Annotation is being prepared
|2 (2019)||Productivity and adaptive abilities of corn hybrids under different irriga-tion modes and moisture supply in the Arid Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Productivity and adaptive abilities of corn hybrids under different irriga-tion modes and moisture supply in the Arid Steppe of Ukraine
Lavrynenko Yu. O., Ivanyv M. O. Grain Crops. 2019. 3 (2).207–216.
1Institute of Irrigated Agriculture, NAAS of Ukraine, Naddniprianske village, Kherson, 73483, Ukraine
2 Kherson State Agrarian University, 23, Strytenska Str., Kherson, 73000, Ukraine
The results of economic and energy analysis on the effectiveness of 5-crop rotation, basic tillage and mineral fertilizers are presented. The detailed dynamics of profitability, cost, profitability and energy balance in systems of different intensity and productivity are shown.
Increasing the economic efficiencyof basic tillage and fertilization in crop rotation does not always coincide with environmental concerns about soil conservation and reduced energy costs for production. Thanks to high grain productivity and market value of grain producy the most cost-effective winter wheat, corn for grain and sunflower (165,2–245,2 %).
Estimation of economic efficiency of the methods of basic tillage and application of mineral fertilizers shows the significant influence of the technological factors on the basic economic indicators. Due to the favorable effect of plowing on crop yields of crop rotation, this method of cultivation provided the highest profitability of production in the crop range of 20.7–245.2%. The use of mineral fertilizers was accompanied by a decrease in the profitability of cereals, but at the same time helped to increase the profitability of the products obtained.
It is proved that in modern agriculture the energy estimation of the consumed and acquired resources opens up the opportunity to for man objective idea of the value of each agricultural reception and to adjust them on monetary mechanisms of grain production. From the point of view of energy saturation of agricultural technologies, fuel and mineral fertilizers, which make up to 60% in the structure of energy costs, occupy a decisive position. However, the decisive factor in energy efficiency remains the level of grain yield and the energy potential accumulated in it. A promising area of research in the agrocenotic energy balance is alienation control and return of the energy substratet of the soil.
Keywords: corn,hybrid, irrigation, adaptability, drought resistance, grain, selection.
|2 (2019)||Incompatibility of selective material of winter rye at self-plane plants||Annotation|
Incompatibility of selective material of winter rye at self-plane plants
Mazur Z. O.1,2, Nikolayka V. P.1 Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (2). 217–225.
1Uman national university pedagogical named after Pavel Tychyna, ul. Garden, 2, Uman, Cherkasy region,
2Verkhnyatskaya experimental-breeding station Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet NAAS, 14, Peace Str.,
uts. Verkhnyachka, Khrystynivsky district, Cherkasy region, 20022, Ukraine
The rapid introduction to breeding of modern methods of biotechnology and genetic engineering does not exclude the traditional approaches of creation of high-performance hybrids. But achieving the maximum performance of heterosis hybrids is hindered by a number of factors, among which the lack of homogeneity of the components of cross-breeding for alternative genes controlling the major economic-valuable traits.
Rye (Secale L.) has no absolute self-fertility, but self-fertility is 1–2% when isolating some spikelets. Studies have shown that self-fertility in rye is a recessive sign. Through selection, we can achieve its manifestation and consolidate it in following generations. If the initial variety had only 1.3–3.5% of the spikelets in which the seeds were tied in isolation, then after three generations of inbreeding, they were already 77.36%.
Recent years' research has made it possible to formulate a new approach to the creation of raw material for hybrid rye breeding. It is based on the method of inbreeding, when the mechanism of action of genes of self-incompatibility with genes of self-fertility is blocked in advance. Thus, self-incompatibility is completely replaced by self-fertility genes.
Determine the variation of the trait: plant height and self-fertile variety of winter rye varieties of different origins to create heterozygous hybrids from homozygous self-fertile lines.
The conducted researches with selection hybrid material of winter rye (Secale cereale) showed a sharp decrease in the height of plants in all inbred lines (I1– I3). A small difference in the third generation by the mean value of plant height indicates that inbound inbred lines have come inbound minimum.
The average level of self-fertility in most of the studied populations was quite low and ranged from 27,2 to 55,0 %.
In seven sorts of specimens, high mean values of self-fertility were obtained, which ranged from 69,3 to 93,0 %, which indicates that genotypes of these sorts of specimens involved lines with the genes of self-fertility and on their basis were created highly self-fertile hybrid combinations.
In addition, the influence of modified growing conditions on planting of seeds with self-pollination and sorts of specimens with the same genotypes, which in different years of the study belong to different classes of self-fertility Kharkiv 98 / Pallada (І2–95% to І3–63 %), Cluh / Primitive (І2–89,0 % to І3–69,3 %), Hamarka / (Kharkiv 95 / Pallada) (І2 –75% to І3 –52%).
Plants with low self-fertility (3,5–35,0%) give in the offspring weakly self-fertile or completely self-sterile plants.
The obtained data are the basis for the continuation of breeding work on the creation of self-fertile lines of winter rye at Verkhnyatsky experimental and breeding stations.
Key words: rye on winter, plant height, self-ferment lines, self-sterility, grazing, lines.
|1 (2019)||Origin and agrobiological characteristic of soft winter wheat variety Artaplot||Annotation|
Origin and agrobiological characteristic of soft winter wheat variety Artaplot
UDC 633.111.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0053
Diordiieva I. P., Riabovol Ia. S., Riabovol L. O. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 7–12.
Uman national university of horticulture, 1 Institytska str., Uman, Cherkassy region, 20300, Ukraine
In the article it is shown the results of research in the direction of creation of new high-productive forms of soft winter wheat with the use in breeding process of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.). Research was started in 2010 under leading of doctor of biological sciences F. M. Parii. New variety was created in the result of crossing of varieties of soft winter wheat Kopylivchnka and Kryzhynka with the sample of spelt wheat from foothills of the Carpathians with next hybridization of obtained hybrids with each other and with the use of multiply individual selections. In the results of crossing were obtained 12 hybrid populations with wide genetic basic. Hybrid progenies F2–5 analyzed for the manifestation of morphological and agronomic traits which allows to select four best samples. After analysis and testing on the productivity of the ear, grains quality and resistance to lodging, two breeding samples with high qualitative characteristics were selected, which continued to be analyzed in a competitive testing. Thus it was selected an awn line of soft winter wheat 1809. This sample was analyzed in a competitive testing during 2013–2015 in the experimental plot of Uman national university of horticulture. In the research was used systematic method of sites placement with accounting area 10 m2 and plant density 400 thousand pcs/ha. All records and observations were conducted in accordance with the «Methodology of the State Scientific and Technical Expertise of Plant Varieties». After all accounting and measurements, the grain was threshed out of the ear and deter-mined the yielding capacity. The reliability of the research and the significance of the differences between the indicators of productivity in experimental studies were evaluated based on the results of the variance analysis of mathematical statistics and the use of the MS Excel application. During the period of control testing in the experimental plot of Uman national university of horticulture sample 1809 was characterized by high productive (6,38 t/ha), high gluten content (36,1 %) and complex resistance to unsuitable environment factors, in particular, ash, brown rust and powdery mildew. The positive feature of the sample 1809 is the high resistance to lodging, which is associated with low stem (80 cm) and the presence of strong, coarse straw. Sample characterized by high mass of 1000 grains (46,8 g) and grain unit (690 g/l). Sample 1809 in 2015 was transferred to the State scientific and technic expertise with the name Artaplot. Testing of new variety conducted during 2015–2018 in17 State centers of expertise of plant varieties in different regions of Ukraine. During the State scientific and technic expertise (2015–2018) the average yield of the variety Artaplot in the Polissya and Forest-steppe regions varied from 61,5 to 61,9 t/ha, which exceeded the average yield for the Polissya region on 0,53 t/ha but it was inferior on 0,23 t/ha to the average indicators in the Forest-Steppe zone. It was fixed high resistance of plants of variety Artaplot against unsuitable environment factors (deceases, lodging, drought, frost e. g.) in both zones of growing with not significant variation on percent of affected plants. Depending on the growing zone, differences in the weight of 1000 grains were recorded: in the Forest-steppe this indicator was 43,3 g, while in Polissya zone it was 46,0 g. The content of protein in the grain of the variety Artaplot varied within the range 14,3–14,8 %. Accordingly to the results of State Scientific and technic expertise variety Artaplot listed to State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine in 2019 and recommended for growing in the zone Polissya. Created variety belongs to medium-ripening group of plants with duration of vegetation period 285–290 days. It differs by leveling stems and uniform ripening. The variety has winter type of development. Bush – erect, plants without wax plaque. Ear – prismatic, long (14,0 cm), with medium density, in the phase of full ripeness has red color and long awns. Grain – egg-shaped, large, has light brown color. Variety has good level of winter- and drought- resistance, tolerance to deceases, resistant to aspiration and germination of grain in the ear.
Key words: soft wheat, spelt wheat, hybridization, selection, control testing.
|1 (2019)||Сharacteristics of a new grass peavine variety Ivolga||Annotation|
Сharacteristics of a new grass peavine variety Ivolga
UDК 633.36/.37:631.527 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0054
Klisha A.I.1, Kandaurova K.F.1, Kulinich O.O.1, Kobos I.O.2 Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 13–17.
1SEinstitute of graincropsof nationalacademy of agrarian sciences, 14VolodymyraVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2State Enterprise «Experimental Farm «Krasnogradske», Doslidnevillage, Scientific Str., Krasnogradskiydistrict, Kharkivskaregion, 63308, ukrainе
Peavine (Lathyrussativus) belongs to the legume family. Peavinegained fame thanks to its extra-ordinary endurance. It is able to grow on such a dry ground, where no other plant will survive. At the same time it also tolerates well excess moisture. In addition, the peavine are not demanding for soil fertility and are almost not damaged by pests and diseases. Therefore, it is most widely distributed in regions where agriculture is almost impossible.
Despite the presence of a significant number of valuable characteristics, the peavine needs a selection improvement. In particular it needs improving the suitability for mechanized harvesting. Peavine plants have a stem length of up to 1 m and therefore prone to sinking. It is desirable to obtain determinant varieties of shrub type with a rigid stalk, which will be kept straight to the ripening. When new varieties are produced, seed yields are the main indicator of the value of the source selection material. Solving the problem of increasing productivity depends on the genetic potential of the variety, its plasticity and high resistance to major diseases.
In the article the characteristic of a new cultivar of peavineIvolga is presented, which in the future will take significant crop areas in Ukraine. The variety of peavineIvolga was made in the Institute of grain crops of NAAS it is derived by individual selection from the natural hybrid of the Peavine variety Spodyvanka. It belongs to varieties of complex use (grain and forage). Registered for cultivation in the Steppe and Forest-steppe of Ukraine in 2017.
The new variety of peavineIvolga is characterized by high yield performance and quality of seeds. The variety is resistant to drought, major diseases; withstand spring frosts to minus 7–8оC. In the two years (2016–2017), of a competitive variety trial under the conditions of the State Enterprise «Experimental Farm «Krasnogradske»,the maximum grain yield was 3.58 t/ha and celebrated with high quality. It is recom-mended to grow a variety in arid conditions in both the northern and southeast steppes of Ukraine.
Key words: grass peavine, Ivolga variety, breeding numbers, growing season, elements of growing technology.
|1 (2019)||Breeding value of oat (AVENA SATIVA L.) lines and varieties||Annotation|
Breeding value of oat (AVENA SATIVA L.) lines and varieties
UDC 633.13: 52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0055
Nechеporenko L. P.1, Orlov S. D.2 Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 18–25.
1Verkhniachka Experimental Breeding Station of the Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet NAAS,
1 Shkolnaya Str., pgt Verkhniachka, Hrystynovsryi villege, Cherkaskyi region, 20022, Ukraine
2Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet NAAS, 25 Klinichna Str., Kyiv, 03010, Ukraine
In the research, the collected oat samples, varieties, and lines of various eco-geographical origin were used. In the process of creating new breeding genotypes of spring chaffy and hulless oat with the aid of hybridization, castration was carried out according to the Shishlows method and 7792 flowers were pollinated, 1119 hybrid grains from 159 combinations were obtained. In the hybrid nursery garden, stable by agronomic and economic value progeny was selected (420 grains). Against the provocative background, the number of forms resistant to crown rust is 2016 was 31, and in 2018, the number was 20. Resulted from research 67 variety samples were selected from the infectious background. Of them, 31 resistant, 33 weak-susceptible and 29 susceptible to nigra loose smut.
Highly productive breeding genotypes (418-5, 475-12, 486-11, and others) of oat that exceed the standard variety Zakat by 0.3−0.5 t/ha and SkarbUkrainy by 0.9−1.2 t/ha were selected in the competition test. The selected lines are resistant to lodging and fungal diseases (7−9 points). According to the results of field research and qualification examination, the Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine was completed with ‘Dioskurii’ spring hulless variety in 2017 and spring chaffy ‘Denka’ in 2018 have been introduced.
Keywords: oat; varieties; samples; cross; selection, variety examination.
|1 (2019)||Elucidation of the dependence between the methods of heat treatment of sweet corn grains and their color||Annotation|
Elucidation of the dependence between the methods of heat treatment of sweet corn grains and their color
UDC 581.192:633.15 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0056
Psiolova A.O. Grain Crops, 2019, 3 (1). 26–30.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
It is topical to develop the sweet corn with the red-colored grain, high content of antioxidants and of vitamin P.
Anthocyanins change the hue and intensity of coloration in media with different pH values, at different temperatures, etc. Therefore, it is very important that the attractive red color does not change during the heat treatment process of sweet corn cobs.
The purpose of the study is to investigate how the color of sweet corn grains varies depending on the heat cooking.The studies were conducted at the State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS in the Laboratory of Biotechnology. The experimental material were the cobs of maize of the F4 population (CE401xChornosteblova).
For research, the cobs with the red-colored grain on a kernel milk stage were used, on the 21–23-rd day after self-pollination. Three ways of heat treatment of cobs were considered: 1) boiling in plain water; 2) boiling in ordinary acidified water; 3) baking in husks.The grain in the control version (without heat tre-atment) was characterized by intense red color and dense structure. The cobs in the control version were the most attractive (5 points). The grain tasted sweet and its structure was tender and succulent, but due to the lack of heat treatment, the grain's taste was 4 points. When boiled in plain non-acidified water, the grain lost its color and became a greenish-gray. Its condition was estimated at 1 point. A considerable amount of anthocyanins contained in the grain were washed out with water during cooking and the water became intense greenish-gray. During cooking of cobs in acidified water, the grain lost its color only partially because the pigments are more stable in acidic environment than in neutral. The color of the cobs was rated 4 points. This is due to the fact that some of the pigments from the grain are washed out with water and the latter turns reddish-pink. The taste qualities of the cobs in this version corresponded to 3 points: the grain was sweet, but with a tangy taste of acid and denser than in the previous version.
After baking the sweet corn cob in the oven at 180 ˚С the grain color was the best, compared to other variants of culinary processing we studied. Its score was 5 points and it remained unchanged. This is probably due to the fact that anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments that are washed out by water during cooking, as a result – the grain is discolored. When baking, contact with water is absent and the color of pigments does not change. The taste qualities of the grain in this version corresponded to a score of 5/5: grain was sweet, non-acidic, the grain structure was slightly denser than that of cobs boiled in plain water.
Depending on the method of heat treatment, the grain of sweet corn of genotype F4 (CE401xChornosteblova) changed color and structure. The best results were obtained when baking the cobs in the oven at 180 ˚C, the structure and red color of the grain remained almost unchanged.When boiling cobs in the plain water, the color of the grain deteriorated and in the water acidified with 9% vinegar, although it was slightly better, however, the intensity of color decreased and the grain became more brittle.
Key words: Zea mays L., sweet corn, grain, anthocyanins, color, heat treatment.
|2 (2018)||Display and variability of the sign mass of seeds per a plant in the soybeans hybrids and varieties of the different groups of ripeness||Annotation|
Display and variability of the sign mass of seeds per a plant in the soybeans hybrids and varieties of the different groups of ripeness
UDC 631.527: 633.34: 631.6 (477.72) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0026
Lavrynenko Yu. O. 1, Marchenko T. Yu. 1, Borovyk V. O. 1, Michalenko I. V. 2, Ivaniv M. O. 2, Klubuk V. V. 1 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 201–211.
1 Institute of Irrigated Agriculture NAAS, Naddnipryanske village, Kherson, 73483, Ukraine
2 Kherson State Agrarian University, 23Strytenskaya str., Kherson, 73000, Ukraine
A comprehensive study of the productivity elements and their relations with economically valuable traits could be used to improve the sort models for the specific agroclimatic zones and to determine the priority selection parameters for the component attributes of productivity.
The study of the characteristics of the manifestation and variability of the constituent elements of productivity in soybean varieties is the main reason for a selection theory developing taking into account the specifics of the weather and technological conditions of the zone for which they are created. One of the main features in the structure of the plant, which determines the productivity of the sort, is the mass of seeds per a plant.
The purpose of the research was to determine the manifestation of the feature “seed weight from a plant” in the, parental forms and hybrids. Also to establish the level of variability behind the soybean va-rieties in the F1–F4 hybrid combinations. The tasks were also to determine the effectiveness of selections for productivity in terms of the “seed weight from a plant” indicator from the hybrid populations of the F2–F5.
The studies were conducted on the experimental base of the Institute of the Irrigated Agriculture NAAS during the 2007–2015. Studied varieties of competitive varietals testing, collection samples, differed according to the ripeness and origin groups, F1 hybrids and F2–F5 hybrid populations were also studied.
25–44 hybrids and populations were studied annually. The hybrid (F2–F4) and breeding nurseries, the 2,25 m² areas were sown with a SKS-6-10 seeder with a cassette sowing unit. Every 9number stan-dards were posted. The 6,0 m2 control nursery area was three-time sown.Selections on the basis of the “seed weight from a plant” were carried out in the F2–F5 populations. The varieties with the best economically valuable traits and properties and lines of the various groups of ripeness were included to the hybridization hotbed.
The analysis of the manifestation and variability of the sign “seed mass from a plant” in varieties of competitive variety trials showed that there is a very significant amplitude of variability in this indicator. The range of variability of varieties was higher in the mid-season and the late-ripening group.
The maximum values of the grain mass from a plant are observed in the middle-ripening and the late-ripening groups in 2008 – 22,88 and 27,20 g/plant. Somewhat soybean varieties were inferior for the manifestation of the trait in 2009. In the group of late ripening varieties there were the highest average indices – 9,82–12,99 g/plant. The middle-ripening and early ripening group of varieties was significantly inferior on this trait, especially in the dry 2007, which led to a decrease in the range of variability between min and max, g.
The coefficient of genotype variation (Vg) depended less on the ripeness group. However, the weather conditions of the year were more significant factor, despite the vegetative irrigation. This indicates the negative effect of heat and low humidity on the genotypic variability of the trait and its manifestation in varieties.
Thus, it has been established that in soy characteristic “seed mass from a plant” has significant genotypic variability and has significant differences in varieties of different groups of ripeness, which may be a prerequisite for predicting the effective selection for this factorial trait.
The high level of genotypic variation of the feature “seed mass from a plant” indicates the possibility of carrying out effective selection from hybrid populations. However, it is desirable to establish a connection with this characteristic with other biometric and utilitarian indicators.
The calculated correlation coefficients showed a high correlation (r≥0,80) of the seed mass from the plant with the signs: the number of productive nodes on the branches, the number of productive nodes on the plant, the number of beans on the plant, the number of grains from the plant, the mass of beans from theplant. A high correlation of this trait with seed yield was also established, which made it possible to predict the prospects of selections for increasing seed yield using factorial “seed weight from a plant”.
From the F2–F5 hybrid populations in terms of the “seed mass from a plant”, selections were made (more than 50 elite plants). The results of individual selection tested in a breeding nursery showed that in the most hybrid populations have a high percentage of the high-performing genotypes which can be obtained by selections in the third and fourth generation populations.
From the selections carried out in the F3 populations, the proportion of families exceeding the standard for seed yield was in the range of 28,0–37,5 %. In the second generation of hybrids, the efficiency of selection was 1,5–2 times lower, which is explained by the presence of the high heterozygosity in the F2 and the possible manifestation of competitive heterosis, which is not manifested in the next generation (in the selection nursery).
The high selection efficiency for a seed yield in terms of the “seed weight from a plant” was also in the F4 and the F5 populations. However, a selection in the later generations leads to a significant increase in the term of creating varieties, as well as the possible negative impact of natural negative selection, aimed at survival of the “wild-type” genotypes with low yields and high adaptability to survival.
It has been established that soy’s trait “seed weight from a plant” has the significant genotypic variability and has significant differences in varieties of the different groups of ripeness, which can predict the effect of the selection for this factorial trait.
The highest yield of high-yielding genotypes, reached by the “seed mass from a plant” indicator was obtained from the F3 populations, therefore, intensive selection for soybean productivity under irrigation conditions by the indicator “seed mass from a plant” should be started from the third generation.
To create the new high-yielding soybean varieties with a 3,5–5,5 t/ha yield under irrigation, it is promising to use in crossings of variety samples contrastive by groups of ripeness and genetic pedigree: Diona/Faeton, South 30/3147 (3) 91, South 30 /Phaeton), South 30/Vityaz 50, Kiev 91/Apollo, South 40/Apollon, USHI-6/Vityaz50, USHI-6/Phaeton, Evans/Apollo, (Evans x Traff)/Hodgson.
Key words: variety, soybean, hybrid, population, yield, irrigation.
|2 (2018)||The sugar content in the juice of the stalks of sugar sorghum, depending on seed productivity||Annotation|
The sugar content in the juice of the stalks of sugar sorghum, depending on seed productivity
UDК 631.174: 631.527 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0027
Yalansky О. V. 1, Sereda V. I. 1, Nosov M. G. 1 Tagantsova M. M. 2 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 212–217.
1 SЕ Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 Vladimir Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
2 Ukrainian Institute for Plant Varieti Examination, 15 Heneral Rodimtsev Str., Kyiv, 03041, Ukraine
The groups of early fall (55), midlate (58) and late-frosty (55) samples of sugar sorgh in accordance with the growing season were allocated. It is established that high-sugar varieties are late-ripening samples with a high yield of green mass and the lowest yield of the whisk with the grain. That is, they are characterized by a low percentage of panicle yield with grain in the yield of green mass. There is a pattern, the smaller the grain, the greater the sugar content in the juice of the stems. To confirm this pattern, a search experience was laid in 2017 at the Sinelnikovsky breeding and experimental station.
Search experience included the study of the content of sugars in the juice of the stalks of variety samples with and without grain, that is, fertile and sterile forms. Studies were conducted in the nursery of competitive sugar sorghum and breeding sterile lines.
As a result of the research, different content of sugars in the juice of the stems of sorghum samples was observed.
As a result of studies of sugar sorghum, it was found that the content of sugars in the juice of the stems of sterile variety samples is 19.2 % higher than in the same variety samples with a grain of 14.3 %. The sugar content in the juice of the stems of sterile variety samples with grain ranged from 8.8 % [F1 (430sugar x 12T309)] to 18.4 % (Pineapple). The sugar content in the juice of the stems of sterile varieties without grain varied from 12.2 % [F1 (Efremov white 2s x 12T209 sugar)] to 21.8 % F1 (093094a grain х Silo Kato)
It was also established that the average yield of green mass of mid-season variety samples is – 16.8 t/ha higher than that of early ripening – 16.5 t/ha, but less late-ripening – 19.3 t/ha. The inverse pattern is observed in grain yield. It was established that the percentage of panicle yield with grain in the yield of green mass of middle-aged variety samples is 22% higher than in late-ripe – 17 %, but less early-ripening 28 %. There is a pattern, the smaller the grain, the greater the sugar content in the juice of the stems.
Keywords: sorghum, hybridization, selection, crossing, nursery, maintenance of sugar, power engineering biospecialist.
|№ 1 (2018)||Characteristics of test-crosses ofripening lines corn of plasma Iodentin the conditions of the northern zone of the Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Characteristics of test-crosses ofripening lines corn of plasma Iodentin the conditions of the northern zone of the Steppe of Ukraine
Dziubetskyi B. V., Abelmasov O. V. Grain Crops, 2018, 1 (1). 5–13.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
World maize selection (Zea mays L.) ismainlybasedontheuseofrelatedlinesofvariousgeneticplasmas – Lancaster, Reid, Iodent, andothers. They are created mainly on the basis of special hybrid combinations obtained when crossing the best elite lines.A small quantity of such lines still allows you to synthesize a large quantity of different hybrid structures that react differently to self-pollination.At the same time, further progress in heterosexual selection is ensured by constant improvement of known basic models based on alternative groups of lines.
The characterization and evaluation of test-crosses, while comparing them with the best standards, is a very important link in the selection of a new source material and the improvement of the early-season lines associated with the genetic plasma of Iodent.It also allows you to set the correct direction of selection of the source material for a more effective result.
Assessment and selection on a complex of economic-valuable signs of test-crosses of ripening constant lines (DK555, DK714/195, DK744, DK237, DK216, DK234, DK213, DK1274) of plasma Iodent concerning their adaptation to the conditions of the zone Steppe of Ukraine.
The research was carried out in the experimental farm "Dnipro" of the R&D Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine in 2013–2015. The source material was 8 early-season lines of the plasma Iodent: DK555,DK714/195,DK744,DK237, DK216, DK234, DK213 andDK1274.To determine their combination ability, 4 lines were used: testers of different genoplasms: DK247 (Mixed), DK296 (Lancaster), DK272 (BSSS х Laukon), DK951 (BSSS).The standards for testing the test-crosses were hybrids: early-season – Dniprovsky 181SV, Middle-season – Orzhitsa 237MV and Medieval – Soloniansky 298SV.
In our research, the test-cross hybrids of constant lines differed significantly in terms of the average population yield of grain over the years. In particular, the grain yield in them varied from 5,72 to 7,34 t/ha at harvest moisture from 11,2 to 21,1%, depending on water supply. In 2013 it was 1,62 t/ha higher than in 2014 and by 0,94 t/ha compared to 2015.At the same time, test-crosses in 2013 on average exceeded the standards of the early-season Dniprovsky 181 SV at 1,19 t/ha and the mid-season standard Orzhitsa 237 MV at 0,18 t/ha, but yielded the medium-season hybrid Soloniansky 298 SV at 1,25 t/ha.In 2014 and 2015 all the test crops slightly exceeded the standard yield of the Dniprovsky 181 SV standard, but yielded to the other two. Regarding the length of the ladder period – the flowering of 50% of the cobblestones, then the test-crosses lines studied on the average for 2013–2015, then it averaged 54,6 days, with fluctuations from 50 to 57 days. This indicator in the standards of hybrids Dniprovsky 181SV, Orzhitsa 237 MV and Soloniansky 298 SV was 53,7; 54,3; 56,4 days, respectively.Testcroses were selected in which the length of the period of the staircase – the flowering of 50% of male and female inflorescences was 1–7 days less than in the early-seasonDniprovsky 181 SV. Among them: DK555 х DK247, DK714/195 х DK296 and DK555 х DK272 which in average for the years of research it was 54; 51,8 and 55 days, respectively. In years the course of our studies, the weather conditions were very constrictive for moisture, so it was possible to observe a significant variation in the height of plants in the test-crosses of constant lines.It's minimum average population (228,2 cm) was noted in 2013, and the maximum (275,0 cm) in 2015, which was close to the standards. The average height of attachment in 2013 they made 83,4 cm. Limits of the studied feature of test-crosses varied from 71,0 to 103,5 cm.The test-crosses on average were at the level with the standard of Dneprovsky 181 SV and they were inferior to the Orzhitsa 237 MV hybrids and the Soloniansky 298 SV hybrid by 3,2and 15,2%, respectively.
The results to the research in the 2013–2015, the reaction to the weather conditions of test-crosses of constant lines was studied, which allowed to reveal the peculiarities of the manifestation of their yield potential and indicators of economic-valuable signs. Highlight test-crosses DK1274 х DK951, DK 1274 х DK 296, exceeded the yield of grain, respectively, by 0,30 and 0,82 t/ha than the medium-season hybrid standard Soloniansky 298SV and indicators of economic-value characteristics at the level or better than standards.
Key words: maize, constant line, germplasmIodent, test-crosse, yield of grain, correlation.