|№1 (2021)||Results and perspectives of selection of naked oat varieties in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Results and perspectives of selection of naked oat varieties in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.13:631.527 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0152
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 5–12.
Solodushko V. Р.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14,VolodymyrVernadskyi St.,
Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The results and prospects of selection of naked oat varieties in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine were given. The problems and main directions of creating of new initial material were determined. The high-yielding, large-grain genotypes (Thousand Grain Weight was to 25.3–29.1 g) such as Abel, Rhea, Nuprime, Plater, Adam, Biloruskyi, Pushkinskyi, Hosha, Kriepysh resistant to abiotic factors were used in hybridization, and allowed to create a new hybrid combinations of naked oats.
We established that the cultivars significantly differed from each other in the spikelets and grains number per plant, however not always these features quite affected the plant productivity. Thus, it is proved that the set of features such as number of spikelets in the panicle, number of grains in the spikelet and the grain size determines the plant productivity.
The best initial forms of naked oats by biological and economic features were specified.
The characteristics of the new initial material were highlighted, and the results of breeding work were presented. The naked oat cultivars were selected in the control nursery: Ск 1024/10, Рс 72/09, Сс 732/10, their grain yield (2.59–2.66 t/ha) significantly exceeded the standard variety (by 0, 35–0.42 t/ha) on average for 3 years.
The most productive cultivars by protein content (15.9–16.2 %) were Рс 72/09, СС 1136/09, Сс 732/10 and Сп 234/10.
The average yield (2.58 t/ha) of Rodonit naked oat variety exceeded the Skarb Ukrainy national standard variety by 0.33 t/ha or by 14.7 % according to the three-year competitive variety test. Since 2019, Rodonit has been understate variety testing. The protein content of 16.1 % and the starch of 49.0 % were in the grain, and the number of hulled grains did not exceed 3.0 %. The growing season of Rodonit variety was 91 days which was three days longer than the standard variety.
Key words: oat, variety, hybridization, selection, yield, hybrid combinations.
|№1 (2021)||Selection of drought-resistant crops for South Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Selection of drought-resistant crops for South Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.82 (477.7) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0153
GrainCrops. 2021. 5 (1). 13–22.
GamayunovaV. V., KhonenkoL. H., FedorchukM. I., KovalenkoO. A.
Mykolaiv National Agrarian University, 9, Heorhii Honhadze St.,
Mykolaiv, 54020, Ukraine
The cultivation expediency of more drought-resistant crops, in particular sorghum, millet, false flax, safflower and others, instead of sunflower in the area of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine is substantiated. This is, first of all, required by climate change both in Ukraine and in the world.
Since 2004, researches of field crops were carried out in the conditions of the Educational and Scientific Practical Center of the Mykolaiv National Agrarian University. Soil phase is the southern chernozem with humus content in the 0–30 cm soil layer which consist of 2.96–3.21 %, with medium and high level of availability of mobile phosphorus and potassium and low – mobile nitrogen. Experiments with soriz (Oksamyt hybrid) were conducted during 2004–2006, millet (Tavriiske, Kostantynivske, Skhidnevarieties) in 2008–2010, grain sorghum (Stepovyi 5 hybrid) in 2014–2016, safflower dye (Lahidnyi variety) in 2017–2019.
The years of research differed significantly in temperature and even more in the amount of precipitation before sowing and during the growing season of crops. However, the weather conditions were typical of the Southern Steppe zone of Ukraine.
It is established that all studied drought-resistant crops respond positively to nutrition optimization – the level of yield and quality of grain or seeds increases. It was found that the soriz productivity depending on the application of fertilizers and sowing dates increased by 37.6–39.2 %, millet –by 33.3–41.6 %, grain sorghum depending on the background of nutrition and growing conditions – by 8.2–33.2 %, dye safflower – by 11.1–64.6 %.
It was determined that the optimization of nutrition of cultivated crops allows to increase their resistance to adverse conditions and productivity in the case of application of low doses of the mineral fertilizers before sowing, pre-sowing treatment of seeds, and growth-regulating chemical application of plants on the main stages of the growing season.
Key words: drought-resistant plants, climatic conditions, nutrition optimization, yield, crop quality, varieties, sowing dates.
|№1 (2021)||An overview of innovative developments from the scientific provision of plant selection to resistance to diseases and pests||Annotation|
An overview of innovative developments from the scientific provision of plant selection to resistance to diseases and pests
УДК 631.1:001.76 + 632.938 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0154
GrainCrops. 2021. 5 (1). 23–29.
Krut’ M. V.
Institute of Plant Protection of NAAS, 33, Vasylkivska st., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine
The Institute of Plant Protection of NAAS developed methods of plant selection for resistance to major pathogens and assessment methodology the resistance of winter wheat, potatoes, clover and alfalfa to pests to create complex resistant varieties. Donors of potato resistance to cancer, Alternaria, Phomosis and cyst-forming nematodes were identified. Methods for determining the resistance of cereals to high and low temperatures were developed. A collection of the Aegilops biuncialis L. wild wheat samples as sources of new resistance genes to plant diseases and pests was compiled. The soft winter wheat resistance genes to diseases by DNA markers were identified at the Institute of Plant Production named after V. Ya. Yuriev. The V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat formed a set of winter wheat cultivars with group and complex resistance to diseases and pests. The Institute of Oilseed Crops of NAAS established physiological and biochemical mechanisms of resistance of sunflower, soybean, crown flax to pathogens. Collections of sunflower lines based on complex resistance to sunflower broomrape, dry rot, downy mildew and soybean lines based on complex resistance to white rot and Anthracnose were also created. In the National Scientific Center "Institute of Agriculture of NAAS", the fodder lupine resistance to the most important pathogens was investigated. The Institute of Agriculture in the Carpathian Region of NAAS revealed the spring barley, oat, rape, fiber flax varieties and selection numbers resistant to basic diseases; and the Institute of Rice of NAAS – rice cultivars resistant to diseases and pest pathogens. The resistance to main phytophagous insects of the modern genotypes of hemp, fiber flax and crown flax was assessed by the Institute of Agriculture of the North-East of NAAS. The assessment method of breeding value for the initial material of the main vegetables on the basis of disease resistance was developed by the Institute of Vegetables and Melons Growing of NAAS. Scientists of the Institute of Agroecology and Environmental Management of NAAS and V. M. RemesloMyronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS revealed the cucumber and barley resistance to viral diseases.
Key words: crops, pests, pathogens, resistance, resistance gene, resistance source.
|№ 2 (2020)||Soybean collection of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe of the NAАS and its breeding value in the conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Soybean collection of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe of the NAАS and its breeding value in the conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine
UDС 635.655.633.853.52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0129
Medvedeva L. R., KrentsivYa.I., Mostipan T. V., Kalinina L. I.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 221–229.
Institute of Steppe Agriculture of the NAAS, 2, Central str., Sozonivka, Kirovograd region, Kirovograd area, 27602, Ukraine
The collection soybean nursery at the Institute of Steppe Agriculture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine includes 144 varieties of domestic and foreign selection. The variety of the studied samples allows to allocate to a greater extent economically; valuable signs and to pick up parental forms for selection of soybeans on various directions of use.
The results of research in the collection nursery for 10 years (2010–2019) are given. In the course of research the collection varieties of soybeans of different ecological and geographical origin were used.
Collectible varieties by yield, protein and fat content in seeds were analyzed. The importance of varieties resistant to cotyledonousbacteriosis in increasing soybean yield has been substantiated. Soybean varieties of different ecological and geographical origin have been evaluated for resistance to cotyledon bacteriosis. Phytopathological assessment was performed on a natural infectious background. 15 soybean varieties resistant to cotyledonousbacteriosis were identified: Era 2, Medeya, Stepovychka 4, Diona, Agat, Sribna Ruta, Podolsk 2000, Yatran, Khabarovska 01, Evans, Liniia № 100, R8606I-5R05, Yutro, and VNIIOZ 11. Highlighted highly resistant varieties are promising as a source resistance to cotyledonousbacteriosis during selection for immunity to this pathogen.
Highly resistant soybean varieties of Ukrainian selection deserve the most attention as donors of resistance to cotyledonousbacteriosis, 9 of which have been identified.
At the present stage of selection, with the transition to European standards, it is very important to create varieties with high quality seeds.
Therefore, the laboratory is conducting research to identify high-protein and high-fat varieties. Analyzing the results of chemical analysis of soybean varieties of different maturity groups, we can say that the protein content in the seeds varied between 32.2–45.8 %. The highest indicator was observed in the varieties Zernoukisna (45.8 %), Ustya (45.5 %), Sonyachna (44.7 %), Artemida (44.2 %), Pripyat (44.0 %).
The fat content in the seeds of varieties of the collection nursery ranged from 18.2 to 26.8 %. The highest rate of fat content in seeds was observed in varieties – Emerald (26.8 %), Annushka (26.4 %), Sophia (26.8 %), Colorful (26.4 %), Ophelia (26.5 %), Podilska 416 (26.4 %), Vasylkivska (26.8 %), L. 101 (26.8 %), Bukuriya (26.3 %).
Examples of high-yielding, high-protein and fat-containing, highly resistant to cotyledonousbacteriosis, as well as varieties adapted to adverse environmental conditions are given.
Keywords: soy, bean, variety, collection, yield, protein, fat, resistance, seeds.
|№ 2 (2020)||Аdaptive properties and selection value of the collection genotypes of winter wheat by the features of ear productivity||Annotation|
Аdaptive properties and selection value of the collection genotypes of winter wheat by the features of ear productivity
UDS 631.527.8:633.111.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0130
Hoptsii V.O., Kryvoruchenko R.V.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 230–242.
Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V.V. Dokuchaiev,Dokuchaievske settlement,
Kharkiv region, Kharkiv oblast, 62483, Ukraine
In the conditions of the global climate change, it is important to find the donors of the adaptive properties among the existing initial material of wheat, because only on the basis of the targeted selection of the parental components for crossbreeding it can be expected to obtain the selection material with the specified parameters of adaptability. The purpose of this research was to assess the collection samples of soft winter wheat by the features of ear productivity and to establish the adaptive peculiarities by these features.
The results of a three-year (2014–2016) study of the level of implementation and variability of the ear productivity features – ear length, ear weight, number of ear spikelets, number of ear grains and grain weight from the ear have been presented in the article, and also the indices of homeostaticity (Hom) and selection value (Sc) of the studied wheat genotypes by these features have been calculated. The object of the research was 45 varieties and 9 selection lines of different genetic and ecological and geographical origin.
As the result of the conducted researches, the existence of a significant difference between the collection genotypes of wheat has been established both by the level of the ear productivity development features and their variability during the years of the research. The maximum development level of the ear productivity features had 6 species (Hordovyta, Stanichnaya, Legenda, Pereyaslavka, Oksana, Liryka). By the vast majority of the features, the average level exceeded 7 varieties and 2 selection lines (Rosinka Tarasovskaya, Banga, Venera, Volnitsa, Masha, Krasota, Ebi, Kiu-07, 89-I/2).
The homeostaticity index characterizes the ability of the genotype to minimize the negative influence of the environmental factors. It has been established that the collection samples of soft winter wheat had different levels of homeostaticity features of ear productivity. Some collection varieties of wheat had a high level of homeostaticity by certain features of ear productivity, but a low or medium development level of the features themselves. Some genotypes were characterized by high values of both homeostaticity and features development level.
The greatest value is represented by the genotypes in which high homeostaticity and selection value is combined with a high level of productivity features development – Zdobna, Dobirna, Zapashna, Dbailyva, Fermerka, Krasota, Masha, Stanichnaya, Oda, Legenda, Kyu99, 89-I/2, etc. These genotypes can be used as the donors of a high level of ear productivity with their high homeostaticity.
Thus, as the result of the conducted researches, we have established different nature of the manifestation and variability of the ear productivity features of the collection genotypes of soft winter wheat of different genetic origin. The conducted assessment of the homeostaticity and selection value of the productivity features allowed identifying a number of the varieties and selection lines of wheat that can be used in the combination selection as the donors of high ear productivity in the complex of adaptability have been carried out.
Key words: soft winter wheat, genotype, ear productivity, homeostatic, adaptability, selection value.
|№1 (2020)||Variation of breeding traits of popcorn’s lines||Annotation|
Variation of breeding traits of popcorn’s lines
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 5–11.
Cherchel V. Yu., Kuprichenkova T. G., Kuprichenkov D. S. .
SE Institute Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14,Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str.,
Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
Popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt.) has certain biological features that set it apart from other subspecies. The plants of popcorn form a large number of corncobs and many lateral shoots of different heights. They have a less developed root system than dent corn, so they are more often to lie down and have less drought resistance.
The cobs of popcorn are smaller in size and have small grain. Grains are very hard, glassy, almost completely filled with horny endosperm. Popping expansion volume is the most important quality trait in popcorn and the one that distinguishes it from all other types of maize.
The purpose of the research was to study the popcorn’s lines on a complex of valuable traits. The starting material for the research was sixty one lines of popcorn created in the laboratory of the selection of corn for eating. Experiments were carried out at Synelnikovska breeding and research station of the SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine during 2016–2018 years.
As a result of the research it was found that a considerable part of the lines of working collection have FAO 200–390 and are suitable for mechanized cultivation. The analysis of the structure of the cob showed that most lines of popcorn have the following parameters: the cob is medium in length (11 – 14 cm), thin in diameter (2–3 cm), with the number of rows of grains from 10 to 16, grains in a row from 26 to 35 and weighing 1000 seeds from 100 g to 200 g.
It was found that, under more extreme growing conditions, average, minimum and maximum values on all traits decreased. Strong variation was observed on the characteristics of "attachment height of cob", "cob length", "number of grains in a row", average – "plant height", "diameter of cob", "number of rows of grains" and strong and medium – "weight of 1000 seeds".
Consequently, the high and average values of the coefficients of variation make it possible to select the best lines for breeding hybrid of popcorn.
Key words: selection, popcorn, line, breeding traits, variation parameters, source material.
|№1 (2020)||Appraisal of barley spring genotypes for yield and resistance to diseases||Annotation|
Appraisal of barley spring genotypes for yield and resistance to diseases
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 12–19.
Marukhnyak A. Ya., Bilovus H. Ya., Pushchak V. I. .
Institute of Agriculture of Carpathian Region of NAAS, 5, Hrushevskogo Str., Obroshyne vilege, Pustomyty distric, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The research was conducted in the years 2017–2019 on the fields of the grain and forage crops breeding laboratory at the conditions of breeding and seed crop rotation of the Institute of Agriculture of Carpathian Region of NAAS. The subject of research was 10 spring barley breeding lines and standard varieties Komandor and Orvel.
The purpose of our work was the realization of complex evaluation of the barley genotypes for productivity, resistance to pathogens, and adaptive features. The highest yields were achieved by the Orvel variety (4,17 t/ha) and the breeding line 740-231 (4,11 t/ha). Two more lines 742-221 and 699-2-18 showed slightly higher productivity than the standard, but the increases of yields grain were mathematically unreliable. The variability of yield indexes was insignificant (R = 0,78 t/ha, V = 5,92%). According to the regression coefficient, the highest plasticity for yield was distinguished the breeding lines 740-231, 700-3-17, 702-1-12, 409-1-4 and 699-2-18, but only the latter had high stability. The highest homeostaticity was found in 703-111 – 152,36, and the varieties Komandor, Orvel and lines 742-221, 762-2-11 and 703-111 were assigned to the category with high breeding value (30,66–37,26). Agronomic and phenotypic stability coefficients are used to determine the range of trait stability. According to these coefficients, the line 703-111 (As = 97,58; SF = 1.05) and varieties Komandor (As = 95,83; SF = 1,09) and Orvel (As = 95, 44; SF = 1,10) were marked withthe more stability of trait “yield“.
The immunologic appraisals were conducted with the conversion of infection degree by disease in proofs of removal from average meaning (resistance indexes) to all studied variety-samples for determination of the genotypes spring barley resistance to agents of powdery mildew, meshy spots, dwarf rust and loose smut. The integral reaction on harmful organisms (index of complex resistance) can be evaluated through the determination of an average of the resistance indexes to agents of barley diseases. For evaluation of the resistance to diseases, the lines 545-5-9, 702-1-12, 742-221 and Orvel variety showed the less infectivity by the powdery mildew; lines 702-1-12 and 703-111– by the net blotch; lines 740-231 and 545-5-9 – by the dwarf rust; lines 702-1-12 and 740-231 – by the loose smut. The resistance of barley genotypes to pathogens relative to the adaptive norm, as well as their level of genetic protection was evaluated for the complex resistance index. The genotypes 702-1-12, 740-231, Orvel and 545-5-9 have the highest proofs of the complex resistance index to the agents of four diseases.
Key words: spring barley, breeding line, yield, appraisal, resistance.
|№1 (2020)||Features of formation and demonstration of signs of grain productivity in winter triticale||Annotation|
Features of formation and demonstration of signs of grain productivity in winter triticale
UDC 631.527: 631.1: 633.1123.9
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 20–27.
Levchenko O. S., Starуchenko V. M.
NSC “Institute of Agriculture of NAAS”, 2-B, Mashynobudivnykiv str., v. Chabany, Kyiv-Sviatoshynskiy district, Kyiv region, 08162, Ukraine
The results of the evaluation of collection samples of winter triticale (Ч Triticosecale) by the elements of the structure of grain productivity are presented. A genetic diversity of the collection according to the parameters of productivity traits was astablished. The smallest variability of collection samples was found with the grain mass per plant (V – 8.6%, lim – 2.5–3.5 g), the weight of 1000 grains (V – 8.8%, lim – 37.1–52, 8 g) and the height of the plants (V – 9.8%, lim – 96–149 cm), the average – the number of grains per plant (V – 10.6%, lim – 55.5–72.3 pcs.), productive bushiness (V – 15.3%, lim – 1.3–2.3 pieces) and the number of grains per ear (V – 19.9%, lim – 27.8–59.3 pieces), strong – by weight of grain per ear (V – 20.4%, lim – 1.1–2.5 g). A strong positive correlation was established between grain productivity and grain weight per ear (r = 0.78) and medium strength – with the number of grains per plant and ear (r – 0.47 and 0.63, respectively). There is practically no correlation between the grain productivity and the mass of 1000 grains and the height of the plants. A negative correlation of medium strength (r = -0.43) was establish-hed between the mass of grain per plant and the number of productive stems. Using the method of regression analysis, we determined the direction and magnitude of changes in grain productivity in the collection samples of winter triticale when alternating the parameters of the attributes of the elements of its structure.
Key words: winter triticale, collection samples, elements of the structure of grain productivity, variability and correlation of traits.
|№1 (2020)||Genotypes diversity in the ampelographic repository of NSC “Tairov Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-Making” (Ukraine) and its potential in breeding process||Annotation|
Genotypes diversity in the ampelographic repository of NSC “Tairov Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-Making” (Ukraine) and its potential in breeding process
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 28–37.
Kovalova I. A., Skrypnyk V. V., Vlasov V.V., Muliukina N. A., Gerus L. V., Fedorenko M. G., Salii O. V.
National Scientific Center «Tairov Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-Making» NAAS, 27, 40 let Pobeda str., Tairovo, Odessa, 65496, Ukraine
Traits collection of donor varieties (valuable economic traits donors), in particular seedlessness trait, has been created. An analysis some of the registered varieties on the resistance scaile to fungal diseases showed a tendency to increasing the adaptability of new generation varieties.
According to the degree of seed rudiments development, an assessment of 36 grape varieties ori-ginated from 12 countries was made, the first category seedlessness varieties were identified, which in the future can be used as parent components in crosses.
Screening data analysis of the registered grape varieties resistance to fungal diseases was presented, and the tendency to increase of resistant varieties number in State Register of plant varieties for dissemi-nation in Ukraine compared to the last decades of the last century. Genotypes with high productivity and ecological plasticity were presented, which are suitable for the formation of a new adaptive variety structure that provides stable yield annually, combined with exclusive taste and aroma of wine made from new wine varieties and high-quality table grape along with a considerable decrease of a number of pesticide treatments. This fact along with high resistance to biotic and abiotic factors makes such genotypes potential donors of valuable traits for new breeding programs.
Aromatic profiles of wines from new wine varieties and selections grades and forms of grapes were compiled, the exclusivity of their taste and aroma complex was confirmed. Promising table varieties were distinguished by the traits of the bunch and berry size and the marketability of the bunches.
By the SSR analysis the origin of varieties was confirmad, which is especially important for varieties obtained using a pollen mixture.
Key words: SSR-analysis, genotype, resistance seedlessness, variety, organoleptic profile, marketa-bility, large berry and bunch size.
|2 (2019)||Productivity and adaptive abilities of corn hybrids under different irriga-tion modes and moisture supply in the Arid Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Productivity and adaptive abilities of corn hybrids under different irriga-tion modes and moisture supply in the Arid Steppe of Ukraine
Lavrynenko Yu. O., Ivanyv M. O. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2).207–216.
1Institute of Irrigated Agriculture, NAAS of Ukraine, Naddniprianske village, Kherson, 73483, Ukraine
2 Kherson State Agrarian University, 23, Strytenska Str., Kherson, 73000, Ukraine
The results of economic and energy analysis on the effectiveness of 5-crop rotation, basic tillage and mineral fertilizers are presented. The detailed dynamics of profitability, cost, profitability and energy balance in systems of different intensity and productivity are shown.
Increasing the economic efficiencyof basic tillage and fertilization in crop rotation does not always coincide with environmental concerns about soil conservation and reduced energy costs for production. Thanks to high grain productivity and market value of grain producy the most cost-effective winter wheat, corn for grain and sunflower (165,2–245,2 %).
Estimation of economic efficiency of the methods of basic tillage and application of mineral fertilizers shows the significant influence of the technological factors on the basic economic indicators. Due to the favorable effect of plowing on crop yields of crop rotation, this method of cultivation provided the highest profitability of production in the crop range of 20.7–245.2%. The use of mineral fertilizers was accompanied by a decrease in the profitability of cereals, but at the same time helped to increase the profitability of the products obtained.
It is proved that in modern agriculture the energy estimation of the consumed and acquired resources opens up the opportunity to for man objective idea of the value of each agricultural reception and to adjust them on monetary mechanisms of grain production. From the point of view of energy saturation of agricultural technologies, fuel and mineral fertilizers, which make up to 60% in the structure of energy costs, occupy a decisive position. However, the decisive factor in energy efficiency remains the level of grain yield and the energy potential accumulated in it. A promising area of research in the agrocenotic energy balance is alienation control and return of the energy substratet of the soil.
Keywords: corn,hybrid, irrigation, adaptability, drought resistance, grain, selection.