|1 (2022)||Determination of the optimal heterotic model of mid-ripening maize hybrids in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Determination of the optimal heterotic model of mid-ripening maize hybrids in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.15: 631.527.5 (292.486) (1-17) (477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0201
Grain Crops. 2022. 6 (1). 5–14.
Kupar Yu. Yu., Dziubetsky B. V., Cherchel V. Yu., Olkhovik M. S..
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
Topicality. Currently, we can use more effectively the initial material of the working collection due to targeting certain heterosis models. Information about the advantages of different heterotic models in certain cultivation areas makes it easier to search for successful combinations and the selection of promising initial material. Issues. Тo identify of the most promising heterotic models of maize hybrids developed with using lines of different genetic plasms, which characterized by high yields and low grain moisture content compared to standard hybrids adapted to cultivation in the Northern Steppe. Aim. To determine the economic value of maize hybrids developed with using different germplasm lines and the most promising heterotic models for each genoplasm group. To investigate how the plant growing conditions influence on economic valuable indicators of hybrids depending on their genetic origin. Materials and Methods. Visual Method was used for phenological observations; Field and Laboratory Method was used to determine of morphobiological characteristics of plants; Measuring Weight Method – to determine the plant yield and metric characteristics; Mathematical and Statistical Method – to determine the reliability of results, the trait variability indicators, correlation dependence of traits; Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); comprehensive assessment of morphobiological and economically valuable characteristics of inbred lines and hybrids based on different genetic plasms. Results. It was found that testcrosses based on the Lancaster x Iodent model were the most stable by grain yield. However, in the average of three years of research, the highest average level (6.31 t/ha) was recorded in Mixed x Lancaster testcrosses. It was selected testcrosses with a higher grain yield compared to standard hybrids, such as DK3044xDK315, DK3151xDK4454, DK3151xDK3155 and DK365xDK6356 which had a yield of 8.0; 7.59; 7.18; 7.17 t/ha, respectively. We observed the best ratio of yield to grain moisture content (harvest index RH/M) in hybrid combinations of Lancaster x Mixed.
Conclusions. It was determined the best testcrosses according to the ratio of yield to grain moisture content: DK315CxDK3821 (Mixed x BSSS) – 0.51; DK633/325xDK365 (Mixed x Iodent) – 0.51; DK365xDK6356 (Iodent x Lancaster) – 0.51; DK3044xDK315 (Lancaster x Mixed) – 0.56; DK3151xDK3155 (BSSS x Mixed) – 0.55; DK633/325xDK3155 (Lancaster x Mixed), based on which are developing the mid-ripening maize hybrids adapted to Steppe zone of Ukraine.
Key words: maize, hybrid, line, germplasm, heterotic model, testcross, grain yield and moisture content at harvesting.
|1 (2022)||Development of high-yielding varieties of soft winter wheat in the conditions of the southeastern Steppe of Ukrain||Annotation|
Development of high-yielding varieties of soft winter wheat in the conditions of the southeastern Steppe of Ukrain
UDC: 633.11: 631.547 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0202
Grain Crops. 2022. 6 (1). 15–23.
R. S. Vyskub, H. A. Chuhrii, O. B. Bondareva
Donetsk State Agricultural Research Station of NAAS, 1 Zakhysnykiv Ukrainy St., Pokrovsk, Donetsk region, 85307, Ukraine
Topicality. One of the conditions to increase stably the soft winter wheat yield is plant breeding with high plasticity and resistance to adverse environmental factors, pests and diseases. Issues. Development of new high-yielding varieties with higher resistance to adverse weather conditions is important to increase crop productivity. Aim. To create the initial material and high-yielding varieties of soft winter wheat in conditions of insufficient soil moisture in the southeastern Steppe of Ukraine. Materials and methods. The research was conducted according to B. Dospekhov's method of field experience. The research was conducted in the 2017–2020 on the SE Research Farm Zaboishchyk of Donetsk State Agricultural Research Station NAAS at the Rozlyv village, Volnovakha district, Donetsk region. The field trials were conducted in the selective crop rotation of the Donetsk State Agricultural Research Station. The predecessors were black fallow and corn for grain. Research methods: hybridological, field, laboratory, mathematical and statistical methods. Results. According to the research results, it was found that the 77 numbers selected from hybrid combinations were left in the control nursery for further study. Among them were three numbers hk 363, hk 353, hk 403 which largest exceeded the standard by 14.1–19.7%. There are 42 numbers studied in a small competitive variety trial. It was determined that 15 hybrid combinations were the best than the standard (Donetska 48 variety) by 0.03–1.57 t/ha. In the competitive variety trial, 21 winter wheat cultivars after black fallow, and 25 cultivars after maize for silage were studied. According to yield, the best hybrid combinations after fallow were hk 4, hk 863/2, hk 716/1, which exceeded the standard Donetsk 48 by 0.41–0.51 t/ha, and after maize for silage, the best hybrid combinations were hk 321, hk 363, hk 318, in which the increase to the standard yield was 0.39-0.47 t/ha. According to the grain yield, the best varieties in the ecological variety trial were Bohynia, Popeliushka, Dyvo donetske, Oberih Myronivskyi, Yuzovska, Ihrysta, Peremoha, Patriotka, which exceeded the Donetsk 48 standard variety by 0.35-0.68 t/ha. Conclusions. It was determined that the development of new high-yielding varieties of soft winter wheat will increase productivity due to their adaptability for growing conditions in the southeastern Steppe of Ukraine. According to the analysis of the research results, the steppe ecotype varieties demonstrate a significant advantage on all the studied indicators; they better realize their genetic potential in specific soil and climatic conditions.
Key words: breeding, winter wheat, hybridization, variety, yield.
|1 (2022)||Determination of the growing season duration of popcorn lines (Zea Mays L. everta Sturt.) according to the FAO classification||Annotation|
Determination of the growing season duration of popcorn lines (Zea Mays L. everta Sturt.) according to the FAO classification
UDK 633.15:631.52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0203
D. S. Kuprichenkov
Grain Crops. 2022. 6 (1). 24–30.
SE Institute Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi St.,
Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
Topicality. The of the growing season is the main breeding trait, which determines the practical use of the initial material of popcorn in a particular agroclimatic zone. Thus, so the differentiation of samples on this trait is important and relevant. Issues. Most methods for determining FAO index of popcorn lines and hybrids (Zea Mays L.) are based on the standard with a certain maturity group, while for maize (Zea Mays L. everta Sturt.) such standards are not available. Purpose. To determine the FAO index of new popcorn lines on three indicators: the number of leaves per a plant, the effective temperature sum during the growing season, and the growing season duration. Materials and Methods. The initial material was 46 popcorn lines in S5, which were developed in the Food Maize Breeding Laboratory at the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine. The field trials were carried out at the Synelnykove Breeding and Research Station during 2020–2021. The FAO index of popcorn lines was determined according to Adryushchenko and Kryvytsky’s method. Results. We have determined the growing season duration of new popcorn lines according to the FAO classification by three indicators: the number of leaves per a plant, the effective temperatures sum during the growing season and the number of days until full ripening. Conclusions. It was noted that the indicator values that determine the maturity group of S5 popcorn lines can vary with growing conditions. Therefore, when only one indicator is used, we cannot obtain the accurate results. It is possible to reliably identify the maturity groups of initial material by the means of the proposed method of FAO determination on three indicators. Based on the results of the research, the new popcorn lines were divided into 3 groups. It was found that the mid-early ripening group (FAO 240-250) includes 4 lines in S5 - IKR 2-1, IKR 11-9, RV 3 and RV 1; to the mid-ripening group (FAO 320-390) – 32 lines in S5, including RR1, RR11, RS 13, RB 3, RK 43, RK 32, IKR 11-3, etc.; to the mid-late ripening group (FAO 400 - 410) - 10 lines in S5, including RV 18, RV 11, RP 61, RS 3, RV 6, etc.. It is proposed to select the lines of mid-early and mid-ripening groups for developing the new popcorn hybrids with full-value food popcorn grain. The formed working collection includes 80.4 % of samples of these maturity groups.
Key words: breeding, popcorn, line, FAO maturity index, growing season, effective temperature sum.
|1 (2022)||Рromising sorghum hybrids for solid fuel production||Annotation|
Рromising sorghum hybrids for solid fuel production
UDC: 663.17:631.559:621.039.542.3 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0204
M. H. Nosov, O. V. Yalanskyi
Grain Crops 2022. 6. 1. 31–35.
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
Topicality. In Ukraine, up to 5 million hectares of land were removed from agricultural crop rotation. These lands can be successfully used for bioenergy due to soil recultivation. They are represented by both ordinary soils contaminated with heavy metals and completely degraded alumina with high salinity. Issues. The land improvement aims to obtain biomass for the bioenergy industry, also to restore fertility, improve the ecological condition of the man-made region, and create new jobs. With proper use, considering all the above aspects, soils can gradually return to agricultural crop rotation. Aim. To study and select an initial material for the development of high-yield hybrids of sugar sorghum and broom millet for solid fuel production. Materials. Variety testing trials on sugar sorghum was carried out at the Synelnykove Breeding and Research Station, where 59 samples were examined, their yield was 23–79 t/ha. Results. We identified the promising hybrid combinations with the highest yield of green mass: F1 (Nyzkorosle 93s x Karlykove 45) – 79.7 t/ha, and F1 (Dn71s x Karlykove 45) – 73.6 t/ha. The yield of samples F1 (Rannie 776s x Karlykove 45) and F1 (Yefremivske bile 2s x Karlykove 45) was slightly less, and amounted to 67.4 and 67.0 t/ha, respectively. According to the grain yield, the best samples were F1 (Nyzkorosle 93s x Karlykove 45) –12.7 t/ha and F1 (A158 x Karlykove 45) – 9.0 t/ha. According to the yield of dry matter of green mass, it was stood out F1 (Yefremivske bile 2c x Karlykove 45) – 34.8 t/ha and F1 (Nyzkorosle 93c x Karlykove 45) – 33.5 t/ha. The highest sugar content was found in F1 (Nyzkorosle 93c x Krasen) – 17.3 %, F1 (Rannie 776s x Krasen) – 16.5 %, and F1 (Yefremivske bile 2c x Karlykove 45) – 16.4 %. The excess over the standard was 18 %.
Conclusions. Therefore, high-yielding hybrids of sugar sorghum are the most economical and energetically expedient source of raw materials for the bioenergy industry. It was selected the bioenergy hybrid of F1 (Nizkorosle 93c x Karlykove 45), which favorably differs from the standard in productivity and manufacturability. Also, Karlykove 45 variety was selected as a pollinator for the development of hybrids for solid biofuel.
Key words: sugar sorghum, bioenergy, solid fuel, fertile lines, yield, green mass.
|1 (2022)||Fanin Ya. S. Influence of wheat-rye translocations on yield and productivity elements of soft winter wheat in Southern Ukraine||Annotation|
Fanin Ya. S. Influence of wheat-rye translocations on yield and productivity elements of soft winter wheat in Southern Ukraine
UDC 633.11.1:631.527:631.524.85:631.523:664.6/7:57.085.2 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0205
M. A. Lytvynenko, Ye. A. Holub, Ya. S. Fanin
Grain Crops. 2022. 6 (1). 36–47.
Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute at the National Center of Seeds and Cultivar Investigation,
3 Ovidiopolska Road St., Odessa, 65036, Ukraine
Topicality. The level of genetic yield potential and adaptive properties of modern bread winter wheat varieties at this stage of breeding development is at a fairly high level. So breeding, improvement of bread winter wheat is becoming increasingly difficult. For this purpose, the creation and identification of new genetic sources of valuable traits and creation of genetic diversity, evaluation and selection of desired genotypes is extremely relevant. Issues. Introduction of alien translocations into the gene pool of bread winter wheat can serve as one of such sources of new original genetic material. However, the effects of these translocations are manifested to varying degrees depending on the genetic environment of hybrids and agroclimatic conditions of genotype selection. Aim. To compare the changes in the yield of recombinant lines and plant productivity elements based on their drought and heat tolerance depending on their genetic effects of wheat-rye translocations (WRT) 1AL.1RS and 1BL.1RS. To determine the use effectiveness of each WRT in order to create more perfect varieties of bread winter wheat under the conditions of soil-air drought in the Steppe zone of Ukraine.
Materials and Methods. In 2010-2020, field trials were carried out on the Institute’s fields on the by black fallow as the annual predecessor with the optimal agricultural background for breeding work. During the analysis of experimental data, all changes in meteorological conditions over the years of research were taken into account. In general, weather conditions were arid, which is typical for the Steppe zone. The studies of 112 lines (9.2 %) were carried out in the Department of Genetic Basis of Breeding of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute at the National Center of Seeds and Cultivar Investigation led by A. I. Rybalka, the rest 1093 lines (90.8 %) were studied in the Institute of Plant Protection NAAS led by N. A. Kozub and I. O. Sozinov. The material of competitive variety trials was tested on the presence of translocations and their state by DNA markers in the Department of General and Molecular Genetics of the the Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute at the National Center of Seeds and Cultivar Investigation led by V. I. Fait. Mathematical processing and analysis of the study results were performed using the methods of B. A. Dospekhov and P. F. Rokitskyi, and with Microsoft Excel 2007. Results. It was established that genetic effects of the most widespread in the world breeding practice wheat-rye translocations 1АL.1RS and 1ВL.1RS are considerably modified by features of their interaction in genetic environment and depending on agroclimatic conditions of growing introgressive genotypes. The positive effect of 1AL.1RS on the yield, total and productive tillering, and head productivity elements was significantly revealed due to simultaneous positive effect of translocation on drought and heat tolerance of plants. As a result of complete breeding cycle, a series of bread winter wheat varieties was developed on the material of 1AL.1RS, such as Zhytnytsia Odeska, Oktava Odeska, Liha Odeska, Duma Odeska, Versiia Odeska, which provided 10–15 % increase in yield to standards according to the station and state variety testing. These varieties are listed in the State Register of Ukraine and Moldova.
Conclusions. The use of WRT 1AL.1RS is perspective for further bread winter wheat breeding, and in the the Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute at the National Center of Seeds and Cultivar Investigation as one of the next stages of improvement of bread winter wheat varieties for arid conditions of the South of Ukraine. The use of 1ВL.1RS in wheat breeding in the region is less promising method, but does not exclude the possibility of obtaining a positive result in a favorable combination with highly adapted local varieties.
Keywords: bread winter wheat, recombinant lines, yield, wheat-rye translocations 1AL.1RS and 1BL.1RS.
|1 (2022)||Peculiarities of the response of the productivity potential of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) hybrids on agroclimatic conditions of the central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Peculiarities of the response of the productivity potential of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) hybrids on agroclimatic conditions of the central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.527.633.14 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0206
Mazur Z. O.
Grain Crops. 2022. 6 (1). 48–56.
Verkhniachka Research and Breeding Station at the Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet NAAN, 1 Shkilna Str., Verkhniachka Uts., Khrystynivka district, Cherkasy region, 20022, Ukraine
Topicality. Adaptive properties and the plant resistance to adverse environmental factors greatly influence obtaining a high and stable yield, especially in adverse and extreme weather conditions. Issues. The introduction of modern Ukrainian varieties of winter rye with high adaptive properties makes it possible to solve the problem of stabilization of grain yield and production.Aim. To determine the adaptive potential of the best cytoplasmic male sterile hybrids in the environmental variety testing system. Material and methods. The initial material for research was varieties, hybrids and lines of winter rye with recessive control of stem length, donors of self-fertility and cytoplasmic male sterility from the collection of the Verkhniachka Research and Breeding Station at the Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beets NAAS Ukraine. We have performed the research according to generally accepted methods. The response degree of genotypes to the variability of environmental conditions and the breeding value of hybrids were characterized by the coefficient of ecological plasticity b1. Results.The influence of climatic conditions on the winter rye yield was studied and the assessment of ecological plasticity and stability of hybrids was given. Based on the results of research, it is possible to recommend for cultivation of winter rye hybrids which give a stable yield regardless of weather conditions and with regression coefficient of not less than 1.0 and a minimum mean deviation from the regression line. Conclusions. During 2015–2019, approbation of hybrids was carried out in 8 regional State centers for plant variety examination of Ukraine. According to the results of the State Scientific and Technical Examination, Wals hybrid was included in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Spreading in Ukraine since 2020 and was recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine.
Key words: winter rye, hybrid, growing environment, ecological plasticity, yield.
|№ 2 (2021)||Testing of maize hybrids of different maturity groups in the conditions of the south-western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Testing of maize hybrids of different maturity groups in the conditions of the south-western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
UDK 633.15:631.52:632 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0178
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2)209-217
Ya. D. Zaplitnyi 1, H. V. Kozak 1, I. S. Mikuliak 1, M. I. Linskaia 1, T. Ya. Karp 1, N. A. Bodenko 2
1 Bukovinian State Agricultural Research Station of the Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian Region of NAAS,
21a Bohdan Kryzhanivskyi St., Chernivtsi, 58025, Ukraine
2State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14,Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research results of maize hybrids of different maturity groups (FAO 199–399) during 2018–2020 in the conditions of the South-Western part of the Forest- Steppe of Ukraine are presented. 54 domestic registered and perspective hybrids of selection of various research institutions of Ukraine (SE Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, Plant Production Institute named after V. Ya. Yuriev of NAAS, Selection and Genetics Institute – National Center for Seed Production and Variety Studying, National Research Center Institute of Agriculture of NAAS, Bukovynian State Agricultural Research Station of the Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian Region of NAAS) were studied.
The planting density of early ripening hybrids was 70, midearly ripening – 60, mid-ripening – 50 thousand plants/ha. Plants were evaluated for uniformity, resistance to stem breakage below the productive ear, the damage degree by boil smut, resistance to root lodging and general condition were determined. All maize hybrids were characterized by high rating (8–9 points) on these traits. Over the years of research, the mid-early hybrids were more productive in the conditions of Bukovyna (9.06 t/ha), the mid-ripening hybrids - the least adapted to these conditions – (8.62 t/ha). The best samples with high grain yield and low grain moisture content at harvest were identified. On average for three years, DB Lada (9.64 t/ha) and DN Synevyr (9.43 t/ha) had the highest grain yield among the early-ripening hybrids, and DB Varta (10.81 t/ha), DB Khotyn (9.96 t/ha), and Kitsmanskyi 215 SV (9.61 t/ha) – among the middle-early one.
It was found that DN Synevyr and DB Lada early-ripening hybrids and Kitsmanskyi 215 SV, DB Kho-tyn, DB Varta mid-early hybrids significantly exceeded the standards each year. In view of this, the hybrids of these maturity groups merit attention in the conditions of the South-Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
Key words: hybrids, maize, selection, yield, harvesting moisture content, maturity group, lodging resistance.
|№ 2 (2021)||Selection of vetch (Vicia sativa l.) genotypes resistant to abiotic environmental factors in the agrocoenoses with various supporting crops||Annotation|
Selection of vetch (Vicia sativa l.) genotypes resistant to abiotic environmental factors in the agrocoenoses with various supporting crops
UDC 633.352:631.52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0179
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2) 218-225
S. D.Orlov 1, A. O.Hahin 2, S. V.Syniohub 3, S. M.Brovko 4.
1 Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beets NAAS of Ukraine, 25 Klinichna St., Kyiv, 03010, Ukraine
2 Bila Tserkva Research and Breeding Station of the Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beets of the NAAS of Ukraine, Mala Vilshanka 1 p/o, Bila Tserkva district, Kyiv region, 09178, Ukraine
Artificial selection of spring vetch began with hybrid materials selected from the nursery of the F1 hybrids.
When studying spring vetch on different backgrounds, there was a significant difference between the offspring in terms of plant survival rate: against the background of oats, its values ranged from 21.8 to 34.4 % with an average of 27.5 %, and after white mustard - from 40 .2 to 53.35 % at - 47.2 %. Stabilization of the competitiveness of spring vetch in mixed sowing with oats was not observed, but there was a decrease in the share of full-fledged plants of the artificial population F4 from 0.5 to 7.9% compared to F3. There were more full-fledged spring vetch plants against the background of mustard, it was indicates that mustard has much lower competitiveness compared to oats. It was found that in each population plants with low productivity prevailed both after oats and after white mustard. The selection coefficient (per a sheaf) averaged from 19 % against background oats and up to 34.1 % - after white mustard, a total of 2240 elite plants were selected. Thus, at the first stage, spring vetch plants survived under cultivation with a supporting crop were selected. The survival rate of spring vetch in the agrocenosis with oats varied from 17.3 to 31.3 %. 2054 elite plants were obtained. The second stage of the artificial selection nursery was formed from the material of spring vetch which was tested for resistance to the competitive background of the previous year. The survival rate of spring vetch plants varied from 17.6 % to 24.5 %, 2432 elite plants were obtained. At the third stage, the offspring of spring vetch in mixed sowing with oat and white mustard was studied: 546 elite plants against the background of oat and 1694 against the background of white mustard were selected, with a total of 2240 elite plants selected. The percentage of selected plants indicates that spring vetch genotypes which cannot compete with the supporting crops and between themselves are eliminated from the population. Purposeful selection of artificial hybrid population of spring vetch promotes the formation of genetically balanced lines with increased resistance to abiotic environmental factors.
Key words: spring vetch, hybrid, selection, productivity, mixed sowing
|№ 2 (2021)||Path analysis of the relationships between the performance and its constituents in corn lines||Annotation|
Path analysis of the relationships between the performance and its constituents in corn lines
UDC 633.15:631.527:581.16:519.237.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0180
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 226–232
S. Н. Ponurenko, V. P. Kolomatska, L. M. Chernobay
Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya.Yuriev of NAAS, Moscow Avenue, 142, Kharkiv, 61060, Ukraine
The article presents the results of studying the genotypic variability parameters and relationships between traits affecting the performance in corn lines. In a series of three-year trials in 2006–2020, genotypic levels of the performance and its constituents in mid-early and mid-ripening corn lines, which were bred in the Laboratory of Corn Breeding and Seed Production of the Plant Production Institute named after V. Ya. Yuriev and became a part of its working collection, were determined.
It was found that the average group performance of mid-ripening lines was higher than that of mid-early ones with differences depending on kernel type.
Path analysis of genotypic correlations between the performance and its constituents allowed for evaluation of direct and side effects. It was found that the coefficients of pair correlation between the performance and its constituents were positive and mostly low or moderate, ranging 0.327 for "kernel number per ear" trait to 0.656 for "ear diameter" trait. However, when the correlations between the studied traits were divided into direct and side effects, the direct path coefficients were only high for the impact of "kernel number per ear" and "1000-kernel weight" traits (0.835 and 0.812, respectively) on the performance. Such traits as the "ear diameter", "number of kernel rows" and "kernel number per row" had very low values of the direct path coefficients (0.041 – 0.098), but affected the performance indirectly through the “kernel number per ear” trait. The "number of kernel rows" (0.622) and "kernel number per row" (0.544) exerted the greatest indirect impact on the performance through the "kernel number per ear" trait. As to the “1000-kernel weight” trait, there were significant negative indirect effects of the "kernel number per ear" and "number of kernel rows" traits, with the path coefficients of -0.350 and -0.362, respectively.
It was shown that "ear diameter"- "number of kernel rows"- and "kernel number per row"-oriented selections were indirect, as they are components of the "kernel number per ear" trait and are at another level in the performance module. The “kernel number per ear”- and “1000-kernel weight”-oriented direct selections for performance can be most effective, but regarding the latter, one should take into account the negative side effects of the "kernel number per ear" and "number of kernel rows" traits, which can be achieved by building up aggregated indexes.
Keywords: corn, inbred line, performance, correlation analysis, path analysis.
|№ 2 (2021)||Methodical features of sugar content determination in sweet maize selection||Annotation|
Methodical features of sugar content determination in sweet maize selection
УДК 633.15:631.52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0181
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2) 233-243
T. M. Satarova, K. V. Denisyuk, O. E. Klimova
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro,49009, Ukraine
A currently important task for the evaluation of breeding samples at all stages of the sweet maize selection is to control the sugar content in the sweet maize grain of technical maturity. The methodical features of the sugar content determination in the sweet maize grain using the example of the inbred line CE401 and hybrid F2(CE401 × Chornosteblova) were investigated. We compared the content of total sugar, monosaccharides and disaccharides in the grain on the twenty-first day after self-pollination (21 DAP), on the day of sampling and after storage of the same ears at subzero temperature.
It was found that after storage of ears for 4.5 months at a temperature of –12 0C, total sugar content in grain of CE401 increased by 97.7 % and reached 46.84 % by mass of absolutely dry matter (ADM), and for F2(CE401 × Chornosteblova) – by 61.7 % and reached 15.93 %. Accordingly, the contents of mono- and disaccharides as components of total sugar content increased, although this increase in F2 (CE401× Chornosteblova) was very uneven for individual ears. Intact grains of the CE401 line contained 2.55 times more monosaccharides and 2.27 times more disaccharides compared to the F2 hybrid (CE401 × Chornosteblova). After keeping the ears at –12 ºC for 4.5 months, the share of total sugar content in ADM of the CE401B line grain exceeded the similar value of the F2 hybrid (CE401 × Chornosteblova) by 2.94 times, monosaccharides by 3.54 times, and disaccharides by 2.54 times. The degree of such increase depends on the genotype of the initial breeding material.
For the sweet maize selection, it is recommended to determine the total sugar content and its fractions on the day of sampling, and to refuse the common practice to store of grain samples at subzero temperature before analysis.
Key words: Zea mays L., grain in technical maturity, total sugar content, mono- and disaccharide contents, determination procedure, grain storage under subzero temperature.