|№1 (2020)||The adaptive properties of the winter wheat varieties for increasing the gross grain harvest||Annotation|
The adaptive properties of the winter wheat varieties for increasing the gross grain harvest
UDC 633.11: 631.547
Chuhrii H. A.
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 99–105.
Donetsk State Agricultural Research Station of NAAS of Ukraine
1 Gagarin ave., Gryshyne village, Pokrovsk district, Donetsk region, 85330, Ukraine
It is proved that one of the main reasons for the winter wheat yield decrease is damage of plants in the autumn-winter season by low temperatures in the absence of snow cover and the harmful effects of ground ice crust, which is formed due an alternation between long-term thaws and frosts.
It was found that according to adaptability indicators the best for cultivation in the Steppe zone are Smuglianka, Lymarivna, Oriika, Mudrist odeska, Askaniiska varieties of winter wheat. All of them are characterized by the sufficient winter hardiness, frost and drought resistance. Over the years of research, the average yield of these varieties was: Smuglianka – 5.31 t/ha, Lymarivna – 6.04 t/ha, Oriika – 6.08 t/ha, Wisdom of Odessa – 5.84 t/ha, Askaniia – 6.90 t/ha.
Studies was established that for cultivation in arid conditions of the Steppe zone considering the adaptive and plastic properties of winter wheat, the best varieties were such as: Bohynia, Oleksiivka, Donetska 48, Smuglianka, Epokha Odeska, Kiriia, Zolotokolosa, Blahodarka Odeska, Boghdana, List 25, Rozkishna.
It is determined that an important element of agricultural technology improvement for winter wheat cultivation in the eastern part of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine is the genetic potential consideration of modern varieties, namely adaptive properties to increasing of yield by 11–50 % and raise of gross grain harvest. In particular, plastic varieties of winter wheat are characterized by the formation of consistently high yields in different weather conditions.
Preference should be given to winter wheat varieties of Ukrainian selection, in addition to different maturity groups. The cultivation areas of early and medium-late varieties should be 10–15 %, and medium-early and medium-ripe – 30–45 %.
Key words: variety, yield, weather conditions, productivity, winter hardiness, varietal characteristics.
|№1 (2020)||Productivity of grain sorghum at application of post-emergence herbicides||Annotation|
Productivity of grain sorghum at application of post-emergence herbicides
UDC 633.174; 631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0159
Alieksieiev Ya. V., Semenov S. S., Lyubchich A. G., Grishchenko R. E., Glieva O. V.
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 59–64.
State Institution Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi st., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
National Scientific Center "Institute of Agiculture of NAAS of Ukraine". 2b, Mashynobudivnykiv St.,
Chabany settlement, Kyiv-Sviatoshyn district, Kуіv region
During the four-year field experiments, the influence of post-emergence herbicides such as Pik, Prima and Grantox on the phytosanitary state of grain sorghum crops and the formation the grain productivity of plants was established. It was found that the applied chemicals did not affect the main stages of ontogenesis by sorghum plants. The use of the active ingredient of Prima and Grantox led to a decrease the linear growth of plants. The height of sorghum plants with increasing the application dose of Prima decreased from 101.7 to 98.5 cm. When increasing the dose of Grantox, the toxic effect of the active ingredient on sorghum plants increased, as a result their height decreased significantly from 103.1 to 98.1 cm.
With regard to the Pik herbicide, with increasing of application doze, the plant height increased from 105.5 to 107.9 cm. Due to the use of the application dose of 20 g/ha, the highest grain yield of sorghum was obtained (4.04 t/ha). It is only 0.22 t/ha less compared to the variants where weeds were removed manually. These results indicate a significant effect of the Pik herbicide on weeds and weak phytotoxicity against sorghum plants.
When using the Prima herbicide, it was observed activation of tillering with a slight decrease in the number of panicles. All studied herbicides were characterized by high efficiency against dicotyledonous weeds: Grantox – 78.0–86.2 %, Prima – 75.4–83.1 %, Pik – 80.6–89.3 %. Despite the different phytotoxic effect on plants, grain productivity of grain sorghum increased due to the application of post-emergence herbicides compared to plots with natural weed infestation: Prima – by 0.66–0.92 t/ha, Grantox – by 0.60–0.97 t/ha, Pik – by 1.02–1.40 t/ha . Based on the research, it was found that the application of Pik herbicide in dose of 15–20 g/ha at the 4–5 leaf stage of sorghum was safest for plants and the most effective for the control of dicotyledonous weeds.
Key words: grain sorghum, growth and development, weeds, herbicide, yield.
|№1 (2020)||Features of accumulation and consumption of soluble carbohydrates by plants of soft winter wheat varieties.||Annotation|
Features of accumulation and consumption of soluble carbohydrates by plants of soft winter wheat varieties.
UDC 633.11«324»:581.134 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0158
Drumova O. M.
Grain Crops. 2021, 5 (1). 52–58.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St.,
Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The results of three-year research (2016–2019) conducted in the fields of the State Enterprise Experimental Farm "Dnipro" of the SЕ Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine with soft winter wheat was presented. The soft winter wheat was placed on black fallow (on background of N30P60K30) and after sunflower (on background of N60P60K60). It was found that winter wheat plants had a not the same ability to accumulate soluble carbohydrates in years with different weather conditions. The analysis of plant samples showed that the largest number of these substances had synthesized in the autumn 2017. It was found that in the plots with black fallow during the period from November 20, 2017 to January 10, 2018, the amount of soluble carbohydrates (total amount of mono- and disaccharides) in the tillering nodes of winter wheat plants of Uzhynok variety decreased from 41.2 % to 34.7 % (by 6.5 %), Nyva Odeska variety – from 43.9 % to 32.7 % (by 11.2 %), Kokhanka variety – from 45.0 % to 42.6 % (only by 2.4 %). From January 10 until the resumption of spring vegetation, the carbohydrates were consumed most intensively by plants of the Uzhynok and Kokhanka varieties.
It was found that despite the lower doses of mineral fertilizers applied to presowing cultivation, winter wheat plants accumulated more soluble carbohydrates in all years after black fallow than after sunflower. On average for three years of research, the highest consumption of sugars during the winter both in leaves and in tillering nodes, regardless of the forecrop, was observed in plants of the Uzhynok variety. It was found that the winter wheat plants of Kokhanka variety consumed soluble carbohydrates more economically than the Uzhynok and Nyva Odeska varieties, and grew more intensively in early spring. The content of sugars in the tillering nodes of Kokhanka variety during resumption of spring vegetation was 28.4 % for black fallow and 25.9 % after non-fallow forecrop.
Key words: winter wheat, variety, soluble carbohydrates, forecrop, background of nutrition.
|№ 2 (2020)||Influence of humates on growth, development and formation of sunflower yield||Annotation|
Influence of humates on growth, development and formation of sunflower yield
A. D. Gyrka, I. D. Tkalich,Yu. Ya. Sydorenko, O. V. Bochevar, T. V. Gyrka
State Institution The Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS Ukraine
Experimental researches were carried out in the experimental field of the laboratory of agro-biological resources of spring cereal and leguminous crops of the Erastivka experimental station of the SI The Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS of Ukraine (SI IGC NAAN) of the Piatyhatky district of the Dni-propetrovsk region during 2016–2018 in grain-fallow-row-crop rotation after spring barley as a predecessor. Agricultural technology in experiments was common for the zone. The trial establishment, carrying out an experimental studies, records and observations, and sampling were carried out in accordance with the methodology of field experiment and the generally accepted methodical recommendations of the SI IGC NAAN. Weather conditions during the 2016–2018 for humidity and air temperature were moderately favorable for the germination of the seeds, growth and development of sunflower plants.
It was established that, depending on the variant of preparation use, compared to the control, the height of sunflower plants increased by 5.0–12.9 cm, the diameter of the capitulum – by 2.8–4.1 cm, the we-ight of seeds from the capitulum – by 2.3–4 , 1 g, weight of 1000 seeds – 6.3–8.7 g. The best results of indicators of growth intensity, development and formation the elements of yield structure of sunflower hybrid Jason are received in a variant with foliar feeding of crops in a phase of 3–4 pairs of leaves by preparation Humivit Profi, 0.3 l/ha, which provided an increase in sunflower seed yield relative to the control of 0.39 t/ha. Twice foliar fertilization of sunflower crops: in the phase of 3–4 pairs of leaves – Humivit Extra and in the bud stage – Humivit Amino with application rate 0.2 l/ha of each increased the yield of sunflower seeds relative to the control by 0.23 t/ha. At pre-sowing treatment of sunflower seeds with Humivit Profi, 0.3 l/ha, sunflower yield was 2.23 t/ha, which exceeded the control by 0.16 t/ha.
Key words:sunflower, humic preparations, plant growth and development, elements of crop yield structure, crop yield.
|№ 2 (2020)||Optimization of nitrogen top dressing of the winter wheat at growing on the bare fallow||Annotation|
Optimization of nitrogen top dressing of the winter wheat at growing on the bare fallow
Gasanova I. I., Yerashova M. V., Pedash T. M.
Grain Crops, 2020. 4 (2).257–262.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The influence of nitrogen top dressing on the yielding capacity and grain quality of modern varieties of soft winter wheat in the Northern Steppe were discovered. The field trial was placed on the bare fallow. The rate of application of mineral fertilizers under presowing cultivation was N30P60K30. Three varieties of winter wheat was sown: Kokhanka (SI The Institute of Grain Crops), Pylypivka and Misiia Odeska (Selection and Genetic Institute).
The sowing time of the winter wheat is September 20, the sowing rate is 5 million germinable seeds per 1 ha. The following nitrogenous fertilizers were used for the top dressings: ammonium nitrate and carbamide. Ammonium nitrate was applied at the end of the spring tillering stage by means of a seeder locally (30 and 60 kg/ha of active substance) end carbamide (30 kg/ha of active substance) and a tank mixture of carbamide (30 kg/ha of active substance) and fungicide Falcon (600 ml/ha) – in the earing phase foliar. It is established that top dressing of the winter wheat crops at the end of the tillering stage locally with ammonium nitrate contributed to an increase in yield of varieties by 0,34–0,64 t/ha, moreover the maximum yield gains were for the application of fertilizers in the rate of 60 kg/ha of nitrogen.
A significant increase in yielding capacity was provided by the treatment of crops in the earing stage with the tank mixture of carbamide and fungicide. Nitrogen top dressings, as a rule, had a positive effect on both the physical indicators of the winter wheat grain (grain weight per hectoliter and vitreousness) and biochemical indicators (protein content, gluten content, sedimentation rate). It is found, that the varieties Kokhanka and Pylypivka in all variants of the experiment formed the grain weight per hectoliter over 800 g/l. In these varieties the content of protein and gluten were higher. In the strong grain quality varieties Misiia Odeska and Pylypivka in comparison with the variety Kokhanka (valuable) were noted higher values of sedimentation.
According to the set of indicators, food grain of the second class was obtained in Kokhanka variety in the variant where the tank mixture of carbamide with fungicide was used for crop treatment, and in Pylypivka variety – for top dressings of crops at the end of tillering stage locally (N30–60) or N30 foliar.
Keywords:winterwheat, variety, bare fallow, nitrogen fertilization, yielding capacity, protein, gluten.
|№ 2 (2020)||Іnfluence of multicomponent growth regulators on winter resistance forming and productivity of winter wheat||Annotation|
Іnfluence of multicomponent growth regulators on winter resistance forming and productivity of winter wheat
YarchukI. I., MelnнkT. V., MorhunO. V.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 263–271.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The growth of gross grain may be obtained only with growth of agrotechnical methods. Therefore there is a need for further investigation of the complex influence of the main technical means on plant growth and development. It is necessary to define an influence of multicomponent drugs on the wheat win-
ter resistance and productivity.
To solve this task, field investigations were held for conditions of northern Steppe aiming to define regularities of growth and development, winter resistance forming, and productivity of the hard winter wheat depending on growth regulating drugs, different levels of mineral nutrition, and different predecessors.
The investigation (2013–2017) was held on the training field “Samarskiy” of Dneprovskiy National Agrarian-economical University (Dnipropetrovsk oblast) on common chernozem soil with low contains of humus medium loam. The square of the field 30 sq. m., three times frequency, allocation is systematic. In general, the weather conditions for years of the investigation were specific for the Steppe zone.
It was defined that depending on the presence of the main factors of life sustenance, the influence of studied drugs (which contain different organic and non-organic elements) varies a lot but there are some regularities.
At the worst conditions (after a stubble predecessor and with low level of nutrition) the drugs have shown minimal influence on wintering of the hard winter wheat. So, the maximum increase of nutrition the drugs can give (drugs “Mars ELBi” and “AKM”) only at 2.6 % higher than at the control, which is not so significant. Minor increase or even decrease of wintering caused by usage of the studied drugs was noticed also at the best background (fallow land, N30Р60K40). The best cryoprotection was obtained with the drug “Vympel”, which increased the plant survival at 8.6 % comparing with the control.
The same regularities of the influence of complex drugs depending on the background are found at the productivity forming as well. At follow land in conditions of sufficient nutrition the effect of the most studied drugs hasn’t increased or was insignificant.
Chlormequat-chloride 750, as opposed to multicomponent drugs, has shown consistent and positive effect in conditions of high background.
Among studied drugs the best sustainability in increasing grain productivity of the hard winter wheat has shown drug “Mars ELBi” used in spring after the vegetation renewal (daily-average temperature +10 оС) with norm 750 ml per ha.
Key words: hard winter wheat, growth regulator, winter resistance, productivity, grain quality, cost efficiency.
|№ 2 (2020)||Peculiarities of formation the grain productivity of spring barley depending on terms and norms of foliar fertilization||Annotation|
Peculiarities of formation the grain productivity of spring barley depending on terms and norms of foliar fertilization
UDC 633.16«321»:631.559/.8 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0135
Gyrka A. D., Tkalich I. D., Sydorenko Yu. Ya., Bochevar O. V.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 272–280.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
One of the ways to improve the nutritional conditions of plants and therefore increase the productivity of agrocenoses of spring cereals, is the use of mineral fertilizers, both in their main application and in the spring fertilization of vegetative plants. And that is why the purpose of study was to improve agro-technical measures for growing spring barley, which would be based on the use of biological potential of the crop and the use of resource-saving technologies in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine.
The study was conducted at the Erastivka Experimental Station of SI Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS during 2017–2019, according to generally known methods. Soil of experimental field – ordinary chernozem, low-humic, loamy. The humus content in arable soil layer (0–30 cm) – 4,0–4,5 %, total nitro-gen – 0,23–0,26 %, phosphorus – 0,11–0,16 %, potassium – 2,0–2,5 %, pH of water extract – 6,5–7,0.
Field experiments were laid in six-field crop rotation after predecessor winter wheat. In experiments seeded spring barley of variety Stalker with seeding rate 4,5 million of grains/ha. Soil preparation, sowing, care of crops and harvesting were carried out strictly according to the zonal recommendations. Variants in a field experiment designed systematically, with three replications. Accounting plots area – 25 m2.
Arid conditions of Ukraine’s Steppe zone is quite complex. Two-thirds of land in Ukraine referred to zone of risky agriculture, but even here you can use 30–50 % and more of varieties capacity, in consideration of importance the local gene pool in creating highly adapted varieties based on local varieties and using the developed agrotechnical growing measures, that promotes plants to be resistant to dry conditions of Steppe zone of Ukraine.
Weather conditions during the investigation were different, which made it possible to fully assess its impact on grain productivity potential of spring small cereals.
Phenological observations, analysis of yield structure elements and grain productivity of spring barley of variety Stalker when grown without fertilizers and fertilizing with N30P30K30 as well as the use of different terms and doses of foliar fertilization of plants with ammonium nitrate and humic preparation humisol plus in conditions of Steppe zone of Ukraine are presented.
It was found that the growth, development and formation of productivity elements of spring barley plants were significantly influenced by the timing and dosing of fertilization. Earlier fertilization of plants with ammonium nitrate and humisol plus, carried out on seedlings and in the tillering phase, contributed to better plant growth and development, formation of productive tillering and yield structure elements, compared with fertilization in the phase of stem elongation as in the variant of fertilized background (N30P30K30), as in the variant without the using of mineral fertilizers.
Key words: spring barley, mineral fertilizers, foliar fertilization of plants, elements of head structure, grain yield.
|№ 2 (2020)||Influence of vermicompost aftereffect on the efficiency of spring barley cultivation in arid conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of vermicompost aftereffect on the efficiency of spring barley cultivation in arid conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.16 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0136
Vinyukov O. O., Dudkina A. P., Shevchenko T. V.
Grain Crops, 2020, 4 (2). 281–288.
Donetsk State Agricultural Science Station NAAS, st. ZashchitnikovUkrainy, 1, Pokrovsk, Donetsk region,
Barley is a crop, requires the availability of available nutrients in the soil, especially at the beginning of the growing season. The aim of the research was to determine the effectiveness of the aftereffect of using vermicompost when growing spring barley on different backgrounds in the Donetsk region.
The studies were carried out according to the methodology of the field experiment of B. A. Dospehova. Research methods: field, supplemented by analytical studies, measurements, calculations and observations.
The studies were conducted in 2017–2019 by laboratory-field method in field crop rotation in the experimental sections of the Donetsk SSES NAAS. The repetition in the experiments is 3-fold. The location of the plots is systematic.
The soil is alkaline-chernozemic carbonate, having an average supply of mineral nitrogen and mobile phosphorus, low – potassium. The humus content of 4,2 % indicates a high potential soil fertility, but to realize the potential of the culture, additional application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers is necessary.
The technology for growing crops is generally accepted for the farms of the region, with the ex-
ception of the factors studied. Variety of barley spring Avers.
The experience scheme provides for: control (without fertilizers); background – saturation of crop rotation with vermicompost granular 2 t/ha; background + N30P30K30; background + N60P60K60; N30P30K30.
The use of organic fertilizers under the predecessor in crop rotation provided improve nutriti-on conditions for plants, which positively affected the growth and development of spring barley plants. So, on the variants with the use of mineral fertilizers, the highest indices of the number of productive stems and the structure of the crop were noted in the background. The variant where N60P60K60 was added in the background produced the largest mass of 1000 grains – 49,8 g, which is 4,6 % higher than the control.
Analysis of the study indicates the positive effect of the aftereffect of organic fertilizer (vermicompost) on the yield of spring barley.
The maximum yield of spring barley was obtained against the background of aftereffect of vermicompost 2 t/ha and the application of mineral fertilizers N60P60K60 – 5,05 t/ha, but due to high production costs, the profitability level is 114,9 %. The application of organic fertilizers under the background provides a yield of 3,67 t/ha and the highest level of profitability of 140,6 %.
The optimal technological option provides for the introduction of mineral fertilizers in the norm N30P30K30 amid predecessor saturation with vermicompost. This allows increasing the yield up to 4,90 t/ha (by 1,46 t/ha or 42,4 % to the control) and obtaining a profitability level of 136,1 %.
The use only of mineral fertilizer N30P30K30 in severely arid weather conditions of the steppe zone allows increasing the yield by 0,70 t/ha compared to the control but, due to the high cost of production, leads to a low production profitability of 99,6 %.
Key words: spring barley, background, vermicompost, mineral fertilizers, yield, economic effici-ency.
|№ 2 (2020)||The impact of fertilizers on the productivity of white mustard||Annotation|
The impact of fertilizers on the productivity of white mustard
UDC 631.5:633.85 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0137
Hubenko L.V., LyubchichO.Y.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 289–295.
National Science Center "Institute of Agriculture of NAAS", 2b, Mechanical Engineering str., smt. Shepherds, borough Kyiv-Svyatoshynskyi region Kyivska, 08162, Ukraine
Recently, scientists and producers have been paying increasing attention to niche crops that are able to significantly diversify the monocultural oil field of dominance in the crop rotation of sunflower, soybean and rapeseed. In today's climate, one of these crops is mustard, which at the same time, with the ability to form stable yields of seeds and raw materials of good quality, is distinguished by its relative unpretentiousness to external factors. Purpose. Improvement of elements of technology of cultivation and determination of their influence on productivity of mustard white. Methods. The studies involved the use of standardized methods: field – to determine the yield, biometric records and measurements, laboratory – to determine the agrophysical properties of the soil, the content of the basic nutrients in it, to determine the structure of the crop; calculated – evaluation of the economic efficiency of the elements of white mustard growing technology studied; statistical – analysis of variance.The article presents the results of studies to study the effect of different doses of fertilizers, micro fertilizers on seed yields and oil the content in white mustard seeds. Optimal parameters of elements of technology of cultivation of mustard white, which provide maximum yield in the conditions of the northern forest-steppe of Ukraine, are established.As a result of the research, it was found that the highest seed yield of white mustard seed (2,58 t/ha) with oil content (43,29 %) was provided by the application of fertilizer with fertilizer at a dose of N45P60K90 and foliar feeding with Tropicel. The significance of the influence of the investigated factors on the crop yield is estimated. It was established that in 2016–2018. factors in terms of the degree of influence on the yield of the white mustard variety Belaya Princess in terms of importance can be arranged as follows: mineral fertilizers – 14.3 %, treatment of crops with micronutrient fertilizer Tropikel – 52.2 %. Cost-effec-tiveness analysis showed that profitability (225 %) and profit (UAH 32158) reached the highest values by growing white mustard using technology that involves the introduction of N45P60K90 and foliar fertilization of Tropikel microfertilizers.
Keywords:mustard white, mineral fertilizers, micro fertilizers, yield, seed quality, cost-effectiveness, Tropicel.
|№ 2 (2020)||The influence of direct sowing methods on the growth and productivity of spring barley in the conditions of the north-eastern part of Ukraine||Annotation|
The influence of direct sowing methods on the growth and productivity of spring barley in the conditions of the north-eastern part of Ukraine
UDC 631.547.3:631.331 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0138
Syromyatnikov Yu. N.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 296–304.
Kharkiv National Technical University of Agriculture. P. Vasilenko, 44, Alchevskikh str., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine
The article presents the results of studies to determine the efficiency of growing spring barley depending on the methods of direct sowing in technology, which is based on the use of combined machines. It is proved that due to the use of a direct sowing seeder, the sections of which consist of modules for local loosening of the soil, in front of the openers of which wavy discs are installed, the grain yield increases on average by 20 % compared to the control. Moving at high speed, the wavy discs loosen relatively narrow soil strips into which the seeds are laid by the openers, this makes it possible to more efficiently retain moisture, which subsequently significantly affects the dynamics of seedlings and the yield level of spring barley grain.
The smallest weed infestation of crops was in the case of sowing with a seeder with combined cutting-type working bodies and disc coulter systems with support-press wheels. Weeds were counted after the emergence of barley seedlings.
The greatest soil hardness was observed when using a seeder with disc working bodies, the sections of which consist of modules for local loosening of the soil. Statistical processing of the data indicates that depth has the greatest effect on soil hardness, its influence accounted for 96 %. The force of impact on soil hardness of sowing methods was 0.76 %. The density of the soil in the zone of development of the root system of plants in all variants of the experiment did not go beyond the optimum. Before harvesting, the moisture content of the upper soil layers in variants with direct sowing was 3–5 % higher, and the moisture content of the lower layers was less by 1–2 % than in the control (the reliability of the data was determined using Fisher's criterion and was 95 %, and the difference between experimental options was significant).
Key words: yield of barley, sowing, method, technologies, seeders, quality, local loosening.