|№1 (2021)||Maize grain yield formation depending on macro- and microfertilizers||Annotation|
Maize grain yield formation depending on macro- and microfertilizers
UDC633. 15: 631. 5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0157
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 45–51.
Dudka M. I., Yakunin O. P., Kovtun O. V., Hladkyi O. V.
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research results of the foliar fertilization influence with different levels of mineral nutrition on the maize grain yield were presented, and the economic efficiency of growing of grain products was clarified. It was found that when increasing the mineral fertilizer dose from N30P30K30 to N45P45K45 and N60P60K60, the height of plants increased by 3 and 7 cm, the leaf surface area of one plant – by 4.8 and 10.9 %, respectively. Due to foliar fertilization, the height of plants increased by 2–5 cm, and the leaf area changed insignificantly. Depending on the background of mineral nutrition, it was accounted 98–99 ears per 100 maize plants, and in the case of foliar fertilization – 98–100 ears.
The maize grain yield on the background of N30P30K30 was 7.56 t/ha, on the background of N45P45K45 and N60P60K60 – 8.65 and 8.68 t/ha, respectively. In the control variant (without spraying) the yield was 7.77 t/ha, and when plants fertilizing with urea (15 kg/ha) – 8.09 t/ha. The grain yield in the variants with maize plant fertilizing with a mixture of urea and micronutrients reached to 8.30–8.78 t/ha.
The prime cost of 1 ton of maize grain when growing on the background of N30P30K30 was 1808 UAH, with increasing the fertilizer dose to N45P45K45 and N60P60K60 – 1781 and 1903 UAH, respectively. In the control variant, it was equal to 1828 UAH, in the variants under maize fertilization with urea (15 kg/ha) or a mixture of urea and micronutrients – 1827–1836 UAH. The conditional profit on the background of N30P30K30 was 21878 UAH/ha, it enlarged to 24264–25265 UAH/ha in the case of fertilizer dose increasing. In the control variant (without spraying) the conditional profit was equal to 22310 UAH/ha, when plants were fertilized with urea (15 kg/ha) – 23257 UAH/ha, with a mixture of urea and micronutrients – 23823–25155 UAH/ha. The highest level of profitability (163.9 %) was on the background of N45P45K45; the impact of foliar fertilization on this indicator was insignificant.
Key words: maize, fertilizers, foliar fertilization, grain yield, economic efficiency.
|№1 (2021)||Features of accumulation and consumption of soluble carbohydrates by plants of soft winter wheat varieties.||Annotation|
Features of accumulation and consumption of soluble carbohydrates by plants of soft winter wheat varieties.
UDC 633.11«324»:581.134 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0158
Drumova O. M.
Grain Crops. 2021, 5 (1). 52–58.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St.,
Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The results of three-year research (2016–2019) conducted in the fields of the State Enterprise Experimental Farm "Dnipro" of the SЕ Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine with soft winter wheat was presented. The soft winter wheat was placed on black fallow (on background of N30P60K30) and after sunflower (on background of N60P60K60). It was found that winter wheat plants had a not the same ability to accumulate soluble carbohydrates in years with different weather conditions. The analysis of plant samples showed that the largest number of these substances had synthesized in the autumn 2017. It was found that in the plots with black fallow during the period from November 20, 2017 to January 10, 2018, the amount of soluble carbohydrates (total amount of mono- and disaccharides) in the tillering nodes of winter wheat plants of Uzhynok variety decreased from 41.2 % to 34.7 % (by 6.5 %), Nyva Odeska variety – from 43.9 % to 32.7 % (by 11.2 %), Kokhanka variety – from 45.0 % to 42.6 % (only by 2.4 %). From January 10 until the resumption of spring vegetation, the carbohydrates were consumed most intensively by plants of the Uzhynok and Kokhanka varieties.
It was found that despite the lower doses of mineral fertilizers applied to presowing cultivation, winter wheat plants accumulated more soluble carbohydrates in all years after black fallow than after sunflower. On average for three years of research, the highest consumption of sugars during the winter both in leaves and in tillering nodes, regardless of the forecrop, was observed in plants of the Uzhynok variety. It was found that the winter wheat plants of Kokhanka variety consumed soluble carbohydrates more economically than the Uzhynok and Nyva Odeska varieties, and grew more intensively in early spring. The content of sugars in the tillering nodes of Kokhanka variety during resumption of spring vegetation was 28.4 % for black fallow and 25.9 % after non-fallow forecrop.
Key words: winter wheat, variety, soluble carbohydrates, forecrop, background of nutrition.
|№1 (2021)||Productivity of grain sorghum at application of post-emergence herbicides||Annotation|
Productivity of grain sorghum at application of post-emergence herbicides
UDC 633.174; 631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0159
Alieksieiev Ya. V., Semenov S. S., Lyubchich A. G., Grishchenko R. E., Glieva O. V.
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 59–64.
State Institution Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi st., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
National Scientific Center "Institute of Agiculture of NAAS of Ukraine". 2b, Mashynobudivnykiv St.,
Chabany settlement, Kyiv-Sviatoshyn district, Kуіv region
During the four-year field experiments, the influence of post-emergence herbicides such as Pik, Prima and Grantox on the phytosanitary state of grain sorghum crops and the formation the grain productivity of plants was established. It was found that the applied chemicals did not affect the main stages of ontogenesis by sorghum plants. The use of the active ingredient of Prima and Grantox led to a decrease the linear growth of plants. The height of sorghum plants with increasing the application dose of Prima decreased from 101.7 to 98.5 cm. When increasing the dose of Grantox, the toxic effect of the active ingredient on sorghum plants increased, as a result their height decreased significantly from 103.1 to 98.1 cm.
With regard to the Pik herbicide, with increasing of application doze, the plant height increased from 105.5 to 107.9 cm. Due to the use of the application dose of 20 g/ha, the highest grain yield of sorghum was obtained (4.04 t/ha). It is only 0.22 t/ha less compared to the variants where weeds were removed manually. These results indicate a significant effect of the Pik herbicide on weeds and weak phytotoxicity against sorghum plants.
When using the Prima herbicide, it was observed activation of tillering with a slight decrease in the number of panicles. All studied herbicides were characterized by high efficiency against dicotyledonous weeds: Grantox – 78.0–86.2 %, Prima – 75.4–83.1 %, Pik – 80.6–89.3 %. Despite the different phytotoxic effect on plants, grain productivity of grain sorghum increased due to the application of post-emergence herbicides compared to plots with natural weed infestation: Prima – by 0.66–0.92 t/ha, Grantox – by 0.60–0.97 t/ha, Pik – by 1.02–1.40 t/ha . Based on the research, it was found that the application of Pik herbicide in dose of 15–20 g/ha at the 4–5 leaf stage of sorghum was safest for plants and the most effective for the control of dicotyledonous weeds.
Key words: grain sorghum, growth and development, weeds, herbicide, yield.
|№1 (2021)||Influence of ice crust on frost resistance and survival of winter wheat in the Steppe of Ukrain||Annotation|
Influence of ice crust on frost resistance and survival of winter wheat in the Steppe of Ukrain
UDC 633.11: 631.8: 624.142 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0160
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 65–71.
Yaroshenko S. S.
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The features of the effect both separately and together of lapped ice crust and low temperatures on winter wheat plants was highlighted. During the research period (2017–2019), the plants of the Mudrist Odeska variety which were damaged by low temperature and ice crust began to ear by 3–6 days later than undamaged ones. It was found that under unfavorable wintering conditions, in particular in plots without snow, the plant density per area unit and productive tillering, as well as grain productivity of the crop, largely depended on the degree of winter hardiness of plants. After growing of winter wheat which was frozen in laboratory conditions (without lapped ice crust) at a temperature of -15 °C, all plants survived, when the temperature dropped to -18 °C, 16.3 % of plants died. A further drop in temperature to -21 °C caused the loss of 81.7 % of plants. Against the background of artificially created lapped ice crust, the tillering nodes of the winter wheat plant were more damaged and, accordingly, the survival rate of plants decreased compared to variants without lapped ice crust, and at a freezing temperature of -15 °C its indicators were 69.8–92.0 %; at a temperature of -18 °C – 12.6–74.5 % depending on the thickness of the ice crust. When the cryogenic load increased to -21 °C, winter wheat died under the ice crust. During the growing season, in variants of mineral nutrition with a dose of N60P60K60, the death of winter wheat shoots compared with the non-fertilized control variant was less by 4.9–23.1 %. The dynamics of the soluble carbohydrate content in the tillering nodes indicates that at the resumption of spring vegetation the minimum consumption of carbohydrates by plants (30.8% of autumn reserves) was observed in variants with N60P60K60 fertilization. In the plots without snow cover under the lapped ice crust, carbohydrates were intensively consumed by plants, as a result, their amount in the tillering nodes during the winter period decreased on non-fertilized and fertilized variants by 58.5 and 61.2 %, respectively.
Key words: winter wheat, frost resistance, mineral fertilizers, ice crust, productivity,survival.
|№1 (2021)||Influence of fertilizer systems on spring barley yield under conditions of the Right Bank Forest Steppe||Annotation|
Influence of fertilizer systems on spring barley yield under conditions of the Right Bank Forest Steppe
UDC 633.16 "321":631.8/.559 (477,4) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0161
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 72–77.
Voitova G. P.
Khmelnytskyi State Agricultural Experimental Station of the Institute of Feed and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS, Samchyky village, Starokostiantyniv district, Khmelnytskyi region, 31182, Ukraine
The research results of the influence of fertilizer systems on the productivity of spring barley in the Right-bank Forest Steppe were presented. Traditionally fertilized backgrounds were studied: mineral, organic and organomineral (with half fertilizer rates of previous backgrounds), and the alternative to organic matter was cereal straw and biomass of green manure crops. The best backgrounds and optimal fertilizer systems for high level of grain yield were determined.
The main factors that formed the productive plant density of spring barley were the rates and types of fertilizers. The improving of plant nutrition due to using of organic and mineral fertilizers led to an increase in the productive plant density in the agrocenosis and the competitiveness of plants, the reducing of weed infestation.
Depending on the type of fertilizer, the grain yield of spring barley changed. Based on the research results, it was found that the combination of traditional fertilization with the application of alternative types of organic matter increased the grain yield of barley spring compared to the control variant on mineral background within 1.61–2.04 t/ha, organic – 1.69–2.14 t/ha, organomineral – 1.79–2.19 t/ha. At the same time, the yield indicators had a range: 4.86–5.29 t/ha on the mineral, 4.94–5.39 t/ha – organic and 5.04–5.44 t/ha organomineral background.
The highest yield of spring barley was provided by a combined fertilizer system with half norms both mineral fertilizer and manure against the background of the afteraction of predecessor straw with compensatory dose of N10/t and green manure biomass of white mustard as organic fertilizer, and equaled of 5.44 t/ha (yield gain was 2.19 t/ha compared to control).
The optimal fertilizer systems to increase of spring barley yield in conditions of the Right Bank Forest Steppe are combined mineral, organic and organomineral fertilizer systems, which include the use of traditional fertilizers: the action of mineral fertilizers and the afteraction of manure, as well as alternative fertilizers – the straw of predecessor with a compensatory dose of N10/t in combination with the white mustard biomass.
Keywords: spring barley, predecessor by-products, mineral fertilizers, yield, fertilizer systems, grain quality.
|№1 (2021)||The influence of tank mixtures of soil-applied herbicides on nitrogen-fixing nodules, weed infestationof crops and chickpea yield||Annotation|
The influence of tank mixtures of soil-applied herbicides on nitrogen-fixing nodules, weed infestationof crops and chickpea yield
UDC 635.657:632.954:632.51 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0162
Grain crops. 2021. 5(1). 78–83.
Gutyanskyi R. A.
Plant Production Institute named after V. Ya. Yuriev of NAAS, 142 Moskovskyi Avenue, Kharkiv, 61060, Ukraine
It was found that the studied tank mixtures of modern soil-applied herbicides in chickpea crops did not cause inhibition of plant growth and development. No negative effect of tank mixtures of soil-applied herbicides on the fresh weight of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the chickpea root at pod filling stage was detected. It was found that when using the tank mixture of Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Advokat, 0.5 l/ha, fresh weight of nitrogen-fixing nodules per chickpea plant (1.36 g) increased the most. In the variant of application of the herbicide mixture of Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha, a significant increase in the fresh weight of one chickpea plant (by 87 %) was noticed.
Precipitation, which fell immediately after the application of tank mixtures of soil-applied herbicides, led to an increase of herbicide efficiency. The phytotoxic effect of the most tank mixtures in chickpea crops was better with respect to dicotyledonous biennial weeds than annual cereals. At the first accounting it was found that the amount of annual cereals and dicotyledonous biennial weeds in chickpea crops was controlled the best by the tank mixture of herbicides Herb 900, 2.0 l/ha + Kapral, 2.0 l/ha (77 and 93 %, respectively), at the second accounting – Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha (87 and 91 %, respectively). The fresh weight of annual cereals weeds at the end of the chickpea growing season decreased the most with applying the tank mixture Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Dual Gold 960 EC, 1.6 l/ha (93 %), and dicotyledonous biennial weeds with applying of Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha (95 %).
The total fresh weight of annual cereal and dicotyledonous biennial weeds in chickpea crops decreased in large measure under the influence of phytotoxic effect of the tank mixtures of herbicides Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha (by 92 %). When applying the combination of herbicides such as Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Premium Gold, 3.0 l/ha, and Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha in chickpea crops, the largest grain yield gain was obtained 0.15 and 0.12 t/ha, respectively.
Key words:chickpea, soil-applied herbicides, nitrogen-fixing nodules,weeds, yield.
|№1 (2021)||Effect of fertilization and liming on grain maize productivity in thes hort-term crop rotationons oddy-podzolic soil.||Annotation|
Effect of fertilization and liming on grain maize productivity in thes hort-term crop rotationons oddy-podzolic soil.
UDC 633.15:631.816:631.821.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0163
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 84–91.
Poliovyi V.M., Lukashchuk L.Ya., Yashchenko L.A., Rovna H.F., HukB.V.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissyaof NAAS, 5, Rivnenskastr., Shubkiv, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325,Ukraine
The results of the influence of doses and forms of limestone ameliorants and fertilization on the maize productivity in the Western Polissia were shown. The ameliorants application on the background of mineral fertilizers increased the indicators of the yield structure and plant survival. The highest results were obtained with the use of 1.5 dose dolomite meal by the hydrolytic acidity of: plants density before harvesting 62.4 ths. pcs/ha, plants height of 229 cm, the weight of an ear was 223 g, the grain yield from an ear was 79.7 %.
The limestone ameliorants and fertilizers application also had a positive effect on the yield and protein content in maize grain. According to the obtained data, it was found that the protein content in the grain increased by 1.82–2.89 % in variants with melioration on the background of N120P90K120 compared to the control, and amounted to 9.4–10.5 %. The maximum 10.5 % of the protein content was obtained by the using a 1,0 dose of dolomite meal on the background of mineral fertilization with the addition of sulfur S40 and foliar dressing of the Nutrivant Plus Cereals micronutrient fertilizer (2 kg/ha). The highest yield of 9.04 t/ha was formed by the combined use of 1.5 dose of dolomite meal by the hydrolytic acidity and the recommended rate of mineral fertilizers (N120P90K120). The increase of maize yield compared to control (without fertilizers) was 4.99 t/ha, compared to the background (N120P90K120) – 3.98 t/ha. The grain yield of maize increased by 10.3 % due to the application of sulfur fertilizer (S40) and two-time foliar fertilization with Nutrivant Plus Cereals micronutrient fertilizer (2 kg/ha).
The analysis of economic efficiency showed that the cultivation of grain maize was unprofitable at the N120P90K120 application without soil liming; while when using chemical ameliorants, in particular different doses of dolomite meal, on a similar background fertilizer the maize cultivation was profitable (in the range of 6174–16024 UAH/ha)
Keywords: chemical ameliorants, doses, fertilizers, yield, maize.
|№1 (2021)||The influence of fertilization on the productivity of winter rape in the Western Forest-Steppe.||Annotation|
The influence of fertilization on the productivity of winter rape in the Western Forest-Steppe.
UDC 631.5: 633.853.494 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1343-097X164
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 92–98
Kurach A. V.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissia NAAS, 5 Rivnenska st., Shubkiv village, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325, Ukraine
The optimal systems of mineral fertilizers for winter rape cultivation on typical low-humus loamy chernozem in the conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe were substantiated by the research results. It was found that the best degree of overwintering (95.2–95.5 %) and plant survivability (97.8–98.1 %) during the spring-summer period was observed under the calculated fertilization systems.
It is established that in the case of three foliar fertilization of winter rape with Avangard R boron + Avangard R rape at different stages of growth and development: in the 4–6 leaf stage ВВСН15 (0.5 + 0.1 l/ha), in the rosette stage ВВСН32 (1.0 + 2.0 l/ha), in the phase of the beginning of budding ВВСН53 (1.0 + 2.0 l/ha) on the background of the recommended dose N30P90K180 + N108 + N42S48, by the normative method N30P110K160 + N126 + N42S48, on removal N30P110K160 + N126 + N42 S48 the yield increased by 0.52 t/ha, 0.53 t/ha, 0.89 t/ha, respectively.
The highest number of pods per plant (294.5–315.5 pcs), the number of seeds in a pod (23.8–24.5 pcs), and the 1000 seed weight (4.24–4.27 g) were determined at the recommended dose N30P90K180 + N42S48, by the normative method N30P110K160 + N126 + N42S48, by removal N30P132K192 + N198 + N42S48 in combination with foliar fertilization Avangard R boron + Avangard R rape – at ВВСН15 (0.5 + 0.1 l/ha), ВВСН32 (1.0 + 2.0 l/ha), ВВСН53 (1.0 + 2.0 l/ha).
The highest yield of winter rape (4.05–4.59 t/ha) was provided by fertilizer systems of N30P90K180 + N108 + N42S48, N30P110K160 + N126 + N42S48, N30P132K192 + N198 + N42S48 with three-time foliar fertilization of Avangard R boron + Avangard R rape.
Key words: winter rape, fertilization system, doses of fertilizers, micronutrient fertilizers, foliar dressing.
|№1 (2021)||The adaptive properties of the winter wheat varieties for increasing the gross grain harvest||Annotation|
The adaptive properties of the winter wheat varieties for increasing the gross grain harvest
UDC 633.11: 631.547
Chuhrii H. A.
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 99–105.
Donetsk State Agricultural Research Station of NAAS of Ukraine
1 Gagarin ave., Gryshyne village, Pokrovsk district, Donetsk region, 85330, Ukraine
It is proved that one of the main reasons for the winter wheat yield decrease is damage of plants in the autumn-winter season by low temperatures in the absence of snow cover and the harmful effects of ground ice crust, which is formed due an alternation between long-term thaws and frosts.
It was found that according to adaptability indicators the best for cultivation in the Steppe zone are Smuglianka, Lymarivna, Oriika, Mudrist odeska, Askaniiska varieties of winter wheat. All of them are characterized by the sufficient winter hardiness, frost and drought resistance. Over the years of research, the average yield of these varieties was: Smuglianka – 5.31 t/ha, Lymarivna – 6.04 t/ha, Oriika – 6.08 t/ha, Wisdom of Odessa – 5.84 t/ha, Askaniia – 6.90 t/ha.
Studies was established that for cultivation in arid conditions of the Steppe zone considering the adaptive and plastic properties of winter wheat, the best varieties were such as: Bohynia, Oleksiivka, Donetska 48, Smuglianka, Epokha Odeska, Kiriia, Zolotokolosa, Blahodarka Odeska, Boghdana, List 25, Rozkishna.
It is determined that an important element of agricultural technology improvement for winter wheat cultivation in the eastern part of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine is the genetic potential consideration of modern varieties, namely adaptive properties to increasing of yield by 11–50 % and raise of gross grain harvest. In particular, plastic varieties of winter wheat are characterized by the formation of consistently high yields in different weather conditions.
Preference should be given to winter wheat varieties of Ukrainian selection, in addition to different maturity groups. The cultivation areas of early and medium-late varieties should be 10–15 %, and medium-early and medium-ripe – 30–45 %.
Key words: variety, yield, weather conditions, productivity, winter hardiness, varietal characteristics.
|№1 (2021)||Improvement of biological agricultural methods of growing peas in stationary crop rotation||Annotation|
Improvement of biological agricultural methods of growing peas in stationary crop rotation
UDC 631.5:633.35 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0166
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 106–114.
Popov S. I., Hlubokyi O.M.
Plantproductіon ІnstіtutenamedafterV. Ya. YuryevofNAAS, 142, MoskovskyAve., Kharkov, 61060, Ukraine
Our research aimed to determine the effect of Mikofriend and Mikohelp biologics and Humifriend biofertilizer on the yield and quality grain of Metsenat pea variety depending on the background of nutrition in the Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The expediency of seed treatment with biologics both separately and in combination with spraying of vegetative plants in the budding stage by Humifriend in doses of 0.4 and 0.5 l/ha under favourable growing conditions was established. It was found that regardless of the background of nutrition, treatment of seeds with combination of biologics and Maxim XL disinfectant (1.0 l/t) was ineffective, especially with insufficient level of soil moisture.
On average for three years (2018–2020) against the background without fertilizers, a significant increase in the yield of pea grain (0.27–0.30 t/ha) was obtained in the variants with combination of seed treatment with Mikohelp and application of Humifriend in doses of 0.4 and 0.5 l/ha. The main application of N30P30K30 fertilizers in variants with biologics treatment of seed caused an increase in pea yield by 0.57–0.65 t/ha. At the same time, the increase in grain yield due to the use of the Humifriend (0.4 and 0.5 l/ha) was 0.22–0.28 and 0.16–0.22 t/ha, respectively. The increase in pea yield in the studied variants led to a decrease in grain protein content, this indicator on a fertilized background was 0.33–0.71 %. Over years of research, pre-sowing seed treatment with biologics and application of Humifriend in doses of 0.4 and 0.5 l/ha on a background without fertilizers led to an increase in protein harvest by 0.450–0.475 t/ha, which is by 5.8–13.4 % more than the control (without spraying). Against the background of the main application of N30P30K30, these indicators were significantly higher. The maximum protein harvest was obtained in the variants with seed treatment by Mikofriend and application of Humifriend in doses of 0.4 and 0.5 l/ha – 0.631 and 0.637 t/ha, respectively, which is 8.0–8.9 % more compared to control. The increase in gross protein harvest per area unit depended more on the level of pea yield than on the protein content of the grain.
Key words: peas, nutrition background, seed treatment, crop spraying, biologics, biofertilizer, yield, grain quality, protein harvest.