphere lead to soil and plant contamination as a result of their excessive accumulation, endangering the health of humans and animals. Given that culture has a wide range of uses, the content of microelements is an important indicator of product quality and determines the balance of mineral composition. Based on the foregoing, the purpose of the work is to establish the patterns of accumulation and distribution of trace elements of leaf blubber mass and sunflower seeds, depending on fertilizer systems of crop rotation in the conditions of the steppe zone.
The research was conducted in a stationary experiment of the Department of Agriculture at the Rozovka Experimental Station (Zaporizhzhya oblast). The soil cover of the experimental field – the ordinary chernozem. The content of the humus is 4,8–5,1 %. The provision of soil with moving forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium – respectively, medium, high and high; Mn and Co are high, Zn and Cu are low. In the crop rotation (black pairs, winter wheat, corn for grain, barley, corn, winter wheat, sunflower) studied fertilizer systems: without fertilizers (control); organic – manure, 14,3 t/ha; organic-mineral – ma-nure 7,1 t/ha + N34R21K20; mineral – N58Р41К42. Selection of plant samples was carried out in the develop-ment phase of sunflower: 3–4 pairs of true leaves, complete stiffness. The content of biogenic metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni), metal-toxicants (Pb, Cd) was determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Experimental data was processed using mathematical statistics applications in Excel 2010 and Statistica (version 6).
A sunflower belongs to the group of crops of high escape microelements. The microelement composition of the vegetative mass of the culture varied, both during the vegetation period and under the influence of fertilizers. The maximum concentration of elements in plants is marked in the phase of 3–4 pairs of true leaves: leaf mass contains 2,0–2,4 times more Zn, 1,5–2,2 times – Cu, 4 times – Mn, than complete rigidity. The content of Co, Ni is less variable.
The power supply did not change the nature of the dynamics of microelements content in the plants, but influenced quantitative indicators. Application of mineral fertilizers contributed to a 7–11 % increase in the content of Mn and Ni in the vegetative mass compared with the control variant at the beginning of the vegetation. Conversely, there was a decrease in Zn (10 %) and Cu (by 16 %). The variations of organic and organic-mineral fertilizer systems reduced the absorption of Zn, Mn, Cu (by 6–17 %). The introduction of fertilizers did not significantly affect the content of cobalt.
The content of trace elements in sunflower seeds was within the range of indices characteristic of the culture. It was established that on the high agrochemical background the effect of fertilizers had no significant effect on the content of microelements. But there was a tendency to decrease 5–8 % of the amount of biogenic elements (Cu, Zn, Co) on mineral and organic-mineral fertilizer variants in terms of control. This tendency, in our opinion, is due to the high content of phosphorous mobile compounds in the soil.
The content of toxic elements (Pb, Cd) in seeds, depending on fertilizer systems varied: Pb – from 0,45 to 0,51 mg/kg, Cd – from 0,043 to 0,049 mg/kg. There is a tendency to decrease their income in the presence of manure in the fertilizer system.
Characteristics of biological uptake factor (Ax) were calculated for the characteristics of the accu-mulation of elements by a sunflower plants in conditions of the steppe zone. The largest values of the coef-ficients of biological uptake factor were obtained for Zn (Ax = 1,87–3,58); Cu (Ax = 1,47–2,98) in the vegetative mass of sunflower in the beginning and at the end of the development of the plant. Very weakly in the biogenic migration include Mn (Ax = 0,28–0,78) and Ni (Ax = 0,58–0,93). Cobalt is characterized as an element of average capture at the beginning of vegetation (Ah = 0,76–0,87) and weak accumulation in complete maturation ( Ah = 1,08–1,26).
The highest values of biological uptake factor for seeds are marked for Zn (Ax = 17,8–21,9); Cu (Ax = 15,0–17,9); Ni (Ax = 9,39–10,4). These are elements of vigorous biological absorption. Sunflower, in the process of ontogeny, is characterized by intense Cd uptake by the vegetative mass (Ah = 2,0–3,12) and seeds (Ah = 3,59–4,81), and Pb is only the vegetative mass (Ah = 1,42–2,68). The application of all fertilizer systems leads to a decrease in the intensity of plant absorption from the soil of Zn, Mn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd and their input into sunflower seeds.
|№1 (2017)||Accumulation of microelements spring barley plants in the Steppe zone of Ukraine||Annotation|
Accumulation of microelements spring barley plants in the Steppe zone of Ukraine
Keywords:spring barley, microelements, accumulation, variabiliti, gradation of content.
The barley is one of the world's most common crops. In Ukraine, he also holds a significant share of the grain balance. The barley grain has a high technological qualities and is widely used in the food processing industry and is a valuable component in the manufacture of animal feed. Important biological role of the microelements and the limitations of their content in the main and side products of spring barley was the basis for the synthesis of many years of experimental material. The aim of the study was to determine the parameters of the accumulation of the micro-elements by barley plants in the conditions of northern Steppe of Ukraine.
Processing of analytical data in space (steppe zone), and time (sample size 25) of content micro-elements in grain and straw of barley furious set basic statistical descriptions. The mean values of concen-tration presented: Zn – 25,4; Mn – 9,92; Cu – 4,14; Co – 0,35; Ni – 0,87; Pb – 0,46; Cd – 0,029 mg/kg. By quantitative recommendation microelement composition of grain can be presented as a row: Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Co > Cd. On the whole, values are characteristic for this culture and are base-line for the zone of Steppe of Ukraine. Varying of content of Zn, Cu, Со, Pb in grain of barley furious was within the limits of (22–30 %), that is characterized as middle changeability, Mn and Ni – high (37 and 31 %). The considerable varying of content of Cd (63 %) is marked. The analysis of variation rows educed the presence of three laws of distribution of content of microelements: normal distribution of Gauss for Co; asymmetric (positive) distribution of Мaxwell for Zn, Ni, Cd; presence of a few peaks on a curve with a negative excess for Mn, Cu, Pb. The presence of considerable positive asymmetry testifies to displacement of content of Zn, Ni, Cd toward less values, that are the sign of influence of objective factors that limit their receipt to grain.
The microelements composition of straw has certain differences from grain, namely: considerably less (almost in 5 times) content of Zn; the amount of Mn and Cu remains at the level of grain; Со, Ni, Pb, Cd is largely accumulated by side products. Large changeability of indexes of content of elements is confirmed by the coefficients of variation (40–64 %). Microelement composition of straw of barley in a greater degree, than grain, depends on the factors of environment.
Intensity of receipt microelements in plants from soil estimated by means of biological uptake factor, that presents a betweenness by content of element in the ash of plant to his content in soil. Calculations tes-tify that a culture most intensively took in zinc and the copper biological uptake factor (> 3) from soil. Some less than a cobalt, nickel and lead (> 1), was accumulated and least (< 1) is a manganese. The biological uptake factor confirm the high requirement of culture in Zn and Cu.
On the basis of methods of statistical analysis and spatial interpretation of the got results the built scale of gradation of content of microelements is in grain of barley taking into account regional features.
The statistical treatment not only shows as results on the zone of Steppe levels statistically reliable differences between content microelements in grain under act of totality of factors, but also demonstrates character of changes in space and time of content of every investigated element.
|№10 (2016)||Diagnosticating of the microelement state of system soil – plant is in agrocoenosiss of wheat winter-annual||Annotation|
Diagnosticating of the microelement state of system soil – plant is in agrocoenosiss of wheat winter-annual
Keywords: chernozem, content, microelements, a winter wheat.
The search of ways of increase of the productivity of wheat winter-annual remains fore-ground job and will be arrived at by the improvement of technological level of production including due to optimization of mineral feed. This question it will decide by controlling of the state of the
system soil-plant in continue vegetation period Researches conducted in 2010–2014 in the station-nary and short-term experiments of department of agriculture. Methods of researches – the field, laboratory-analytical, statistical. Content of microelements in soil (ДСТУ 4770.1-4770.9: 2007) and plants was determined on AAS С-115М1.
It is set that maximal values of movable connections of Zn, Mn, Cu, Co in soil observed in an initial period of development of plants phase of exit in a tube with a decline in the phase of earing. The vibrations of their amount during a vegetation arrive at 1,4–5 times. Most substantial differences of their movable for it is marked the phases of development of plant for Zn (force of influence 88 %). Sharply the movable of Mn (from 92,6 mg/kg in the phase of phase of exit in a tube to 46,7 mg/kg in a complete ripeness) changed under act of level of feed. Top-dressing assisted the reliable increase (on 41 %) of his movable comparatively with control. Force of influence of factor of feed on content of Mn in soil presented 52 %, and to the factor development of plant –31 %. Content of copper and cobalt hesitated comparatively in small limits.
In accordance with grouping of soils on maintenance movable forms microelements (for Vazenin) for the agricultural cultures of not high bearing-out of microelements (grain-growing cereals), zonal chernozems is characterized by the high provision of manganese and subzero – by zinc. Such gradation of provision of elements remained in continue all phases of development of wheat winter-annual. At the same time, watched the redistribution of provision of soils movable forms of copper and cobalt the vegetation period of plants: material well-being of Cu was trans-formed in subzero, and Со – in middle. Id est, growing on such background of sorts of intensive type must be accompanied by obligatory application of microfertilizer.
Forming of element composition of plants passes under act of ground-climatic terms, application of fertilizers and other factors. From data of content microelements (МЕ) in the plants of winter crop the genetically conditioned features of culture are set in relation to the selective mastering МЕ at growing in the conditions of north Steppe. On the initial stage of development of plants most metals behave to the group of weak biological absorption. In the period of the intensive use МЕ (phase of exit in a tube) indexes of coefficient of biological absorption (CBA) are for a copper and zinc > 3. In grain the greatest values of (CBA) (>3) are marked for Zn, Cu, Mn, some less (>1) they for Co.
The results of statistical treatment testify that reliable prediction of content МЕ in plants from data of the ground diagnostics provide equalization of linear regression. High (r >0,70) cross-correlation copulas are got between content in soil and plants of winter wheat of biogenic elements (Zn, Mn, Cu, Co) in the corresponding phases of her development. High reliable cross-correlation connection in the system soil-plant characteristic for zinc. Identically clearly he showed up both in the phase of bushing out and in phase of exit in a tube and earing. Analogical conformity to law, accordingly phases of development, marked for Сu (r= -0,99; -0,94; 0,97). For other elements of value of coefficients of correlation substantially change from subzero to high.
High reliable cross-correlation copulas (r = 0,97–0,99) are set between content of Zn, Mn, Cu, Co in plants in the phase of bushing out and in grain. High (r = 0,76–0,87) they were in the phase of earing. In connection with that for all elements that was studied, the high coefficients of correlation are got on the initial stages of vegetation, this period must be used for diagnostic aims and operative adjustment of microelement feed.
|№10 (2016)||Influence of fertilizers on the content of heavy metals in soil and their accumulation of spring barley plants||Annotation|
Influence of fertilizers on the content of heavy metals in soil and their accumulation of spring barley plants
Keywords:heavy metals, the safety of grain, fertilizer system, spring barley.
Comprehensive quality of spring barley grain assessment includes its safety performance, which is determined by the content of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in plants is largely dependent on the level of soil contamination. To reduce the anthropogenic load on аgrosfera and optimization of plant nutrition process in terms of reducing the volume of use of agrochemicals is advisable to apply biofertilizers.
Research carried out in a field rotation of Donetsk SAS station NAAS of Ukraine in 2012–2014. In crops of spring barley varieties Avers studied the effect of a mineral (N30P30K30) and organo-mineral (N15P15K15 + vermicompost) systems fertilizers on the accumulation of heavy metals in grain, straw and soil.
According to the research it found that the use of fertilizers has led to an increase in the content of heavy metals in the soil. Thus the lead content increased to 0,36 mg/kg, or 16,8 % compared with the control. The zinc content increased to 6 mg/kg (18,8 %), cadmium – 42,9 %. Organic and mineral supply system provided decrease in the content of mobile forms of heavy metals in the soil. The amount of lead as compared with controls decreased on average 1,4 times, cadmium – 1,3 times. The content of copper and zinc were above the background level in all experimental variants. The excess of background values in the control variant ranged 1,3–1,5 times to 2,6–3,2 times the copper and zinc. Elevated levels of copper and zinc is a consequence of the arrival of these elements of airborne emissions.
The experimental data showed that the grains depends essentially on the safety system fertilizer. Organo-mineral fertilizer system's efforts to reduce the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium in the grain of spring barley. Their number in the grain in the form of fertilizer had a lower value. The lead concentration was 0,28 mg/kg cadmium 0,05 mg/kg, in control – 0,36 mg/kg and 0,07 mg/kg. When mineral fertilizer system, these values were higher than the control and the embodiment were respectively 0,49 mg/kg and 0,10 mg/kg.
In dry conditions the use of biogumus contributes to the preservation of productive soil moisture. In the phase of wax ripeness humidity of spring barley soil with fertilizers variants exceeded the control in soil layer 0–20 sm 2,3 mm (fertilizers) and 4,3 mm (organic fertilizer), and 0–100 mm 10,3 mm (fertilizers) and 18,3 mm (vermicompost). Grain yield using vermin-compost with half norm of mineral fertilizers has been at the level of productivity in making their full rules.
So, get environmentally safe spring barley grain yield while maintaining the level of application of full rate of fertilizer application allows elements biologiсal agricultural technologies that increase the resistance of plants to accumulate heavy metals, as well as reduces the application rate of agrochemicals, reducing human pressure on the environment.
|№8 (2015)||Entering of microelements into the soil with sideline products of agricultural in the rotations of steppe zone||Annotation|
Entering of microelements into the soil with sideline products of agricultural in the rotations of steppe zone
Chernozems of steppe zone have a high content of microelement’s total forms (ME), however the mobility of the individual elements is low, that can limit productivity of agricultural crops and product quality. In conditions of manure usage reduction as the main source of ME to the soil, attract the attention of plant residues. However, the content data of the ME in the straw and field crops cormophyte weight of the steppe zone of Ukraine is limited. The purpose of research – definition of agricultural crops structure of ME, as part of the elements balance in crop rotations, with its plowing the soil.
In the preparation of article there was treated with an array of analytical data of trace-element composition of the vegetative mass of wheat, barley, peas, corn and sunflower for the last 25 years. Data received in the stationary experiments steppe zone of Ukraine. Use standardized methods of analysis of the plant material. The soil cover ordinary chernozem, typical chernozem with humus content 4,0–4,2 and 4,8–5,0%. Objects of researches: 8-course grain-fallow a crop rotation and 5-course grain a crop rotation with a ratio between stubble and row-crop cultures as 50:38 and 60:40 %, accordingly.
Indicators of ME content in the side products are genetically determined with concentration gradation characteristic of each culture The degree of their accumulation by straw and cormophyte weight in weight is reflected with functional value of elements and selectivity of absorption. The general feature of cultures is the highest level of receipt, first of all biogenic elements (Mn, Zn). Under their quantitative contents distribution МE in a commodity output of barley, peas, corn looks like: Mn> Zn> Cu> Ni> Co; wheat – Mn> Zn> Ni> Cu> Co; sunflower – Zn>
Mn> Cu> Ni> Co. Also the essential deviation of ME contents from average values are marked: for zinc it has made 1,8–4,0; manganese – 2,1–11,0; copper – 2,3–6,0; cobalt – 1,9–3,8; nickel – 2,0–4,8 times. The level of ME accumulation essentially differed with collateral production and depending on biological features of cultures. Under contents Zn and Сu, that in 2–6 times more, than the corn and sunflower (12,4–13,2 and 3,52–5,12 mg/kg) dominate over straw wheat and barley. High value of accumulation Mn characterizes cormophyte weight of corn. Proceeding from the data under ME contents, with the vegetative rests in ground can arrive: 10–64 g/ha zinc, 15–93 g/ha manganese, 2–15 g/ha copper, 4–11 g/ha nickel, 1,9–4,7 g/ha cobalt. Thus the greatest quantity of biogenic elements (Zn, Mn) is introduced to the mass of cormophyte sunflower and corn.
Calculations of balance МE in 8-course grain-fallow a crop rotation on the absolute control indicate, that it was sharply negative, especial for Zn and Mn which deficiency reached 85,9; 79,7 and 14,6 g/ha. The systematic termination of early spring crops straw for crop rotation did not lead to a reduction of the deficit. It remained at the level of unfertilized option (83,2; 79,1; 14,6). Only due to the additional revenue from the biomass of cobalt and nickel, there negative balance was reduced by 29%.
Taking into significant excess of biogenic elements content in cormophyte weight of sunflower and corn, we performed simulation of the formation conditions of the ME balance with the seal by-products of crop rotation. The received data suggest that increased parameters of compensation for their losses by introducing elements from the entire biomass. Although the balance elements has remained negative, but zinc deficiency decreased to 22, copper – 32, manganese – 47%, while cobalt and nickel – 71%. Similar regularity was also typical for 5-pole grain crop rotation (34, 52 and 58%). Also, there was a decrease deficit of nickel and cobalt in the 76–79%. – Р. 112–117.
|№7 (2014)||The contents of chemical elements in plants of corn and an estimation of a mineral nutrition||Annotation|
The contents of chemical elements in plants of corn and an estimation of a mineral nutrition
Keywords: corn, chemical compound, plants, a grain, receipt, diagnostics.
Recently the increase in volumes of manufacture of corn in all soil – climatic zones of Ukraine is observed. Simultaneously with expansion of the areas of its cultivation application of fertilizers remains the most effective factor of increase of its productivity. However, for last years application of fertilizers under corn was reduced in 3,2 times (55 kg/ha), that alongside with droughty conditions does not allow culture to realize high potential of efficiency. An output from developed position the control over a condition of plants during vegetation. In this connection, the purpose of work – to establish zone features of element structure of plants of corn and to define possible directions of optimization of a mineral nutrition.
By preparation of a material the file of the analytical data macro and microelements structure of plants of corn for last 25 years, received is generalized and analysed at carrying out of stationary experiences in a steppe zone of Ukraine. Used standardized methods of the analysis of a vegetative material. Experimen-tal data processed with the help of programs of mathematical statistics.
The corn is exacting to conditions of a mineral nutrition to what parameters of a chemical compound testify. The contents of elements essentially varies depending on a phase of development, a level of a nutriti-on and weather, and climatic conditions. At early stages of growth (5–6 – 9–10 leaves) plants are characte-rized by the maximal contents of nitrogen and leach elements that is connected to excess of receipt of ele-ments over accumulation of dry substance. Further return law is shown and relative decrease reduction in their quantity in vegetative weight is observed. The deviation in the contents of macronutrients from average values on phases of development of plants made 5–28 %. The most essential (31–86 %) it was in full ri-peness.
Fertilizers make active rates of receipt of chemical compounds in vegetative fabrics, and their con-tents, on the average raised up to 19 %. To a lesser degree it was shown for a grain. Thus the contents of nitrogen raised on 12 %, for phosphorus the tendency to increase (3 %), quantity potassium was shown only remained at one level. Receipt of basic elements of a nutrition in plants occurs non-uniformly. Their peak (42–81 %) falls at the period of an active gain of weight.
Presence of high correlation connection (r = 0,55–0,83) between the contents of nitrogen is established and we heat in plants at early stages of development and in a grain. The given fact testifies to expediency of diagnostics during this period.
Changes of the contents of microelements in plants during vegetation it is similar to ynamics of macronutrient reduction in their concentration to a phase of full ripeness.
Average values of the contents microelements in a grain and cormophyte to weight are established. The maximal share, among elements, falls Fe (50 %), Zn (30 %), Cu and Mn (4–7 %), and the quantity of other metals (N і, Cr, Pb, Co, Cd) is not exceeded with 1 %. To their contents, behind exception Zn (V = 15,5 %), high variability (V = 34,2–44,9 %) is peculiar. The structure of the microelements of a commodity output differs the greater variability (V = 31,8–92,6 %).
According to factors of biological absorption the selective need of plants of corn in the micro-elements on the basic phases of development which is submitted as lines is established: Zn> Cu> Mn> Co. – Р. 27–32.
|№ 6 (2014)||Microelement’s balance in intensive crop rotations of a steppe zone of Ukraine.||Annotation|
Microelement’s balance in intensive crop rotations of a steppe zone of Ukraine.
Keywords: balance, microelements, chernozem, a crop rotation, system of fertilizers.
At the longlived application of organic and mineral fertilizers in a crop rotation the significant amount of macro – and microelements (ME) is involved in a biological circuit. It is impossible to control and operate an exchange of nutrients in system "fertilizer – soil – plant” without studying of receipt and losses of nutrition elements in agriculture. Thus it is important to study not only nitrogen balance, phosphorus and a potassium, but also microelements. It is connected with that the soil cover of separate regions of Ukraine and Russia has an acute shortage of ME, in particular Zn, Mn. The knowledge of conditions of formation of balance enables to adjust purposefully a mode of accumulation microelements in a soil, to predict changes of their contents at various inten-sity of agriculture. Proceeding from it, the work purpose – to calculate balance of microelements in intensive crop rotations of a zone of the Steppe depending on systems of fertilizers.
Researches conducted in stationary experiences at Krasnogradsky and Erastovsky experi-mental stations. A soil cover – chernozem typical and chernozem ordinary, with the contents humus 4,8–5,0 and 4,0–4,2 %. As objects of researches served: a 5-pole grain a crop rotation (peas, a winter wheat, corn on a grain, corn on a grain, barley) and 8-pole grain-fallow a crop rotation (black pairs, a winter wheat, corn on a grain, barley, corn on a grain, peas, a winter wheat, sunflower). In experiences systems of fertilizers were studied: the control, mineral, organic, organic-mineral.
The sizes of removal out of microelements in intensive crop rotations depend, first of all, on biological features of cultures and size of a crop. This index reflects the common need of plants for ME and their significance according to which they are ranged in the line: Zn
Long application of organic and mineral fertilizers in intensive crop rotations of a steppe zone significantly affected on indicators of balance of microelements. Cultivation of agricultural crops on option without fertilizers where the crop is formed at the expense of the capacity of the soil, led to formation sharply the negative balance of all microelements. On a background of entering of mineral fertilizers the substantial increase of efficiency of agricultural crops, in a corollary of that was observed, their carrying out increased. Thus the balance of elements remained the negative. Deficiency of such important biogenic element as zinc, increased by 16–26 %. Along with it, reduction of deficiency of balance of manganese was observed, and at increase of loading of a crop rotation by fertilizers – copper and a cobalt. In this case the balance of nickel and cadmium was transformed to the positive.
The organic system of fertilizers promoted creation of conditions for formation of positive balance of microelements. Receipt of zinc, copper, manganese by 2,6–9,5 times exceeded their carrying out by crops. Positively it developed on the organic-mineral power supply system, except for a cobalt, nickel and the lead which balance was deficiency.
The settlement data are confirmed by a condition of microelement fund of the soil. The tendency of reduction in the contents of potentially accessible forms of manganese, a cobalt, and lead in the horizons of 0–25 and 25–40 cm, and zinc – in a subarable layer was observed, on the option of importation of mineral fertilizers, at the negative balance of ME. In too time, on the background of organic fertilizers, the tendency to accumulation of potentially available forms of Zinc and manganese in the root a layer of ground was shown at positive balance of the majority of elements. Despite of excess of receipt in the soil of elements of the first group of danger (Pb, Zn, Cd) with organic and mineral fertilizers over their carrying out by a crop, their accumulation it is not revealed – the contents was much lower than maximum concentration limit. – Р. 22–25.
|№5 (2013)||Potential of the mineralization of chernozem ordinary the steppe zone of Ukraine||Annotation|
Potential of the mineralization of chernozem ordinary the steppe zone of Ukraine
Keywords: chernozem ordinary, potential of а mineralization,nitrogen regime diagnosetics.
For diagnostics of security of plants by nitrogen the method of definition of mineral nitrogen (NH+4 + NO–3) is widely used. It enables to estimate the maintenance of accessible forms of nitrogen at the moment of sampling in ground. However, cultures of the long period of development (the corn, sunflower, etc.) use a significant amount of nitrogen which mineralizes during vegetation and is not taken into account at an early stage of selection (spring) that complicates diagnostics and forecasting of efficiency of nitric fertilizers.
At the same time the more effective method, for the forecast of potential opportunities of ground to provide plants with accessible forms of nitrogen during vegetation is based on use of size of potential of a mineralization (N0). The given method takes into account all the amount of soil nitrogen which can be mineralized under favorable conditions for vaguely long time. Kinetics of this process is determined by a constant of speed of mineralization (k) which in field conditions depends on temperature and humidity of soil of the grown cultures. In this connection, the purpose of work – to establish parameters of potential of a mineralization of ordinary chernozems and to prove an opportunity of its use at diagnostics of a nitric mode of soil.
In laboratory conditions with use of a biological method of long aerobic incubation (18 weeks) the potential of a mineralization (N0) zone soils and its changes is determined depending on intensity of use of chernozems. The soils for modeling experience has been selected on a deposit and an industrial site (Eras-tovskya an experimental station), and also from stationary experience (the Zaporozhye experimental station).
Initial maintenance (contents) of N–NO3 in soils und was in rather wide limits (12,8–27,0 mg/kg). It can be explained by the intensity of its use. So, their maximal value (27,0 mg/kg) was on a variant where the ground was in a condition of a deposit. On variants where it was exposed to anthropogenous loading, depending on a level of application of fertilizers and efficiency of a crop rotation, the quantity of nitrates made 16,2–23,3 mg/kg whereas on the absolute control where du-ring 35 years of fertilizer did not apply – it was minimal (12,8 mg/kg). Definition of the maintenance of nitrates through the certain interval of time has allowed to observe changes of their accumulation. Also, it is necessary to note presence of two peaks of their maintenance on the majority of variants: the first – falls at definitions after 3 weeks of incubation, that in relative values makes 14,3–5,3 % from total of nitrogen. The second – for the period of definition after 6 weeks (14,8–17,6 %) with the tendency to decrease between the periods. The given regularity was not observed at incubation of soils of a deposit where the greatest quantity of nitrates (16,3–16,2 %) was marked after 4-th and 6-th weeks, with their gradual reduction at the subsequent definitions. In this case, for all period composting the maximum quantity of nitrogen of nitrates (253,9 mg/kg) was collected. It can be explained by the big stocks of organic substance and accordingly, opportunities for a mineralization by microorganisms. Soils that are heavily exposed have the ability to maintenance the plants with nitrogen 57–74 % from the natural analogue.
On the basis of the received data we have calculated potential of a mineralization according to the kinetic equation of the first order. It is established, that the soil which is taking place in a condition of a deposit is characterized by its maximal value (320 mg/kg). Thus, the constant of its speed makes 0,106 week -1. Application of manure, in moderate and high dozes of nitric fertilizers practically did not influence parameters of potential of a mineralization (190–202 mg/kg) and a constant of its speed (0,099–0,103 week -1) that testifies the kinetic uniformity of nitric fund of ordinary chernozem. On the basis of the correlation analysis of dynamics of the nitrate nitrogen the direct correlation dependence close to functional, between Nt and contents of N–NO3 that it is necessary to take into account in calculation of dozes of nitric fertilizers. – P. 63–67.