|№1 (2020)||Agroresources and scientific modeling of production of 100 million tons of grain||Annotation|
Agroresources and scientific modeling of production of 100 million tons of grain
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 53–63.
Cherchel V. Yu., Shevchenko M. S.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskogo Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The analysis of the ways of implementation of the national program "Grain of Ukraine – 2010" is given. Proposals for the main agro-environmental and economic parameters of the program of production by 2030 100 million tons of grain, methods of forecasting gross grain harvests, agro-climatic potential of agricultural zones, capacity of grain market, dynamics of innovative progress, results of zonal tests of varieties and technologiesis presented. The complex of regulatory factors included the assessment of the fertility of zonal soils, the yield potential of promising varieties, the level of technical support for growing of crops, the effectiveness of fertilizer systems, the protective functions of pesticides and environmentalmeasures.
Three models of development of the grain production industry are proposed: intensive, agro-ecological bio-conservative, ecologically-economically balanced. It is calculated that the agro-ecological conservative model will contribute to the reduction of the use of production resources, the radical reduction in environment pollution by aggressive chemical substances, the creation of bio-conservative and recreational zones. Climatic deformations, change of zonal weather conditions and their influence on yield, structure of acreage in agricultural regions were traced. Methods of using mineral fertilizers and increasing their payback in the system of various agro-technologies of moisture-saving and ecological direction are recommended.
Widespread use of crop by-products as a major factor in regulating soil fertility has been proposed. The question of introduction of differential tillage in crop rotation is discussed and agro-physical characteristics of soils are given depending on plowing, disking, chiseling and No-till system. The basic tendencies of improvement of agricultural machinery, energy saturation, minimization of energy consumption, increasing of labor productivity, improvement of quality of soil cultivation operations and harvesting are shown. The proven priority of varieties and hybrids with a yield potential of 10–15 t/ha is substantiated.
The advantages of targeted use of a complex of measures against harmful organisms are clearly demonstrated.
Keywords: grain, program, climate, soil, structure, crop rotation, fertilizers, cultivation, varieties, protection, technologies, methods
|№1 (2020)||Frost resistance and grain productivity of winter wheat depending on agricultural growing methods||Annotation|
Frost resistance and grain productivity of winter wheat depending on agricultural growing methods
UDC 633.11:631.8: 547.461.4
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 64–70.
Yaroshenko S. S. .
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
Features of action and interaction of precursors, mineral fertilizers, varieties and terms of sowing on frost resistance and productivity of winter wheat are highlighted. The regenerative ability of winter wheat under the influence of biologically active compounds-succinic acid and ammonium molybdate after low-temperature stress was investigated. It is established that under the influence of the growth regulator of succinic acid in winter wheat plants damaged by frost, the formation of a link of protective reactions aimed at repairing the damage occurs. During the research period (2016–2018), the maximum yield (6.83 t/ha) of winter wheat formed on the background of mineral fertilizers N90P60K60 after the predecessor bare fallow. In General, on fertilized backgrounds, the yield of winter wheat ranged from 3.35 to 6.83 t/ha, reaching maximum values in the variants of the optimal sowing period (September 25) against the background of mineral fertilizers N90P60K60. The creation of optimal nutrition backgrounds provided in most cases a significant additional increase in yield, on average from 0.73 to 1.80 t/ha compared to the control variant.
With the shift of sowing dates, both in the direction of early (September 5) and late (October 10), the yield of winter wheat plants decreased by an average of 0.36 t/ha and 0.56 t/ha, respectively.
Autumn development of winter wheat plants and associated with it, the formation of winter hardiness, depended on all the studied factors: the predecessor, varietal characteristics, sowing period and background of mineral nutrition. Sowing on September 25 and October 10, according to the predecessor of bare fallow, plants died less than at earlier sowing dates (September 5), which is due to the short period of their vegetation in autumn and less overgrowth. The highest level of winter hardiness of plants after the stubble predecessor was formed at sowing on September 25, and within one sowing period-with sufficient nutrient supply (N90P90K90).
Studies have shown the prospects of using succinic acid to activate the protective reactions of winter plants, aimed at repairing damage and reducing the negative impact of low-temperature stress. Treatment of winter crops with succinic acid increased the survival rate of shoots and plants by 19.4 and 17.2 %, respectively.
Key words: winter wheat, sowing time, mineral fertilizers, precursors, frost resistance, yield, grain.
|№1 (2020)||Yield and sowing qualities of winter wheat depending on pre-sowing bacterization of seeds in the conditions of western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Yield and sowing qualities of winter wheat depending on pre-sowing bacterization of seeds in the conditions of western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.11: 631.53.01: 631.86
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 71–79.
Voloshchuk I. S.
Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region NAAS, 5 Grushevskogo Str., Obroshin village Pustomytovskogo areaLviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The widespread use of biological methods of plant protection and nutrition is of great interest to producers of both grain and seed products. Microbial preparations today are considered as one of the ele-
ments of energy-saving technologies. With their help, it is possible to influence the growth and development of plants, given the agricultural background not exceeding the physiological needs for nutrients. Only through the interaction of introduced bacteria with the host plant will their maximum and effective action be manifested.
In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in the creation of biological products based on associative microorganisms, the implementation of which is actively involved in a number of leading domestic and foreign companies in the world, among them the leader in Ukraine is the Institute of Agricultural Microbiology and Agro-Industrial Production of the NAAS, whose scientists have proposed a number of inoculants for presowing seed treatment.
With sufficient moisture supply of the soil-climatic zone of the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, the use of bacterial preparations of nitrogen-fixing action (Diazofit, Agrobacterin) and phosphomobilizing (Polymyxobacterin) in pre-sowing seed treatment provided an increase in seed productivity and sowing qualities of soft winter wheat seeds.
Over the years of research, weather conditions during the sowing-seedling period were characterized by variegation both in air temperature and in the amount of precipitation. The third decade of September 2010 was characterized by 1,0 °C higher air temperature and less rainfall (10,5 mm) with an average annual norm of 19,0 mm. The temperature was higher by 2,8 °С in 2011 with a lower (11,0 mm) amount of precipitation, which amounted to 57% of the norm. In 2012, air temperature prevailed over a long-term average of 3.2 °C, and the amount of precipitation was 7,7 mm, however, in the second decade it was more than 32 mm with a norm of 20 mm. In 2013, a decrease of 2.3 °C in air temperature and a decrease in precipitation were observed (69% to normal). In the second decade, precipitation amounted to 42,1 at a rate of 20,0 mm. The temperature conditions of the sowing-seedling season 2014 were within the long-term average of indicators with low moisture supply – 12,4 mm.
The productive moisture of the sown soil layer, which in 2010 was 32 mm, in 2011 – 33 mm, in 2012 – 38 mm, in 2013 – 39 mm, in 2014 – 34 mm was sufficient to produce friendly seedlings.
The obtained experimental data suggest that pre-sowing treatment of winter wheat seeds with bacterial preparations increased field germination of seeds by 2,1–2,7 %. When using microbial preparations, physiological processes in the seed were activated, which subsequently affected the best growth and development of plants in the autumn period. The microorganisms introduced into the agrocenoses contributed to the higher wintering of plants by 3,8–8,2 %.
Under the influence of bacterial preparations, the best growth and development of plants was observed, which contributed to an increase in yield of 0,21–0,23 t/ha, for the application of Agrobacterin and Diazofit to the background of mineral nutrition N90Р90К90. The effectiveness of Polymyxobacterin was higher against the background of the mineral nutrition N30Р90К90 + N30 in the IV and VII stages of organogenesis – 0,59 t/ha and 0,44 t/ha – at a lower rate of phosphorus application (P45).
Bacterial preparations positively affected the seed productivity of plants, increasing the seed reproduction rate by 0,8–2,3 units, the yield of conditioned seeds by 1–3 %.
Against the background of mineral nutrition N30Р90К90 with phased introduction of nitrogen in the norm N30, microbial preparations based on nitrogen fixators contributed to the formation of a mass of 1000 seeds in the range 43,6–44,0 g, on the basis of phosphate mobilization bacteria – 44,7–45,3 g. Germination energy and laboratory germination of the collected seeds mostly depended on the weather conditions of the period of its formation, however, with options for seed pre-sowing inoculation, these indicators were higher, by 5–10 and 7–11 %, respectively, until absolute control and by 4–7 and 1–3 % to the background of mineral nutrition of plants.
Keywords: winter wheat, bacterial preparations, productivity, sowing qualities of seeds.
|№1 (2020)||The effect of fertilization on the effectiveness of microbial treatment of seeds and crops of spring barley||Annotation|
The effect of fertilization on the effectiveness of microbial treatment of seeds and crops of spring barley
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 80–86.
Khmelnitskaya State Agricultural Experiment Station Institute of provender and agriculture Podillia NAAS,
1, Samchiki Str., Samchiki village, Starokostyantinov district, Khmelnitsky region, 31182, Ukraine
The results of 2016–2018 study on the effect of mineral fertilizers, green manure, seed treatment with biological products, and spraying with Biocomplex-BTU preparation on productivity indicators and disease damage of varieties of spring barley Avgiy and Voevoda.
It was established that biological products were most effective against the background without fertilizer application. Presowing bacterization of seeds contributes to an increase in productivity by 2.1–13.1 %, depending on the variety and fertilizer. For the actions of mineral fertilizers both separately and in combination with green manure, the yield increased by 26.8–37.9%.
When processing seeds of Avgiy variety with Agrobacterin, depending on the background of fertilizer and processing of crops Biocomplex-BTU, an increase in grain yield of 2.1–5.0% is ensured; Polymyxobacterin –in 4.5–8.7%; Biocomplex-BTU – 4.8–12.6%. When processing seeds of Voevoda variety, these indicators were, respectively, 2.8–5.4%, 4.3–9.5% and 5.9–13.1%.
There is a weakening in the percentage effectiveness of the studied drugs with an improvement in the overall agricultural background. Thus, it was found that the percentage of increase in yield from seed treatment in the Voevoda variety significantly decreased against the background of fertilizer to 2.8–7.2%, against 4.6–13.1% in plots without fertilizers, and in the variety Avgiy, respectively, to 2.1–6.6%, against 4.7–12.6%. In addition, from spraying the crops Biocomplex-BTU received another 2.7–7.3% increase in the variety Avgiy and 1.6–6.2% – in the variety Voevoda.
Inoculation of seeds and treatment of crops with biologics increase the number of productive stems and grains in the ear. The number of stems per 1 m2 of varieties Avgiy and Voevoda varied, respectively, from 415 and 451 pcs. according to the variant without seed and fertilizer treatment, up to 516 and 562 pcs. ‑ when applying N60P60K60 with green manure and with the treatment of seeds and crops with Biocomplex-BTU. Inoculation of barley seeds with microbial preparations also significantly increased the number of grains in the ear. Spraying crops Biocomplex-BTU also increased these indicators.
Inoculation of seeds with biological products reduced the level of damage to root rot, and the treatment of crops with Biocomplex-BTU – mesh helminthosporium.
Keywords: barley, productivity, biological products, mineral fertilizers, green manure, barley diseases.
|№1 (2020)||Almaieva T.M. Biologized technology of soybean growing under conditions of risky agriculture of the Right-bank Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Almaieva T.M. Biologized technology of soybean growing under conditions of risky agriculture of the Right-bank Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.34.631.461; 631.8.5: 632.954
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 87–95.
Hryhorieva O.M.,Cheriachukin M. I., Almaieva T.M.
Agrarian Institute of the Steppe by the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 2, Tsentralna Str.,
s. Sozonivka, Kropyvnytskyi district, Kirovohrad region, 27602, Ukraine
The efficiency of the combined use of microbial preparations, growth regulators and seed protectant by soybean cultivation with use of various fertilization systems, tillage weed protection was investigated.
It has been established that the presowing seed inoculation of the early ripening soybean sort Medea with the nitrogen-fixing microbial preparation Rizogumin, both separately and in combination with the plant growth regulators Biolan and Biosil, ensures the formation of active symbiosis, high seed productivity, helps to improve product quality, increase profitability and reduce production costs when both methods of tillage.
The use of deep tillage in the technology of soybean cultivation contributed to an increase in grain yield by 16.1% in comparison with fine one. Through the use of biological products, an additional 0.14–0.20 t/ha was obtained.
Against the natural background, both in ploughing and in planar tillage, higher yields were obtained as a result of the combined use of the microbial preparation for pre-sowing seed preparation Rizogumin and growth regulator Biolan for spraying crops – 2.51 and 2.22 t/ha, as well as the control amounted to 13.6 and 15.6%, respectively.The use of the mechanized method of crop care in soybean cultivation technology of chamomile cultivated soybean contributed to lower yields compared to resource-saving and intensive technologies by 0.94 and 1.10 t/ha or 75.8 and 87.7%. The use of microbial preparations and fungicides increased productivity by 7.1–7.7% and 1.6–2.7%, accordingly.
The highest yield of soybean grain when using the resource-saving plant protection system against weeds in soybean growth technology (application of soil herbicide) was obtained with the combined use of the fungicide Lamardor and the microbial preparation Rizobofit (2.35 t/g), intensive Maxim XL + Rizogumin 2.49 t/ha, which made it possible to obtain additionally 0.32 t/ha (15.8%) and 0.33 t/ha (15.3%).Due to the use of resource-saving and intensive growth technologies against the background of seed treatment with microbial preparations and protectors, the cost of the resulting products has dropped by a factor of five 1.6 and 1.7 in comparison with the herbicide-free system for protecting soybean crops from weeds.The development of soybean cultivation technology will make it possible to more widely use the potential of this crop in the conditions of the Right-bank Steppe of Ukraine, which, in turn, helps to increase productivity.The use of microbial preparations will reduce the application of mineral fertilizers, which is an important reserve of savings.
Key words: soybean, microbial preparations, growth technology, tillage, pesticides,crop, crop quality, economic efficiency.
|№1 (2020)||Peculiarities of formation of feed productivity of annual cultures in early-spring (prevernal) agrophytocenoses||Annotation|
Peculiarities of formation of feed productivity of annual cultures in early-spring (prevernal) agrophytocenoses
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 96–102.
DudkaM. I., Yakunin O. P.
State Institution Institute of Cereal Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyra VernadskohoStr., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The results of studies on the formation of productivity in two- and three-component agrophytocenoses with the participation of junegrass (Koeleria sp.) spring, legumes and cabbage component of oil-bearing radish in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine are presented. The rates of growth and increment of above ground part of the plants – components depending on their specivic composition are determined. At the beginning of vegetation, the highest intensity of growth processes was in barley plants. On the 25th day after seedling emergence, the height of its plants in early-spring mixtures was 30–31 cm. This indicator in other junegrass spring crops – spring triticale and oats was lower by 7–9 and 4–5 cm, respectively. The height of plants of legumes components – peas and vetch at this time was equal to 25–26 and 16–17 cm respectively, the oil-bearing radish – 12–13 cm. At the beginning of vegetation, the largest linear growth in spring barley, spring triticale and pea plants, and the smallest linear growth in spring vetch and oil-bearing radish was observed. Subsequently (for 35 days after seedling emergence) the triticale spring and oats plants were no longer inferior to or higher than barley in index of height, and peas and oil radish were higher than the spring vetch by 6–10 cm. Between 25 and 35 days of vegetation after seedling emergence, the intensity of growth processes was highest in the spring triticale, oats and in plants of the cabbage component – oil-bearing radish. The introduction to composition of two-component crops of spring triticale and oats with the spring vetch of new component – oil-bearing radish provided an increase in the total leaf area of agrophytocenosis by 7,2 and 5,1 %, respectively. The introduction to composition of triticale and vetch mixture the oil-bearing radish provided an obtaining of green fodder for 4 days earlier. Replacement of speciмшс composition in two- and three-component agrophytocenoses with participation of spring triticale, as well as oats and spring vetch allows to extend the period of their use in the green conveyor system by 7–9 days. It is established, that the introduction of triticale-vetch mixture of oil-bearing radish increased the yield of green mass by 1,49–1,98 t/ha, the collection of absolutely dry matter – by 0,08–0,10 t/ha. Use of cabbage component in compatible agrophytocenoses with the participation of oats can increase the yield of green mass by 1,77–2,98 t/ha and the collection of absolutely dry matter by 0,06–0,14 t/ha compared to vetch-oats mixture. At growing of two- and three-component mixtures of common oats with spring vetch and oil-bearing radish, the highest (4584–5175 UAH/ha) of conventional revenue was obtained and 61,4–73,7 % of the level of profitability was achieved at the lowest product cost at the energy factor of 6,34–6,88.
Keywords: agrophytocenosis, specivic composition, plant growth rate, yield, energy and economic efficiency.
|№1 (2020)||Optimization of fertilizer systems for winter wheat cultivation in conditions of the Right-bank Forest Steppe||Annotation|
Optimization of fertilizer systems for winter wheat cultivation in conditions of the Right-bank Forest Steppe
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 103–107.
Khmelnitskiy state agricultural experimental station Institute of feed and agriculture of Podillya of NAAS,
Samchyky village, Starokostiantyniv district, Khmelnytsky region, 31182, Ukraine
The results of the influence of fertilizer systems on the structure of the crop and the yield of winter wheat in terms of the Right Bank Forest Steppe are presented. The best backgrounds and optimum fertilizer systems have been identified, by increasing the productivity of the ear of plants that provide high yields and product quality.
It was found that the lowest yield of winter wheat grain was formed against the background of natural soil fertility – 4.02 t/ha. The aftereffects of alternative fertilizers on this background contributed to the increase in crop yields with grain leaving the straw organic fertilizer of 0.15 t/ha and plowing of the green manure biomass – 0.33 t/ha, their combination – 0.48 t/ha.
Much higher grain yields (44 to 49%) were obtained from the use of mineral fertilizers and the effects of manure, which improved almost all indicators of the structure and quality of the crop. Due to the N116P10K100, yield increase was 1.77 t/ha,from the impact of manure (40 t/ha) – 1.86 t/ha, the combination of their half norms – 1.95 t/ha.
The combination of traditional fertilizer backgrounds with alternative types of organic has increased the yield of grain on the mineral background in the range of 1.95–2.34 t/ha, organic – 2.06–2.52 t/ha, organic -mineral 2.21–2, 64 t/ha.
Optimal fertilizer systems to maximize winter wheat yield in conditions of the Right Bank Forest Steppe are combined mineral, organic and organic-mineral fertilizer systems, which include the use of traditional fertilizers: the action of mineral fertilizers and the aftereffect of manure, as well as alternative fertilizers – the straw of the precursor with a compensating dose of N10/t in combination with the mustard biomass.
Keywords: winter wheat,by-products of the predecessor, fertilizers, yield, grain quality,fertilizer systems.
|№1 (2020)||The productivity of winter rape depending on fertilization and liming under the conditions of Western Polissya||Annotation|
The productivity of winter rape depending on fertilization and liming under the conditions of Western Polissya
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 108–115.
Poliovyi V. M., Lukashchuk L. Ya., Rovna H. F., Huk B. V.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissyaof NAAS,5, Rivnenskastr., Shubkiv, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325,Ukraine
There are established doses and forms of limestone ameliorants, fertilizers that are optimal for West Polissya based on experimental data from field and analytical studies and provide the fertility of podzo-lized sandy soiland ensure obtaining a stable winter rapeseed harvest. There was studied the influence of fertilization (N120P90K120), sulfur fertilizers, foliar fertilizers in various doses and types of limestone ameliorants on the formation of the morphological structure of plants and productivity of winter rapeseed.
The highest yield of 2.94 t/ha was provided by the application of 1.5 doses (NG) of dolomite flour on the background of the recommended dose of mineral fertilizers (N120P90K120). The yield increase to control (without fertilizers) was 2.09 t/ha, and to the background (N120P90K120) – 1.60 t/ha.
The application of sulfur fertilizers (S40) and two fold foliar fertilization by Nutrivant Plus oil microfertilizer (2 kg/ha) provided a yield increase by 15,6%.
The peculiarities of soil processes under the influence of chemical reclamation and fertilization system in crop rotation, which ensure the preservation of soil fertility and increase the productivity of winter oilseed rape, are analyzed.
Keywords: winter rapeseed,chemical ameliorants, doses, fertilizers, yield.
|№1 (2020)||Growth and development of plants of different varieties of winter wheat during spring vegetation in the Northern Steppe||Annotation|
Growth and development of plants of different varieties of winter wheat during spring vegetation in the Northern Steppe
Grain Crops, 2020. 4 (1). 116–121.
Drumova O. M., Gasanova I. I.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
On the basis of the results of three-year experimental research, the peculiarities of growth and development of plants of different varieties of winter wheat during the spring vegetationon bare fallow and after sunflower in the Northern Steppe were revealed. The rate of application of mineral fertilizers under presowing cultivation on black fallow was N30P60K30, after sunflower – N60P60K60. Three varieties of winter wheat was sown: Nyva Odeska, Uzhynok (Selection and Genetics Institute), Kokhanka (SE Institute of Grain Сrops).
It was found, that in different phases of development, the average height, the number of stems, the number of leaves on one plant and a number of other indices on black fallow, as a rule, prevailed similar data after sunflower. In addition, on the black fallow during the spring vegetation of winter wheat, the higher standing density of plants was formed compared to the sowings after then on-follow fore crop.
At the time of resumption of spring vegetation, the leaf surface area of plants on black fallow, depending on the variety, ranged from 9.9 to 12.3 thousand m2/ha, in the shooting stage – 25.7–28.9, and in the heading stage – 22.4–26.7 thousand m2/ha. After sunflower, the values of these indices in varieties were lower in accordance with the phases of development by 5.4–8.4 thousand m2/ha, 10.0–15.7 and 5.1–11.0 thousand m2/ha.
Absolute dry weight of plants of winter wheat with at the rate for 1 m2 at the time of resumption of spring vegetation was 137.6–155.2 g/m2, depending on the variety, in the shooting stage absolute dry weight increased to 278.9–302.1 g/m2, and in the heading stage the values of this index reached 765.5–854.6 g/m2. After then on-follow fore crop, according to the phases of development, the plant weight varied in the range of 42.0–58.6 g/m2, 169.5–206.8 and 599.5–653.5 g/m2.
At the same time, in consequence of increased drought-resistance and heat-resistance, plasticity to the fore crop and agricultural background, the investigated varieties also showed quite good potential for plant growth and development in sowings сultivated after sunflower, which was an important factor in obtaining stable indices of yielding capacity. Greater height during the spring vegetation was formed mainly at growing of winter wheat plants of variety Nyva Odeska. On the black fallow, the higher values of other indices of biometry were observed in the variety Uzhynok.
Keywords: winter wheat, variety, fore crop, plant, phase of development, biometric indices.
|№1 (2020)||Photosynthetic productivity of crops of sorghum grain depending on the fertilizer system||Annotation|
Photosynthetic productivity of crops of sorghum grain depending on the fertilizer system
UDC 633.134:581.32 (477.41)
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 122–129.
National Scientific Center "Institute of Agiculture of NAAS of Ukraine". 2b, Mashynobudivnykivstr., town. Chabany,Kуіv region.
The results of research for 2016–2018 are conducted in the area of the northern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine to study the productivity of grain sorghum hybrid Armida. Field research, mathematical and sta-tistical analysis. The maximum leaf area of sowing of grain sorghum in the ejection phase of flowering – flowering (53,1 thousand m2/ha) is provided by the fertilizer system N45P60K60 in the main fertilizer and N15 in the feed on the background of seed treatment with BTU preparation; the highest accumulation of dry matter (26,9 t/ha) was obtained by making N60P60K60 mainly against the background of seed treat-ment.
The highest indices of formation of photosynthetic potential of sorghum crops (2,96 million m2/ha×days), РРР (5,4–5,76 g/m2 per day) are observed in its cultivation by the model of technology with application of mineral fertilizers in the main application of the dose N60P60K60 as well as the transfer of a portion of nitrogen (N15) to the feed on the background of seed treatment with BTU.
The effectiveness of mineral fertilizers and treatment of seeds with the preparation of BTU on the growth of leaf surface, the accumulation of dry matter, the РР and РРР and their relationship for the formation of high yields (9,04–9,63 t/ha) in the northern forest-steppe zone of Ukraine were established.
Key words:yield, leaf surface, mineral fertilizers, grain sorghum, dry matter, pure photosynthesis performance.