Bulletin Institute of agriculture of steppe zone NAAS of Ukraine.-2013.-№4
|The application of SNP-genotyping for estimation of genetic parentage of maize breeding material||Annotation|
The application of SNP-genotyping for estimation of genetic parentage of maize breeding material
B. V. Dzubetsky, T. N. Satarova, V. Yu. Cherchel, V. V. Borisova.
2013. № 4. P. 3-7.
The results of maize analysis by the method of SNP-genotyping which permits to compare the frequencies of single nucleotide changes in the genomes of various lines are represented. The materials for research were 16 corn inbred lines developed by the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe zone of National Agrarian Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and by Company “Mais”. The research was performed together with the company BioDiagnostics Inc. (USA) using its laboratory and testing facilities.
The objective of the research was to analyse the set of corn inbred lines using SNP ge-notyping method and to find out the level of their relationship according to the frequency of single nucleotide substitutions.
Genetic distances determined by the frequency of single nucleotide substitutions can rather substantially differentiate inbred lines one from another. In addition to that the method used as it was anticipated did not show the polymorphism inside the same inbred line and between sterile and fertile forms of the same inbred line. According to results of analysis conducted for the set of corn inbred lines, the inbred line P165M is the most closely related to the complex of researched inbreds, while inbred lines K2048zM, K4C and Dn3M are most different from other lines of the present set, and they are recommended for use as components in hybrid combinations.
In the further research it is planned to broaden the studied set of inbreds and to compare the relationship of lines not only by SNP level but also by morphological, phenological and economically important traits as well as by the combination ability to determine correlations between genetic distances and phenotypic traits. The recommendations on the utilization of analysed inbreds in breeding process as initial material for initiation of populations of next screening cycles and in hybrid combinations are formulated
|Adaptive ability and ecological stability testcrosses corn alternative germplasm in Western Forest Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Adaptive ability and ecological stability testcrosses corn alternative germplasm in Western Forest Steppe of Ukraine
The estimation of the adaptive ability and ecological stability of simple corn hybrids created from the germplasm Iodent, Lacaune and Mixed. As a basic starting material used and new self-pollinating maize lines with a working collection of the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone of NAAS (Dnipropetrovsk). In heterotic group Mixed were lines based on different germplasm Lancaster Mo17, Lancaster Oh43, BSSS, Co125 and variety Dobrudzhanka. Crossbreeding conducted by topcross scheme and obtained 186 hybrid combinations of six heterotic pattern. Testers are the three best lines from each of the opposite heterotic group.
The study was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in the fields of breeding crop rotation maize breeding laboratory Bukovyna State agricultural experimental station of the Institute of Agriculture of Carpathian region of NAAS. Investigated testcrosses grown in control nursery by density of 70 thousand plants /ha for harvest. Repeated – three times, plot two rows, area – 9,8 m2. The standard used zoned hybrids: Dniprovs’kyy 181SV and Khmelnyts’kyy. Exploring indicators of adaptability simple heterotic hybrids was carried out by the main agronomic sign "yield of grain".
Results of the study revealed the potential of adaptive testcrosses the investigated and allocated the most optimal heterotic pattern for use in breeding work to develop advanced high-yield corn hybrids adapted to the conditions of the Western Forest Steppe of Ukraine. The greatest general adaptive ability of hybrids showed heterotic pattern Iodent×Lacaune. For the synthesis of hybrid intensive type is best to use the scheme Iodent×Mixed. The most stable genotypes appeared to be related to the scheme Lacaune×Iodent // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 61–64.
|Diagnostics on resistance to drought of new line sugar corn||Annotation|
Diagnostics on resistance to drought of new line sugar corn
The diagnostics new lines realized for its influence upon productivity of the plants, defining level of the reduction of the sign in extreme condition, comparatively favorable and calculating index drought stability. Under influence of the stress productivity plants fell on 2,5–10,0% in drought stability genotypes against 21,5–50,7% in unstable. The index drought stability formed 0,90–0,97 and 0,50–0,79 accordingly beside drought stability and not tolerant genotypes.
For drought stability line inherent more stable level shaping the mass of the cob, amount cobs per plant, cob long, amount grain abreast, mass 1000 grain, number grain on cob and grain output. The fluctuation these sign beside they did not exceed 10,0%, but in not drought stability it formed 10,3-34,9%.
The valuable source material for arid conditions are an large productive to lines KC602-2, KC500-21, KC805-3, KC27-5, RKC18, RKC38, RKC46, RKC52, RKC98 with index drought stability 0,92-0,97, forming in contrasting condition 73,6–97,2 g grain per plant. They inherent high factors homeostatic (Hom=2,3–43,6) and selection value (Sc=60,4=84,7). Genotypes these line are characterized balanced and stable type to realization high productivity in contrasting condition. High productive not drought stability form, with index drought stability 0,50–0,79, formed 87,5–118,4 g grain per plant in favorable circumstances of moisture provision and reduced absolute importance before 60,8–76,5 g in limited. Beside them is noted low factors homeostatic (Hom=0,1–0,4) that is conditioned their lability. Raised importance Sc=50,1–62,9 beside they were provided to account of high productivity, formed in 2011.
When selecting high productivity and adapted to drought of the linear material advantage follows to return the example with high factor of the mass of the cob, grain mass from it and amount cobs per plant, characterize close-fitting positive relationship with productivity (r=0,71–0,93). They carry high informative about level genotypic ambiences on the valued material. For separation stress-tolerant sample possible use estimation association productivity with cob length, the amount grain abreast, grain output, corn long (r=0,53–0,67) and height of the plants (r=0,41–0,42), as criterion raised and average informative.
Amongst new lines of the sugar corn is chosen 40 drought stability samples. High productive drought stability to lines characterized the high constancy of the physiological processes of the shaping to productivity in different condition of the moistening. For group estimation of the dependencies to productivity from sign morph structure is installed high activity genotypic ambiences beside stress-tolerant cenosis linear material, relatively with unstable to drought. The trend of the small reduction to dependencies to productivity from analyzed sign in disadvantage condition points to possibility of the undertaking high effective diagnostic and selection of the linear material with high selection by value resistance to drought on background low moisture provision. The best lines are recommended for use in selection program on creation new hybrid sugar corn with high adaptability to drought// Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 64–70.
|Efficiency evaluation of combinational ability and manifestation of transgression on the main quantitative characteristics of performance wiki spring.||Annotation|
Efficiency evaluation of combinational ability and manifestation of transgression on the main quantitative characteristics of performance wiki spring.
Evaluation of combinational ability nine collection samples wiki spring and the frequency and degree of the manifestation of positive трансгресій in the generation of hybrids F2 on the main characteristics of the forage and seed productivity. The dependence between the indices of specific combinational ability of the samples and the level of relevant features in the future hybrid generations.
Key words: Vika spring, combinational ability, the frequency of transgression, the degree of transgression, quantitative features.
|Fraction separation and air-thermic heating of winter wheat seeds||Annotation|
Fraction separation and air-thermic heating of winter wheat seeds
The researches were made in the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone of NAAS during 2011–2012 on the base of experimental farm “Dnipro”.
The aim of work – to discover the influence of seed fineness in winter wheat on its sowing qualities, to find out affectivity of presowing air-thermic heating of the seeds.
It was carried out seed and sprouting of different fractions shaped by method of separation on the sieves 1,7×20; 2,0×20; 2,2×20; 2,5×20; 3,0×20 mm and determined its quality rating – germination readiness, germination, force of growth. Air-thermic heating of the seeds was spent with temperature 30–35°C, duration of heating was 3 days.
On the base of before spent investigations were established priorities of more fineness seeds in winter wheat, sowing of seeds when weights of 1000 seeds was 41–45 g, field germination grew up in 3–9%, and harvest – in 7–19% in comparison with seeds of weight 30–40 g. As a result seed green spouting of fraction 2,5×20 mm and more such varieties as Kuyalnyk, Antonivka, Lytanivka, Blagodarka was emerged rising germination readiness in 6–24%, and germination – in 2–7% in comparison with fractions 2,0×20 and 2,2×20 mm. Force of growth was been rising in such way: the number of young growth – in 4-15%, weight of raw germ – in 25,5–30,4 mg (19,6–29,9%, weight of dry germ – in 1,5–2,5 mg (17,7–23,8%). Also the quality of seeds depended on year conditions, it was raised by favourable conditions (2011 year), and was become worse by adverse conditions (2012 year). At the cost presowing heating the energy of seed germination readiness was raised in 8–22%, and germination – in 4–5%.
The fineness of winter wheat seeds in characterized by linear size and weight, there is direct dependence between these indexes, but not absolute, because of the seeds of the same fraction (fineness) may have different weight of 1000 seeds depend on variety properties and grow conditions. The best sowing quality (germination readiness, germination, force of growth), has seed fractions which were separated on the sieves with dimension-type 2,5×20 mm and more with weight of 1000 seeds more than 40 g. Under the condition of sawing by fineness seeds field of germination of winter wheat, surviving and efficiency of plant are raised. Capacity of the best seed sowing quality averages 65–75%, depending on variety and growing conditions. The presowing air-thermic heating is effective method of rising quality of seed grain hereupon the energy of seed germination readiness is raised in 8–22% and laboratory germination – in 4–5% // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 37–42.
|Productivity of winter and spring cereal crops in conditions of Steppe zone of Ukraine||Annotation|
Productivity of winter and spring cereal crops in conditions of Steppe zone of Ukraine
The article presents results of research on the period 2007–2010 to determine the productivity of winter and spring cereals in the Steppe of Ukraine. Field experiments were conducted at Synelnykivs’ka breeding and research station of Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone in the rotation of laboratory of growing technology of winter crops. Predecessors – autumn fallow, peas, sunflower. Sowing of winter crops (wheat, barley, triticale) – early (on September, 5–10), the optimal (on September, 15–25), late (on September, 30 – October, 5) spring (wheat, barley, triticale) – as soon as possible to work in the field, but at workability of soil. Cultivation technology of winter and spring cereals – in common use to northern Steppe of Ukraine.
In the context of the performance of research was to determine the productivity of early cereals and make a comparative analysis of the yield of winter and spring crops: wheat, barley and triticale depending on predecessors and sowing in the central part of the northern Steppe of Ukraine, as here most years there is enough hard hydrothermal regime for growing season of crops.
Studies have shown that the response of winter cereals, like spring, the predecessors and sowing was ambiguous and depended on the biological characteristics of crops and weather conditions. The most productive within the winter grain crops was winter wheat, sown after autumn fallow, pea and sunflower. However, if the maximum productivity of cereal formed after autumn fallow at seeding on September, 20–25 (6.12 t/ha), after the sunflower and pea crop yield the most significant crop yield (respectively 5.26 and 3.78 t/ha) was at later sowing time – on September, 30 – October, 5. The least productive among winter cereals of all predecessors and of sowing terms was winter barley. Winter rye generally inferior in productivity then winter wheat, but prevailed on this indicator winter triticale and barley.
Average yield of spring cereals (1,20–1,47 t/ha) had significantly lower rates compared to winter forms. Of course, a significant yield was obtained when growing spring wheat, barley and triticale after the best predecessors – autumn fallow and peas. Significantly lower spring crops yields were at seeding after sunflower. The difference in crop yields of spring wheat, barley and triticale that grows, for example, after pea and sunflower was respectively 0.34, 0.26 and 0.21 t/ha.
Comparative performance analysis of winter and spring forms of wheat, barley and triticale suggests that more productive in the northern Steppe of Ukraine is the winter crops. It is seen in the experiments after all predecessors and seeding time. The most productive cereals in the Steppe zone is winter wheat, which in productivity terms dominates the rest of the winter and spring cereals. Among the spring is usually the best kept challenging environment growing season is barley compared with wheat and triticale // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 18–22.
|Features of varietal response of spring wheat to plant protection products||Annotation|
Features of varietal response of spring wheat to plant protection products
It is presented the results of scientific studies on the characteristics of the varietal response of spring wheat to plant protection products on the background of fertilization. Field experiments were conducted in the grain-fallow-row crop rotation of laboratory of growing technology of spring cereals and legumes on Erastivs’ka experimental station of the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone.
By the researches was established that the use of Agat 25 K (at full dose) and tank mixes: Tilt 250 EC + Agat 25 K + Granstar 75 (half-dose) in spring wheat crops contributed to a higher rate of general and productive tillering of plants, increase the number of nodal roots, the intensity increase of aboveground mass and assimilation surface, that is the most important biometric parameters which directly influence the formation yield of crops.
The use of tank mixtures: Tilt 250 EC + Agat 25 K + Granstar 75 in spring wheat crops is significant effects on grain yield. Increase in yield ranged from 26,3 to 28,6% compared with the control.
Thus, when used in crops of spring wheat fungicide Tilt 250 EC bio-fungicide Agate 25-K and herbicide Granstar 75 (half-dose) in plants formed a well-developed assimilating surface, increasing the number of nodal roots and increased tillering rate; in this regard, they acquired a better development, they grew stronger resistance to damage pathogens, also weakened the development of weeds, enabling the efficient use of limited rainfalls in dry years. Through the application of this combination of protection elements increase grain yield in a variety of Kharkiv 30 and 27 were respectively 0,52 and 0,69 t/ha. In addition, the use of plant protection in the half-doses made it possible to reduce the dose of preparation costs, reduce the negative impact of pesticides on the environment, increase plant productivity and increase the economic effect of cultivation the spring wheat // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 22–25.
|The influence of predecessors and mineral fertilizers on crop yield and quality of winter wheat grain in conditions of Prysyvashia||Annotation|
The influence of predecessors and mineral fertilizers on crop yield and quality of winter wheat grain in conditions of Prysyvashia
Field experiments were conducted during 2009–2012 on the fields Geniches’k experimental station of the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe Zone, which operates in the southern Steppe of Ukraine.
During the research envisaged to solve the problem of increasing the productivity and quality of winter wheat, sown after spring mustard and spring barley, by fertilization with regard to soil and climatic conditions of southern Steppe of Ukraine.
Results of researches showed that among the investigated factors, most influenced on the yield of winter wheat, was the predecessors. Higher performance than stubble predecessor formed after spring mustard. Thus, the yield after it is predecessor ranged from 2,93–3,25 t/ha, after spring barley the level of yield was significantly lower – 2,64–2,91 t/ha. The degree of influence of fertilization regimes was somewhat smaller. Thus, on average over three years, maximum yield on the background of two predecessors was in the variant of mineral fertilization: background + N30 by frozen-thawed soil (FTS) + N30 locally. Increase of grain yield in this case was 0,27 t/ha after stubble predecessor and 0,32 t/ha – after the mustard. In abnormally dry conditions in 2012, when was plant nutrition N30 and making N60 locally, the desired effect was not detected; however, with increasing doses of nitrogen traced the gradual decrease in productivity – by 0,10 and 0,15 t/ha compared to the option of fertilization as: background + N30 by FTS.
On average over three years of research the quality of grain was better after mustard than after barley, but in 2010 due to the formation of smaller grain after stubble precursor the protein content increased compared with those which obtained after the precursor spring mustard. Protein and gluten content in grain was greatest in option: background + N30 by FTS + N60 locally.
Based on the research results revealed that sowing of winter wheat after spring mustard in performance is superior to stubble predecessor. The maximum yield was obtained at fertilization scheme: N60P60K30 in pre-sowing cultivation + N30 by FTS + N30 locally. Thus, the level of grain productivity after stubble predecessor was 2,91 t/ha, after spring mustard – 3,25 t/ha. But in abnormally severe drought conditions the local fertilization of winter wheat crops is inappropriate farming practice.
A high-quality grain formed after predecessor mustard spring, if applied fertilizers: N60P60K30 + N30 by FTS + N60 locally // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 25–29.
|Weed infestation and crop yield of sunflower at different tilling methods and application of herbicides||Annotation|
Weed infestation and crop yield of sunflower at different tilling methods and application of herbicides
Minimizing treatment caused first of all by attempts to shorten expenses on growing crops is an actual issue. This problem is mainly solved with the help of replacing soil ploughing by various models of shallow soil tilling, up to sowing in untilled soil, and by using broad-cut instruments in technologies of growing crops. However, abandonment of ploughing may lead to increase of weed infestation and harmfulness, because of resources saved due to replacing ploughing is expended.
Experiments were undertaken in 2010–2012 in an experimental farm “Dnipro” of Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone of NAAS.
The highest plants were at the ploughing with manual weed control (177 cm), and with the application of herbicide Frontier Optima (173 cm), and under the mixture of herbicides Dual Gold + Gezagard, plants were 3 cm below. In these options the plants have also large leaf area (0,517–0,649 m2/plant). This trend continued for different treatment options. The smallest plants height and leaf area were found in all variants at no-till treatment. Thus, sunflower plants height were 132–158 cm, leaf area were 0,301–0,450 m2, and there were 13% and 50% lower than at the ploughing. The decreasing of plant height and leaf area is observed during comparing ploughing and no-till treatment at all variants of herbicide application. At variant of herbicide Harness and ploughing the plant height was 168 cm, and it was 20 cm higher than at no-till, and leaf area was 57,3% greater (0,563 to0,356 m2/plant).
The greatest productivity of sunflower (2,72 t/ha) of all research period was got on a background of ploughing. When flat-cutter was used on 14–16 cm depth obtained productivity 2,32 t/ha, at shallow treatment – 2,06 t/ha, and at direct sowing – 1,70 t/ha. The decline of productivity was caused by both weed infestation of crops and worsening of the water-physical state of soil. Bringing of herbicides Harness (2,5 l/ha), Frontier Optima (1,4 l/ha), Dual Gold (1,0 l/ha) + Hezagard (2,0 l/ha) provided the identical decline the weed infestation and increase of productivity. The regularities of influence of basic variants soil treatment on herbicides efficiency were not found out, however bringing of soil herbicides at the direct sowing was ineffective. The ineffectiveness can be caused by that herbicide remains on the soil surface and evaporates under act of wind and sunny energy // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 29–32.
|Formation the crop yield by pea mustache sowings under influence of fertilizers and seeding rate in the northern Steppe||Annotation|
Formation the crop yield by pea mustache sowings under influence of fertilizers and seeding rate in the northern Steppe
Field experiments were conducted in the grain-fallow-row crop rotation of the laboratory of growing technology of spring grain and leguminous crops of The Erastivs’ka experimental station of Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone of NAAS.
The aim of research was to identify the characteristics of formation the grain productivity pea plants of leafless (mustache) morphological type according to the seeding rates and fertilization doses.
Calculation of water consumption index demonstrates that for the formation of 1 ton of grain, the amount of water wasted by pea sowings on a background of N15P15K15 was highest at seeding rate of 1,2 million (1171 m³/t), and the lowest at – 1,4 million of germinable seeds/ha (1136 m³/t). On the background of introducing N30P30K30, water flow on yield formation were smaller at seeding rate of 1,8 million of germinable seeds/ha – 1148 m³/t.
By the researches was established that with increasing doses of fertilizers average weight of grain per plant increased by 10,8–14,3%. Seeding rate effect on the index more significantly. Thus, on a background of N15P15K15 with increasing the sowing rate from 1.2 to 1.8 million of germinable seeds/ha, grain weight per plant decreased by 33,7, at application of N30P30K30 – by 31,6%.
The highest grain productivity (1,95 t/ha) was obtained in variants with the introduction N30P30K30 and seeding rate of 1,4 million of germinable seeds/ha. On a background of N15P15K15 highest yield (1,81 t/ha) was obtained in variants of seeding rates 1,6 and 1,8 million of germinable seeds/ha. The difference in yield between fertilizer backgrounds depending on the seeding rates was 0,08–0,16 t/ha or 4,1–9,0%.
Thus, when growing peas of leafless morphological type variety of Kharkivs’kyi etalonnyi in the northern Steppes is necessary to fertilize in a dose of N30P30K30, while the seeding rate should be 1,4 million of germinable seeds/ha. Under these conditions, pea creates average grain yield 2,0 t/ha. Increasing the seeding rate from 1,6 to 1,8 of germinable seeds/ha was impractical, because the pea plants formed less beans and grains due to self-shadowing and lack of productive moisture in the soil // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 33–37.
|Agroeconomic efficiency of sugar corn varieties and hybrids growing of different ripeness groups||Annotation|
Agroeconomic efficiency of sugar corn varieties and hybrids growing of different ripeness groups
Experiments were carried out during 2008–2010 at Dnipropetrovs’k experimental station of the Institute of vegetable and melon growing NAAS.
The purpose of research is to establish the agro-economic effectiveness of growing new sugar corn hybrids of different ripeness groups compared with varieties in northern Steppe subzone of Ukraine.
In average per years of research in the early-ripe group the plant height of the hybrids Spokusa and Vnesok SV were lower at 9 and 12 cm compared with the variety Delikatesna (169 cm).
In the middle-group the plant height of hybrid Liudmyla SV (199 cm) was greater than variety Aromatna for 22 cm, but hybrids of this group: Venilia, Siurpryz and Glamur has smaller rates of plant height than variety Aromatna. The plant height of middle hybrid Kabanets’ SV (205 cm) was the highest.
In the earlyripe group, hybrid Vnesok SV has the largest area of leaf (22,7 dm2) and hybrid Spokusa has the lowest one (16,8 dm2). In the middle group the variety Aromatna has leaf area greater (26,9 dm2) than hybrids Siurpryz, Glamur and Venilia has by 3,9, 3,0 and 1,6 dm2 and hybrid Liudmyla SV (43,2 dm2) for this indicator has some advantage over the middle hybrid Ka-banets’ SV.
On average for the three years the highest crop capacity of cobs showed the hybrid Spokusa (7,44 t/ha) and the lowest one the variety Delikatesna (4,25 t/ha) among the studied hybrids and va-rieties.
In average per years of research the constructed net income in the early-ripe group was the largest in the hybrid Spokusa (8586 UAH/ha) that this indicator exceeded by 2,1 and 1,3 times the variety Delikatesna and the hybrid Vnesok SV accordingly. In the middle group the largest net income was made by the growth of hybrids Venilia, Siurpryz and the variety Delikatesna and slightly smaller one by hybrids Glamor, Liudmyla SV. Mid-hybrid Kabanets’ SV ensured sufficiently high constructed net income – 7366 UAH/ha. Profitability in the early-ripe group was the highest in hybrid Spokusa (335%), in the middle group – in the variety Aromatna (285%) and the profitability was high in the midseason hybrid Kabanets’ SV (310%).
The highest crop capacity of cobs technical ripeness in the early-ripe group showed the hybrid Spokusa – 7,44 t/ha, in the middle group the most productive were hybrids Venilia and Siurpryz with 6,25 and 6.16 t/ha crop capacity, the mid-season hybrid Kabanets’ SV formed 6,53 t/ha cobs crop capacity.
For the cost (347 UAH/t), the constructed net income (8586 UAH/ha) and the level of profitability (335%) the hybrid Spokusa has a preference. The growing efficiency of the early-ripe hybrid Vnesok SV, middle hybrids Siurpryz, Venilia and the variety Aromatna, the mid-season hybrid Kabanets’ SV was slightly smaller but high enough // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 42–44.
|Grain yield of chickpea depending on agrotechnical measures of growing in condition of Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Grain yield of chickpea depending on agrotechnical measures of growing in condition of Northern Steppe of Ukraine
It is presented the results of scientific studies on features that influencing the agrotechnical measures of cultivation on chickpea grain yield. The aim of work was to determine the optimal timing, methods of sowing and seed rate in growing chickpea in the northern Steppe.
Field experiments were conducted during the 2009–2012 in the grain-fallow-row crop rotation of laboratory of growing technology of spring cereals and legumes on Erastivs’ka experimental station of the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone.
On average over the four years the greatest grain yield was obtained in terms of late sowing – over 7 and 14 days after the onset of physical maturity of the soil. With early sowing chickpea yield was reduced compared with late: in crops with 15 cm row spaces – at 0,12–0,27 t/ha and 45 cm – at 0,02-0,25 t/ha.
On the basis of research and generalization of experimental data may draw the following conclusions. The level of chickpea grain yield significantly depends on the moisture content during May – June – July, when observed intense spindling, formation and maturation of seeds. Exceeding the daily average air temperature during this period by 1,1–5,0°C (2010-2011), compared to long-time average annual norm, would not significantly reduce grain yield of chickpea (1,54–2,27 t/ha) subject to the observance of growing technology.
With sufficient moisture in the second half of chickpea growing season delayed planting at 7 and 14 days after the onset of physical maturity of the soil improves crop production according to 0,07–0,18 and 0,16–0,27 t/ha or 4,3–12,2 and 9,6-18,1%.When sowing chickpea usual way with a row spacing of 15 cm is appropriate seeding rate 0.6 million, while in wide – with 45 cm row spaces – 0.4 million of seeds/ha. When seeding chickpeas 14 days after the onset of physical maturity of the soil by usual method (seeding rate – 0.8 million seeds/ha) may be obtained increasing grain yield by an average of 0.13 t/ha.
Growing chickpea in northern Steppe is highly profitable. Depending on the timing and methods of sowing and seeding rates the production costs for 1 ha is 4008–6576 UAH, the cost of grain – 2474–4559 UAH/t, and net income reaches 4852–10443 UAH/ha, profitability level – 75,5–248, 8% // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 53–57.
|Optimization the sowing methods of maize in the northern part of Steppe||Annotation|
Optimization the sowing methods of maize in the northern part of Steppe
Experimentswerecarriedoutin2009–2011atthe InstituteofAgriculture of Steppezone.Thesoil of testplot–theusualhumusrichsoil.Thecontentintheploughlayersoil:humus3,1–3,5%ofgrossnitrogen–0,17–0,19%,phosphorus–0,12–0,13%andpotassium–2,1–2,2%.Thereactionofsoilsolution – neutral.
Purposeofresearch: to findoutthepossibilityofincreasingtheyieldofmaize(hybridPochaivskiy190MV)bynarrowingrowspacingfrom70cmto35cm,leadingtoashapeoptimizationofcrop nutrition.
Experimentsrevealed that bynarrowingrow spacing provides moreshadesoilsurface,theindicator of sun lightand plant density was lower relativelyclassicalspacingdecreasedby22%.It ishelpedtoreducenumberofweedsand their dryweightinallvariantsoftheexperiment.
Whenusingherbicidesobservedfurtherreductionofweed infestation.Thus,thecombinationofherbicidesharness,2.5 l/ha+dialensuper,1.25 l/haatsowingwith35cmrowspacingwithmechanicalmaintenance,providedthemosteffectiveweed controlinmaizecrops.Numberofweedsattheendofthegrowingseason,averaged6.8pc./m²,anddrybiomassof–53g/m².Asinwiderowcropswiththecultivation,againsttheseherbicidesinfestationwashigher–8.6pc./m²,drybiomasswas61g/m².Technicalefficiencyofcombinationsofherbicidesharness–2.5 l/ha+dialensuper,1.25l/haforbothmethodsofsowingwasalmostidentical-64.5and62.1%onherbicidestellardiscernibletrendtowardsanincreaseofcropswithnarrowedrows.So,bynarrowingrowspacingincreasedcompetitivenessofmaizeby10-12%comparedwithstandardsowing70cm// Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 58–61.
|Bioenergetical efficiency of pop corn grain production according to soil tillage, level of mineral nutrition and plant density||Annotation|
Bioenergetical efficiency of pop corn grain production according to soil tillage, level of mineral nutrition and plant density
In the article the results of field experience, carried out in the State enterprise education – research farm «Samars’ky» of the Dnipropetrovs'k State Agrarian University (nowadays educational and science centre of Dnipropetrovs’k State Agrarian University) throughout 2005–2007 are presented.
As the purpose of researches was definition of bioenergetical efficiency of cultivation of two hybrids of pop corn Vulcan and Dniprovs’ky 929 depending on plant density (40, 50, 60, 70 thous./ha), method of the basic soil tillage (ploughing on depth 25–27 cm, tillage with heavy disk harrow on depth 12–14 cm) and level of mineral nutrition (without fertilizers, N30Р30К30, N30Р60К30, N60Р60К60) taking into account expenses for increase in rate of seeding, primary processing of grain after harvesting, application of mineral fertilizers and units for the basic soil tillage.
Results of researches testify, that on the average for three years in experience on studying of influence of soil tillage and background of the mineral nutrition the energetical coefficient at hybrid was on the average equalled 4,5. At both methods of the basic soil tillage the tendency to reduction of the given indicator at increase in norm of fertilizers was observed. Energy intensity of production 1 t grain and energy gain on 1 hectare both on the ploughed soil with depth 25–27 cm, and on small soil tillage on depth 12–14 cm increased at rise in norm of fertilizers. Indicators of expenses of cumulative energy on 1 hectare, total and exchange energy on both methods of the basic soil tillage also increased at rise in norm of fertilizers.
In experience on studying of influence of plant density at hybrid Vulcan the energetical coefficient decreased at increase of plant density from 40 to 70 thous./ha; at hybrid Dniprovs’ky 929 it was maximum at plant density of 50 thous./ha and minimum at plant density 70 thous./ha. Energetical consumption of production 1 t grain of pop corn at both hybrids was maximum at plant density 70 thous./ha. Expenses of cumulative energy for 1 hectare at both hybrids was raised at increase of plant density from 40 to 70 thous./ha (on 0.4 GJ). On the contrary, indicators of total and exchange energy, had a tendency to reduction.
Thus, at both methods of the basic soil tillage the tendency to reduction of energetical coefficient at increase in norm of fertilizers (to 12,5% on deep soil tillage and 17,6% on small soil tillage) was observed.
Power consumption 1 t grains made at deep soil tillage 3632 MJ, and at small – 3526 MJ. This indicator, irrespective of the method of soil tillage, increased at increase of norm of fertilizers.
The energetical coefficient by cultivation hybrid Vulcan was equalled 4,3, and at hybrid Dniprovs’ky 929 – 4,6. At both hybrids it was to the minimum at 70 thous./ha. Power consumption of production 1 t grain of pop corn of hybrid Vulcan on the average was equalled 3755 MJ, and at hybrid Dniprovs’ky 929 – 3482 MJ.
The given indicator was minimum at the first hybrid at 40 thous./ha, and at the second hybrid – at 50 thous./ha // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 78–81.
|Determination of ecological plasticity of spring barley varieties using a graphical algorithm of analysis the yield structure elements||Annotation|
Determination of ecological plasticity of spring barley varieties using a graphical algorithm of analysis the yield structure elements
It is presented the results of scientific studies on determination of ecological plasticity of spring barley varieties using a graphical algorithm of analysis the yield structure elements.
Field experiments were in was carried out by conventional methods and conducted in the experimental field of State Institution "Donets’k State agricultural experimental station of the Institute of Plant growing named after Yuriev of NAAS of Ukraine ", which is located in the center of Donets’k region.
Investigated the efficiency of diverse-functional growth regulators of last generation when used the pre-sowing seed treatment and spraying the spring barley growing plants.
It was found that growth promoters positively affect the performance of structures harvest – ear length, 1000 grain weight, number of productive stems and the number of grains in the ear. The most an increase grain yield of spring barley obtained by the use of growth promoters for seed treatment and at three times spraying of vegetative crops. The use of growth promoters was more effective in crops variety Donets’k 14. The largest grain yield was at complex use of Albite – 0.55 t/ha.
During the study of the effect of growth regulators on the productivity of plants has been developed and applied to image analysis algorithm of preparations using that have been studied in terms of improving the ecological plasticity of spring barley varieties when grown in agroclimatic conditions of the region.
Based on the developed algorithm graphical analysis of structural elements yield of spring barley can identify the impact of farming on the elements of performance and ecological plasticity varieties of this crop // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 88–93.
|Water consumption and productivity of sunflower hybrids depending on plant density||Annotation|
Water consumption and productivity of sunflower hybrids depending on plant density
Features of water consumption and formation the productivity of sunflower hybrids were studied depending on plants density. Field experiments were conducted during 2007–2009, at the Poltava Institute AID named after N. I. Vavilov. The object of the research were hybrids Nadiinyi, Zaporizhs’kyi 28, Sava at plants density 40, 50, 60, 70 thous./ha.
As a result of three years of research the highest total water consumption were in hybrids Nadiinyi, Zaporizhs’kyi 28, Sava at plants density 40 thous./ha and equalled respectively 3190, 3200, 3228 m3/ha.
When crowding crops to 50-70 thous./ha water consumption decreased to 3036–3222 m3/ha depending on hybrid and plants density. However, with an increasing water consumption increased yield. The highest yield of hybrids Nadiinyi and Zaporizhs’kyi 28 formed at plants density 40 thous./ha – 3,54 and 3,26 t/ha, respectively. With increasing density of 10 thous./ha there was a decrease in average yield was 0,16 and 0,09 t/ha. Further increase of plants density (60 and 70 thous./ha) resulted a significant reduction in yield – at 0,29-0,39 t/ha. Hybrid Sava formed the highest yield at density 50 thous./ha – 3,38 t/ha. Just as decreasing the plant density to 40 so too increasing – to 60-70 thous./ha resulted lower average yields of hybrid on 0,1 to 0,3 t/ha.
The highest factor of water consumption had hybrid Zaporizhs’kiy 28 at plants density 70 thous./ha – 1078 m3/t. Hybrids Nadiinyi and Sava spend less moisture, but the biggest factor of water consumption was also at plants density 70 thous./ha (959 and 999 m3/t). The least moisture spent at forming grain, in other words were more productive hybrids Nadiinyi and Zaporizhs’kyi 28 at plants density 40 thous./ha – 901 and 981 m3/t respectively, hybrid Sava – with plants density 50 thous./ha (953 m3/t).
Thus, the highest total water consumption were hybrids Nadiinyi, Zaporizhs’kyi 28, Sava at plants density 40 thous./ha – respectively 3190; 3200; 3228 m3/ha.
The most inexpensively moisture spending to form a grain unit were hybrids Nadiinyi, Zaporizhs’kiy 28 at plants density 40 thous./ha – 901 and 981m3/t respectively, hybrid Sava – with crowding to 50 thous./ha (953 m3/t).
Optimum plants density for hybrids Nadiiniy and Zaporizhs’kyi 28 was 40 thous./ha, has productivity 3,54 and 3,26 t/ha. The hybrid Sava formed the maximal productivity 3,38 t/ha at plants density 50 thous./ha.// Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 94–97.
|The dynamics of alfalfa plant density depending on seeding rate and variety||Annotation|
The dynamics of alfalfa plant density depending on seeding rate and variety
Alfalfa is a high-yield and high-protein fodder crop that got wide use in a forage production of the European countries and in the world as a whole.
Considering importance of this plant for a forage production, justification of intensive receptions of permanent increasing the productivity and improvement of fodder quality of alfalfa which will promote selection of the best varieties and regulation of cultivated areas is actual. In turn is will play especially significant role in a solution of the problem of deficiency of fodder protein in cattle diets.
For this purpose in stationary experiences studied the dynamics of alfalfa plants density depending on seeding rate and a variety. Investigated four varieties of alfalfa which are entered to the Register of plant varieties – Poltavchanka (1987), Regina (1997), Yaroslavna (1987), Planet (1999), Viteks (Swedish selection) at different seeding rates, doses of fertilizer application and modes of herbage use.
Researches carried out in a crop rotation of a forage production and melioration of the Separated division of National university of bioresources and environmental management of Ukraine "Agronomical experimental station" (AES) according to the standard techniques. AES is located in Pshenychne village, Vasyl’kivs’kyi district, Kiev region which enters into the Right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The territory of lands generally has an undulating relief with the insignificant extended recession of level.
As a result of researches it is established that, for seeding rate of 6 million of germinable seeds/ha on the average in three years Poltavchanka variety had the greatest plants density: in a phase of full shoots – 255 plants/m2, at end of vegetation – 205 plants/m2; at seeding rate of 8 million – 383 and 307 plants/m2, and 10 million – 582 and 517 plants/m2 respectively. Thus loss of plants of a lucerne of this variety during vegetation depending on seeding rate represented 11,2–19,8%.
Crops of Viteks variety appeared the most thinned out: at seeding rate of 6 million germinable seeds/ha in a phase of full shoots was 236 plants/m2, at end of vegetation – 185 plants/m2. The similar tendency was traced and seeding rate of 8 and 10 million of germinable seeds/ha.
Concerning the second year-life of Poltavchanka variety sowing was the best after plants density. So at seeding rate of 6 million germinable seeds/ha the greatest plants density for the beginning of vegetation represented 272 plants/m2, for end of vegetation – the 211 plants/m2; when seeding 8 million of germinable seeds/ha – 390 and 317 plants/m2, and 10 million – 596 and 526 plants/m2 respectively.
Indicators of varieties of Regina and Yaroslavna were slightly lower. Plants density of Viteks variety appeared the lowest, as well as in the first year of sowing. So, for seeding rate of 6 million of germinable seeds/ha it represented in a phase of a full shoots of 240 plants/m2, and end of vegetation – 193 plants/m2. Similar it was observed and for seeding rate of 10 million of germinable seeds/ha.
In crops of the third year-life the best after plant density also was a Poltavchanka variety which at the smallest seeding rate (6 million of germinable seeds/ha) provided plants density for the beginning of vegetation 230 plants/m2, for end of vegetation – 201 plants/m2; at 8 million – 350 and 290 plants/m2, 10 million – 531 and 487 plants/m2 respectively.
Therefore, according to the obtained data it is possible to claim that Poltavchanka variety is the most adapted for soil climatic conditions of a zone in which researches were conducted. On indicators of density of plants on unit of area it considerably prevailed other studied varieties. Grade Viteks had the worst indicators // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 100–103.
|Features of formation the crop yield of oats and spring barley influenced by predecessors and backgrounds of mineral nutrition||Annotation|
Features of formation the crop yield of oats and spring barley influenced by predecessors and backgrounds of mineral nutrition
It is presented the results of scientific studies on the characteristics of the formation yields of oats and spring barley influenced by predecessors and backgrounds of mineral nutrition.
The aim of work was to identify effective ways to improve the performance of oat grain (variety Skakun) and spring barley (variety Galaktyk) in Northern Steppe by choosing the predecessor and integrated use of fertilizers and micronutrients.
The study was carried out by conventional methods in the laboratory of growing technology of spring cereals and legumes on Erastivs’ka experimental station of the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone.
It is identified the positive effect of foliar fertilizing with nitrogen and micronutrients on the yield of barley. So, after winter wheat by feeding of plants in the phase of tillering with nitrogen in dose N30 grain yield increased to 3,10 t/ha to 2,91 t/ha in the variant without this measures. A similar situation was after other predecessors.
Analyzing experimental data, we can conclude that under drought predecessor significant impact on grain production of spring barley and oats. Research has established that these crops, sown after the recommended predecessors, respond better to increase agricultural chemistry background, so implementation of yield potential largely depends on the optimization of agrotechnical factors.
It is founded that growing oat and barley after winter wheat for making preplant fertilization N40P40K40 + N30 combined with spraying growing plants by micronutrient Reakom allows to increase the number of productive stems per unit area and performance panicle/spike, due to which the grain yield of oats and barley grows to 3,96 and 3.32 t/ha, respectively // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 112–116.
|Features of growth and development of winter wheat plants during the spring-summer growing season in the northern Steppe of Ukraine.||Annotation|
Features of growth and development of winter wheat plants during the spring-summer growing season in the northern Steppe of Ukraine.
Researches were spent during 2009–2011 in the experimental farm "Dnipro" of SI Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone of Ukraine of NAAS which is located in the south-east right-bank part of the Dnipropetrovs’k district of the Dnipropetrovs’k region and belong to northern subzone of Steppe of Ukraine.
In experiences sown three varieties of winter wheat from different originators: Zemliachka Odes’ka, Zolotokolosa, Apogey Lugans’kyi which had been entered in the State Register of plant varieties, suitable for distribution in Ukraine since 2006.
The purpose of researches was definition of relation between above-ground weight, foliage surface area of plants and grain yield of different varieties of winter wheat.
The analysis of plant samples of winter wheat has shown that the size of foliage surface depends on weather conditions of certain year, and also from high-quality features.
On the average for three years of researches, the greatest absolutely dry above-ground weight of plants and the area of foliage surface were formed in plants of all varieties in a heading stage and was at variety Zemliachka Odes’ka 1,405,7 g/m2 and 52,0 thous. m2/ha, at variety Apo-gey Lugans’kyi – 1,484,5 g/m2 and 50,0 thous. m2/ha, respectively. These indicators were the highest at variety Zolotokolosa (1,634,2 g/m2 and 54,6 thous. m2/ha, respectively).
The greatest grain productivity during the period of researches was provided with variety Zolotokolosa. So, in 2009 the grain productivity was 6,09 t/ha, in 2010 – 6,49, and in 2011 – was up to level 6,42 t/ha.
The second place on grain productivity had variety Apogey Lugans’kyi with yield of grain from 5,80 to 6,34 t/ha depending on a year.
The least productivity was at variety Zemliachka Odes’ka. And, in 2009 and 2011 gathering of grain of this variety was almost identical and has made, accordingly, 5,61 and 5,68 t/ha. The least crop was at variety Zemliachka Odes’ka in 2010 and made 5,36 t/ha.
The correlation analysis of experimental data has shown, that high positive dependence between absolutely dry above-ground weight, the area of foliage surface of plants and grain yield in the heading stage was traced at varieties Zolotokolosa and Apogey Lugans’kyi (the correlation factor made 0,96-0,99). That is, at these varieties raised the grain productivity with increase in above-ground weight of plants and the areas of foliage surface.
On the contrary, at variety Zemliachka Odes’ka is established the negative connection between indicators of the area of foliage surface, above-ground weight of plants and grain productivity.
Thus, the primary goal for achievement of the high yield of winter wheat is formation of crops with optimum developed plants for each separately taken variety in the course of vegetation // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 116–120.
|The analysis of phytodiversity by Basavluk river basin||Annotation|
The analysis of phytodiversity by Basavluk river basin
Flora of research in a valley Bazavluk conducted in spring and in summer 2012 at development of project of ecological network of the Dnipropetrovs’k area.
The pool of Bazavluk is located on territory of the South offspurs of Prydniprovs’k Hills |height| of the Steppezone. Flora consists of 736 kinds and different the considerable varieties of kinds and ecomorphs. In it 2 kinds are incorporated from the World Red List, 4 kinds from the European Red List, 15 kinds from the Red Book of Ukraine and 60 – from the Red List of the Dnipropetrovs’k area|domain|. After composition of gigromorf xerophytes (331 kinds) and mesophytes (321 kinds) gigrophytes|, gelophytes| and hydrophytes, prevail presen|represent|ted 89 ki|appearance|nds.
During the cenomorf| analysis of flora of river of Bazavluk basin it was discovere|exposes|d stepants – 220 kind|appearance|s, ruderants| is present|represent|ed in less – 177, pratants| – 128, silvants| – 98, palutants| – 54, psamophyts| – 38, petrophytes – 29, aqwants| – 16, culturants| – 12.
A natural| xeropolum was saved type of separate virgin|incult| areas or picked|recovers| up thread Steppe areas (on fallow lands|). It is widely presente|represent|d for to the slopes of valle|strath|y of the river and slopes of beam|baulk|s. Original, for this territory, there is a vegetation of ston|lithoidal|e|, there are most ra|thin|re kin|appearance|ds.
Meadow and water-meadow the vegetation of back-water of Bazavluk and bottom| bea|baulk|ms is more monotonous, than Steppe, and present|represent|ed the complexes of associations.
Natural|real-life| streamside and gully forest ecosystems| did not remain. Wood-shrub a vegetation is presente|represent|d the mainly artificial plantin|attachment|g of differen|diverse|t specific compositio|storage|n, age, structure, vital stat|figure|e, and also natura|real-life|l wood-shrub by a vegetation, whic|what|h is self-renewal| on ban|shore|ks, ponds, Bazavluk and to the elements of the be|baulk|am systems // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 120–124.
|Productivity of hulled and naked spring barley depending on sowing rate and the predecessor in the conditions of north Steppe||Annotation|
Productivity of hulled and naked spring barley depending on sowing rate and the predecessor in the conditions of north Steppe
The purpose of research – improving elements of growing technology of hulled and naked spring barley by clarifying the impact of seeding rate and precursors to increase grain productivity of these crops. The study was conducted in KirovogradState agricultural experimental station of the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone.
Experimental studies revealed that depending on seeding rates of hulled and naked spring barley was changed weight of 1000 grains. On average for 2011-2012 when growing hulled barley seeding rates of 4,0 and 4,5 million of germinable seeds/ha weight of 1000 grains was 46,2 and 46,3 g, and an increase of up to 5,0–6,0 million of germinable seeds/ha ratios were decreased to 45,1 and 45,8 g, respectively. The average weight of 1000 grains for growing barley for precdecessor soybeans was 46,8 g, while after sunflower and winter wheat is reduced by 2,0 and 1,2 g, respectively.
Studies indicated that due to insufficiently developed root system of spring barley crop yields by years of research has varied not only influenced by weather conditions during the growing season, but depending on seeding rates and predecessor. The grain unit of naked barley was higher than hulled. Depending on the seeding rate its performance in the range of 780–789 g/l, and on his predecessor – 778–797 g/l. When growing naked barley after soybean at seeding rate of 6,0 million of germinable seeds/hathe grain unit increased by 7 g/l compared with normal 4,0 million of germinable seeds/ha (794 g /l). After sunflower and winter wheat grain unit was larger (784 and 785 g/l) at 4,0 and 5,5 of germinable seeds/ha.
Thus, based on the analysis of the two-year experimental fields studies should be noted that higher yields of hulled spring barley obtained when grown in the northern Steppe after soybean at seeding rates 5,0 million – 4,20 t/ha, after sunflower – 6,0 million (3,49 t/ha), after winter wheat – 5,5 million of germinable seeds/ha(3,93 t/ha) and naked spring barley – after soybean (3,07 t/ha) at seeding rate of 5,0 million of germinable seeds/ha. After sunflower and winter wheat observed a tendency to increase the yield of naked barley with increasing seeding rate from 4,5 to 6,0 million of germinable seeds/ha // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 135–139.
|Biodiversity of agrolandscapes: faunistic studies||Annotation|
Biodiversity of agrolandscapes: faunistic studies
In the paper the results of an index of the generalized specific variety (MSA) constructed on calculations of the simple cause and effect relations between driving forces of environment state changes and their influence on biodiversity presented. It displays the relation of the current specific variety of the territory concerning potential specific variety of an undisturbed ecosystem within this territory. There is an opportunity to estimate current state of biodiversity by means of the representative selection of insects presented by constant and prepotent types as they as representatives of one of the most resistant classes, most precisely display extent of anthropogenous influence in studied territory of the Central Forest-steppe of Ukraine// Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 139–142.
|Evolution of agriculture as a forming factor of phytocenoses of weeds||Annotation|
Evolution of agriculture as a forming factor of phytocenoses of weeds
The experiments have being conducted in the experimental permanent establishments of Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone from 1958–1975 and continued by us in 1980–2011. The soil and vegetational cover, and also technologies of growing of crops were typical for the north and south Steppe zone of Ukraine and were in accordance with the technical level on every stage of development of agriculture. The estimation of weeds spreading was conducted accordingly to Raunkier's methodology, which involves recording of every case of presence of certain species by the diagonal inspection of crops. The object of the researches is agrocenoses of corn, in which sown areas actually all specific palette of weeds occurs.
Analysis of sensitivity of weeds to the herbicides of different phytotoxic spectrum during their long-term application in production conditions shows that even at wide enough possibilities of modern preparations there are definite species of weeds that are resistant to toxic effects of chemical substances.
So, for last 6 years a certain species of ambrosia gained considerable distribution (94%), as this species of weed is able to occupy any free space in crops both cultivated and cultures of continuous sowing method.
At the compound type of weediness it is more effective to apply a combination of Harnes with herbicides of vegetative action, such as MaisTer, Basis, Еsteron. In this case it is not widening of spectrum of phytotoxic action, which plays a leading role, but rather effect of repeated application of insurance herbicides solutions on the weeds already weak.
The insurance herbicide Esteron distinguishes by high phytotoxic effectiveness against ambrosia and canada thistle. The combination of Harnes 1,5 l/ha with Esteron 0,6 l/ha caused the most deep irreversible physiological and morphological transformations of these weeds.
Thus, the composition of weed species in crops of agricultural cultures depends on the structure of sowing areas, crop rotations, methods of basic soil cultivation and competitiveness of agrocoenoses. As a result of such selection the species of weeds with high seed yield, plasticity after the terms of germination, large biometry, biology closeness to the basic cultures and wide range of growth reaction on hydrothermal terms became dominant. The problem of weediness at the considerable multi-vector nature of weed adaptation mechanisms in agriculture can be overcame only by use of complex measures and combining of phytotoxic action of herbicides // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 7–11.
|Modern state of black chernozem and resumption paths of their fertility in crop rotations in the Northern Steppes of Ukraine||Annotation|
Modern state of black chernozem and resumption paths of their fertility in crop rotations in the Northern Steppes of Ukraine
The experiments were performed at Krasnograd experimental station of the Institute of Agriculture on the Steppe zone in the crop rotations (saturation of winter wheat to 50%, of corn on grain to 40%, sugar beet up to 30%). In these crop rotations for the rotation was applied the same number of fertilizers – 6 t/ha of manure and N63Р64К63.
The goal of researches is to study the reserves and the balance of humus in the soil, as well as calculation of the amount of organic fertilizers needed to restore and maintain soil fertility. The reserve and balance of humus determined at the beginning of the rotation cycle and by its end under plantation and the average per hectare crop rotation square.
Accumulation of humus by crops and root remains of field crops was the highest after perennial grasses (1,62–1,72 t/ha), and the lowest – after sugar beet (0,19–0,23 t/ha).
The intensity of the decomposition of plant residues in autumn-winter period was the greatest in sugar beet (89–92%), perennial grasses only 23–33%. Return nutrients from plant residues accounted for: in winter wheat: N – 35%, P2O5 – 34,6%, K2O – 28,8%; corn, respectively, 33,0; 29,3; 42,2 sugar beet – 20,6; 18,1; 11,8%.
The greatest deficit of humus found in the soil under sugar beet (-1,38 t/ha).
Inclusion in crop rotation of perennial grasses and introduction of organic fertilizers for winter wheat resulted in positive balance of humus per hectare crop rotation square (+1,47 t/ha). Inclusion in crop rotation the autumn fallow or saturation of sugar beet has led to a negative balance of humus (-0.27 and -0.28 t/ha crop rotation square). Saturation of crop rotation with cereals and perennial grasses has positive impact on the balance of humus in the soil (+0,7 and +0,10 t/ha).
Calculations of the amount of manure needed to restore the fertility of chernozems showed that in rotation with fallow making hectare 6 t/ha of manure and N63Р64К63 provides stabilization of its content in the soil. At saturation of the crop rotation up to 70% with cereals, including up to 50% of winter wheat, for the recovery of humus in the soil enough to apply 3 t of manure per 1 ha of arable land. In rotation 90% of grain and 10% of perennial grasses costs of humus is completely restored by the humification of plant residues of these crops. In rotation with 30% of sugar beet to restore the loss fertility need to apply 9 t of manure per 1 ha of arable land.
Thus, saturation of crop rotation by the sugar beet reduces the content of humus in the soil. The increase of its crops should be accompanied by a corresponding increase in doses of organic fertilizers. Inclusion in the rotation of perennial leguminous grasses improves the humus balance. To control the dynamics of soil fertility must take into account changes in the content of humus in the soil and recover its losses by entering the corresponding number of organic fertilizers // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 11–14.
|Chisel soil tilling under spring barley in North Steppe||Annotation|
Chisel soil tilling under spring barley in North Steppe
Experimental work was guide during the 2011–2012 in a stationary field experiment of Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone of NAAS of Ukraine, Dnipropetrovs’k.
The purpose of research – to establish the effects of different soil tillage methods and fertilizer while leaving stubble residues of predecessor on agro physical properties of soil, water regime, weediness of crops, growth and development, productivity and economical effectiveness of spring barley cultivation in the northern Steppe of Ukraine.
It is established, that chisel tillage for spring barley growing in crop yield level (2,44–2,92 t/ha) not inferior to plowing (2,60–2,91 t/ha), and in some years even dominate (2012). In addition, it provides a higher level of moisture accumulation in the cold season and larger initial stocks of productive moisture in the spring of 20–25 mm, especially in dry years, which affects the yield of crops. Use chiseling reduces soil erosion on slopes and deflationary processes. When using chisel tillage provides the highest level of profitability (48,7%) growing spring barley and reduced cost of the main product // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 14–17.
|Dynamics of agrophysical indexes during minimalization of basic soil cultivation under cereal crops||Annotation|
Dynamics of agrophysical indexes during minimalization of basic soil cultivation under cereal crops
In agriculture a dilemma shows up constantly between productivity of cereal crops, intensity of exploitation of czernozem and productive charges, from one side, and agroecological firmness of soils, from the other. Basic factors that restrain the achievement of positive balance in economic and ecological aspects are unjustified increase of power charges, agrophysical degradation of soils, decline of content of humus in them, appearance of new resistant forms of weeds, low volumes of application of organic and mineral fertilizers.
The experiments conducted in 2011–2012 on the experience field of the Poltava Institute of agrarian-industrial production named after M.І. Vavilov in the research station "Stepne". Soil conditions of the researches – czernozem typical littlehumus clayed loamy, that is characterized by such agrochemical and agrophysical indexes: content of humus in the layer of soil 0–10 cm – 4,6–4,9%; hydrolyzing nitrogen – 5,4–6,8 mg/100 g of soil (according to Tiurin and Kononova); P2O5 in acetic extraction – 10,0–13,1 mg/100 g of soil (according to Chirikov); exchangable potassium – 17,1–20,0 mg/100 g of soil (according to Maslowa); the reaction of the soil solution is weak–acid, рН of salt extraction 6,3.
Weather terms during vegetation of both winter and early spring agricultural crops did not promote their normal growth and development. During September in 2011, less than one third of precipitations from an average perennial norm has been fallen, for that reason sowing of winter wheat passed at the scarce providing of soil moisture.
Efficiency of methods of basic cultivation was studied in 4-field cereal crop rotation spring vetch – winter wheat – soy – spring barley. Growing technology of these cultures in experiments met the requirements of the recommendations worked out for the Forest-Steppe zone, in all links except the mode that was studied.
Influence of the systems of basic cultivation on the agrophysical indexes of soil, as well as productivity of cereal crops were studied on the base of agricultural implements that substantially differ from the mechanisms of moving of the processed layer and the depth of minimization. Classic is mould board ploughing on a 20–22 cm, shallow disk on a 10–12 cm, mini till disk on a 8–10 cm with next application of the direct sowing aggregate, no-till is sowing in untilled soil.
On a background of the separate method of soil cultivation the side organic products of predecessor were ground down and evenly distributed on the surface of soil. Growing technology of grain crops on the basis of mini till and no–till included application of round-up herbicide with total-destructive action in amount of 4 l/ha in a postharvest period.
It was set in our experiments that among the factors of most substantial influence on forming of the cereal crop productivity, providing of agrocoenosis by moisture and hardness of soil were of most importance. At high correlative dependence of hardness of soil and its humidity these indexes, at the same time, most adequately characterize the role of basic soil cultivation as a biological environment for growth and development of cultures of crop rotation.
As researches showed at sufficient moistening of czernozem at the beginning of vegetation hardness kept within the critical limits on a background the different methods of basic soil cultivation in crops of spring vetch, winter wheat, spring barley and was depending on the layer of soil within the limits of 1,8–19,8 kg/сm2.
Thus, minimization of basic soil cultivation in a crop rotation spring vetch – winter wheat – soy – spring barley results in decline of supplies of productive moisture and compression of agrogenic layer of czernozem. By the fact technologies of growing of cereal crops on the basis of mini-till and no-till are accompanied by decline of grain productivity on 0,30–0,63 t/ha, comparatively with mould board ploughing // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 45–48.
|The history of establishing the sunflower in the crop rotations of Ukraine||Annotation|
The history of establishing the sunflower in the crop rotations of Ukraine
The aim of the study is finding out of prerequisites of introduction of crop rotations with the different satiation of sunflower on the basis of realization of historically-scientific analysis of evolution of knowledge from growing of sunflower in the crop rotations of agriculture of Ukraine.
It is set that crop rotations provide not only the increase of the productivity of oil-bearing cultures but also improve quality of the got products that is arrived at by the terms of the best defence of plants from pests and diseases, and also piling up in soil of corresponding to the necessities of agricultural cultures of amount and correlations of nutrients, on that the oil content of seed depends first of all.
Location of sunflower in a crop rotation is determined the also him by the special requirements to frequency of return into previous place of growing. Without satisfaction of these requirements it is impossible to get high and proof harvests, successfully to contest with weeds and illnesses. A sunflower in a crop rotation is sown not earlier than in 7–9. Conditioned it that more frequent return him over into former place of growing brings to piling up in soil of diseases – broomrape, sunflower downy mildew, cottony and bud rot, and also pests.
For the effective growing of sunflower the recommended effective crop rotations are both for the large specialized agrarian economies, where possible introduction of multicourse crop rotations is and for farms, where limitation of till of soil requires application of crop rotations with the small set of cultures and short period of rotary press.
At presence of seeded or complete fallow and application of fertilizers and facilities of defence of plants placing of winter crops is assumed not more than for two years consecutively in the same field. For increase the productivity and competitiveness of economies it is need to adhere the principle of crop rotation farming and periodicity of shift the agricultural crops, including sunflower // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 73–78.
|The influence of herbicide Trofi 90 on weed infestation and productivity of corn sowing||Annotation|
The influence of herbicide Trofi 90 on weed infestation and productivity of corn sowing
The experiments were laid out in the field and laboratory conditions of the Department of Biology of Uman National University of Horticulture in the plantations of maize (hybrid Harkivskyi 295 MV) during 2009–2011. Herbicides trophy 90 (1,5; 2,0; 2,5 and 3,0 l/ha) was applied before appearance seedlings of the crop. The experiment was repeated three times on podzolized, heavy loamy black soil (humus content – 3,3%). The preparations were sprayed with OHN–600 sprayer with the expenditure of working mixture 300 l/ha. The level of weeds and productivity of maize were determined according to the generally accepted methods.
The purpose of the research was to investigate the level of weeds and productivity of maize under the application of herbicide trophy 90.
It is found out that application of different norms of herbicide trophy 90 allows effectively controlling the level of weeds in sowing of maize, however the degree of decline of infestation depends of bringing norm of preparation. Except for it, in a variant with hand weeding complete cleanness of maize sowing from weeds was supported.
Most decline of amount and mass of weeds among the variants of experience with application of different norms of herbicide trophy 90 it is observed for bringing of greatest norm of preparation – 3,0 l/ha. Here amount of weeds reduced against control I on 95%, and their mass – on 91%.
Removal the overwhelming part of weeds from sowing of maize for the actions of hand weeding and herbicide of trophy 90 promoted the increasing of culture productivity.
Analysis productivity in middle of researches years discovered that the dependence increase of the productivity had been the same, as well as in the years of researches. Among all variants of experience the greatest increasing of maize grain was got in a variant with hand weeding – 1,2 t/ha, that exceeded control I on 20%. Application 1,5 and 2,0 l/ha of trophy 90 has a positive influence in a receipt according to 0,25 and 0,67 t/ha increase of maize grain of (accordingly on 4 and 11% exceeded control I).
Among the experience variants with application of different norms of herbicide trophy 90 the greatest increase of harvesting was observed at application 2,5 l/ha of preparation – 1,1 t/ha (on 18% more than control I), that did not almost yield to control II (on 0,1 t/ha below). The least increase of the productivity among all experience variants was observed for actions 3,0 l/ha of herbicide – 0,17 t/ha.
To sum up, experimental information enables to do the followings conclusions:
1. Application the different norms of herbicide trophy 90 has a positively influences on effectively controlling the level of weeds in sowing of maize. Among the experience variants with application of herbicide the most per cent of elimination of weeds is observed for actions 3,0 l/ha of preparation, however application this norm of herbicide has an inhibitory effect on the culture plants.
2. Elimination of weeds in maize sowing both at hand weeding and for application of herbicide has a positively influences on the increasing of harvest. The greatest increase is formed at permanent hand weeding and almost arrives of this level a variant with application 2,5 l/ha of herbicide // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 81–84.
|Impact of the basic soil tillage on soil physical properties at cultivation of soya||Annotation|
Impact of the basic soil tillage on soil physical properties at cultivation of soya
The results of research on the effect of basic soil tillage on soil physical properties at soybeans cultivation in conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine are presented. It is established that on the black typical soil the hardness of topsoil during the growing season was within the optimum ranges (1,02–1,20 g/cm3) independently of the basic soil tillage and changed during this period. Blade soil cultivation as compared with basic soil tillage increases the soil hardness as after the basic soil tillage well as before planting. To the period of soybeans harvesting independently of the basis soil tillage the soil hardness was on the same level 1,15–1,17 g/cm3.
The quantity of agronomical valuable aggregates varied from 72,6 to 76,0%. The largest quantity and the best structural-aggregate composition of the soil were provided with blade soil cultivation. The quantity of agronomical valuable aggregates in this variant was 76,0 %. The lowest values of this index 72,6 % were in the variant with ploughing. The coefficient of soil structure was smallest 2,7 at ploughing. The value of this index at surface soil tillage was 2,9. The ratio of agronomical valuable aggregates weight and total weight of the other fractions was the highest – 3,2 at blade soil cultivation.
Based on the previously noted, it is fair to say, that use of blade soil cultivation as basic soil tillage at soybeans cultivation provides the best structure and hardness of topsoil during the growing season, creating optimal conditions for plant growth and development // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 97–100.
|Information technologies in biogenic system of agriculture||Annotation|
Information technologies in biogenic system of agriculture
The goal of research is to find innovative technologies for topographically accurate soil-tillage under condition of mulch layer in aspect to the activation of biological agents in the agrarian sector. The scenario for agricultural sphere development, where degradation processes are completely eliminated in agrobiogeocenoses is being designed.
The article is based on the results of studies conducted in the field stationary with rotations and different levels of soil fertility, in stationary for a "no-till" treatment of soil, in micropolygon with mulch layer, in laboratory experiments. The solution of macro problems of modern agricultural sphere requires a transition of agriculture to the biogenic system. It is based on new resources, macrostructural changes, organizational and technological processes. Inevitable transition to new energy resources that are abundant in Ukraine is night-time electricity.
Organogenic renewable source of the future will be shrubs with considerable areas in the structure of seminatural agro-ecosystems, which will eliminate the water and wind land erosion which is rapidly destroyed, and with low fertility. The third basis is to create technology of continuous processing of animal waste (including humans), where chopped stems of shrubs as renewable energy and polysaccharides are used. The final product of compost bioreactors is biofertilizer used as fodder for different kinds of saprophages.
Electrification is cost effective for year-round, day-round use of this type of energy in technological processes. Electricity is used continuously for harvesting stem biomass of shrubs, its grinding on hauling to the compost bioreactors and biotechnical systems of growing different kinds saprophages as a supplementary feed for fish, birds, pigs, and humus formation. Thanks to electricity locally-end-vertical tine of tillage and decompression of soils in mulch layer and semi agroecosystems, bio-fertilizers are carried out in vertical drains are held removal and incorporation into the soil organic-soil briquette with seed crops during the non-vegetation period of the year. We discuss different directions activation of biogenic agents in the agrarian sector.
The transition to the technologies of continuous resumption of soil fertility and the formation of stable agrobiogeocenoses in conditions of mulch layer in boigenic system of agriculture is associated with information development and communication systems and program control of optimization functioning of the different levels organization the communities of living organisms // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 103–111.
|Water consumption of oats sowings depending on the predecessor and the level of mineral nutrition||Annotation|
Water consumption of oats sowings depending on the predecessor and the level of mineral nutrition
The purpose of research – selection of the best predecessor under oats and determine the optimal, most cost-appropriated, dose of mineral fertilizers for this crop. Researches were conducted from 2011 on Erastivs’ka experimental station of the Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone of NAAS accordingly to generally known methods. In the experiment oats sown after three predecessors – winter wheat , green maize and sunflower. Fertilizers made according to the scheme of the experiment: no fertilizer (control); N20P20K20 + reakom-GP-grain (seed treatment); N20P20K20 + reakom-GP-grain (seed treatment) + N30; N20P20K20 + reakom-GP-grain (seed treatment) + N30 + reakom-GP-grain (spraying plants in the tillering stage); N40P40K40 + reakom-GP-grain (seed treatment) + N30 + reakom-GP-grain (spraying plants in the tillering stage).
By the investigations was founded that under the influence of predecessors and backgrounds of mineral nutrition the oat plants in different ways used moisture. Thus, the total water consumption in oat crops from sowing to full grain maturity after winter wheat predecessor was 3233 m3/ha , corn – 3467 m3/ha, sunflower – 3314 m3/ha. Application of fertilizers contributes to less use of water to form a unit harvest. So, after winter wheat predecessor application N40P40K40 with seed treatment by micronutrient reakom-GP-grain and fertilizing plants in tillering phase of nitrogen (N30) and micronutrient intake of water by plants decreased to 235 m3/t, and after green maize and sunflower – at 123 and 134 m3/t.
Thus, in low-moisture Steppe zone of Ukraine particular importance is the accumulation, preservation and efficient use of stored moisture by plants. Positive impact on the level of productive moisture reserves marked at fertilization. The most economical water consumption were oats plants after winter wheat predecessor in making N40P40K40 and seed treatment by micronutrient reakom-GP-grain and fertilizing plants with nitrogen (N30) and micronutrient in tillering phase // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 127–131.
|The contents and distribution of microelements in corn plants in Steppe zone of Ukraine||Annotation|
The contents and distribution of microelements in corn plants in Steppe zone of Ukraine
The data of microelement structure of maize plants are generalized. To statistical processing given analytical contents of microelements (access for 25 years) stationary experiences which reflect the most widespread soil differences and characterize climatic features of northern Steppe. The purpose of researches – to assess microelement structure and features of their distribution in plants of corn, to determine constant and variables, variability of the maintenance (contents) of elements in basic and collateral production and his orientation.
Average values of concentration of microelements in a grain amount to: Zn –17,7; Mn – 3,85; Cu – 2,15; Co – 0,30; Ni – 0,82; Fe – 32,4; Cr – 0,49; Pb – 0,39; Cd – 0,017 mg/kg of dry substance. High variability of contents Mn, Cu, Co, Fe, Pb, Cd (V = 29,8-48,1%) is marked. Maine all contents Zn (V = varied 15,5%). Average indices of the contents of microelements in cormophyte weight of corn has values: Zn – 12,4; Mn – 25,7; Cu – 3,52; Co – 0,79; Fe – 101; Cr –1,94; Ni – 1,46; Pb – 1,12; Cd – 0,073 mg/kg of dry substance with the greater variability and high enough factors of a variation (V = 31,8–92,6%). The given parameters can be considered as background contents for corn plants of a Steppe zone.
The maximal values of biological absorption factor are marked for Zn (30,5) and Cu (11,1). Acted from ground Ni, Co, Pb, Mn, Fe (2,90–0,12) less intensively.
The estimation of empirical curves of microelements distribution in a grain allows to make a line of assumptions: symmetric character of distribution Zn, with probability of 99%, testifies that objective factors of soil – climatic conditions of Steppe zone, did not render authentic influence on its contents; positive dissymetric variational curves of distribution Mn, Cu, Co, Fe, Pb, Cd aside reduction of values it is possible to explain insufficient use by plants of potential opportunities under the relation of accumulation by a grain of these elements in conditions of Steppe zone // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 48–53.
|The main activators of molding and their phytotoxic action on sprouts and roots of spring barley seeds||Annotation|
The main activators of molding and their phytotoxic action on sprouts and roots of spring barley seeds
The description of specific structure of activators of seed molding at storage is insuf-ficiently stated in references. Specification, which meet in literature devoted to studying and the description of specific structure of causative agents of diseases which infect grain of spring barley in the field. In this regard we set a task of enhanced studying seed mycoflora of spring barley during its long storage and identification of phytotoxic action of mushrooms on seeds and sprouts.
Definitions of specific structure of activators of molding carried out in laboratory of plant protection of Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone of NAAN, by means of determinants of V. Bilai, M. Hokhryakov, V. Peresipkin.
After harvesting, on the average in three years, a prevalence of spring barley seeds presented to 30,1% and similarity of seeds put - 91,0%. The main activators are field mushrooms of Fusarium – 10,2%. Helminthosporium – 12,8%, Alternaria – 6,9%. As a result of researches it is revealed that the main activators of molding after harvesting of spring barley grain are field mushrooms: Fusarium, Helminthosporium, Alternaria, and at storage to a pathogenic complex mycoflora of grain weight are added mushrooms from the genus Penicillium and Aspergillus.
Growth of quantity of the infected seeds and reduction healthy happens during all period of storage. So at the end of storage the general prevalence increased on the average in three years of researches by 22,8%, compared with a prevalence of seeds at a dispatch for storage. Thus the quality of seeds too worsened. This is attested to by decreasing in germinating ability during the storage for 2,5%; at the end it was 88,5%.
During long term storage in grainery conditions raise a seed molding by mushroom infections of which is accompanied by decrease in germinating ability. One of factors which influence these processes is ability of activators of molding to form toxins.
Considering that isolates which suppress growth of sprouts and roots not less than for 30,0%, compared with control (the seeds moistened with distilled water), all studied mushrooms, except Alternaria alternata are considered as the toxic, suppressed development of sprouts – for 30,2–35,1%, and roots for 30,7–31,8%.
As a result of phytotoxic effect of cultural solutions of mushrooms considerable decrease in germinating ability of spring barley seeds – for 8,8–26,8% is noted. The most essential decrease was observed at application of cultural Aspergillus clavatus and Fusarium moniliforme solutions. It gives the chance to consider them the most dangerous and to pay to them special attention at determination of quality of a sowing material as they have high phytotoxic activity.
Thus, after the conducted researches it is established that spring barley grain is infected in the field by mushrooms from the genus Fusarium, Helminthosporium and Alternaria. With increase in term storage decreases quantity of healthy seeds, but the general level of prevalence a mushroom pathogen grows.
At definition of phytotoxic operation of molding activators it is established that all mushrooms which were studied, find phytotoxic action on seeds and sprouts of spring barley. It should be noted that defeat of seeds by mushrooms during storage, in particular Penicillium glandicola is especially dangerous // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 70–73.
|Тhe factors of spreading and limitation of mycoflora of winter wheat grain||Annotation|
Тhe factors of spreading and limitation of mycoflora of winter wheat grain
The phytotoxic threat for harvest of winter wheat pursues growth and development of the culture on all stages of organogenesis, and also during the period of its harvesting and biological rest. At the same time both damaged during a vegetation and healthy grain of winter wheat need careful phytosanitary monitoring, separation of the infected parts, urgent ventilation and cleaning, as well as determination of their suitability for food utilization and for seeds.
In order to provide scientific estimation of the reasons why winter wheat grain is affected by different genera and species of saprophyte fungi, to find out correlative connection of the infection degree of tissue and fabrics of grain with the terms of moistening, and to determine the effective methods of combatting plant diseases in 2008–2010 in the most endangered districts of the Dnepro-petrovsk area and on the research station "Dnipro", inspection, selection of the seed samples, authentication of fungi after genera and biotic consequences on forming of seed quality were conducted.
Among the diseases of grain caused by fungi with more manifested pathogenic characteristics (Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium spp.), black germ (2,6-21,5% of total amount) and sporadically fusariose of ear occurred. Grain on crops with late (in the phase of earing and flowering) treatment by fungicides was infected by diseases in a smaller degree.
Development of saprophyte microflora on grain of complete ripeness results in shortage of harvest, worsening of its technological qualities at processing and lowering of price of received grain production. It also increases charges on taking of grain to the accepted standards of quality, biochemical decomposition of the infected grain, even at the short-term increase of its humidity in the conditions of transporting and storage. To reduce the negative impacts of infecting grain with diseases, its well-timed harvesting, its accelerated cleaning and drying to 13% humidity, as also its correct storage, advanced seed treatment, sowing after the best predecessors, careful preparation of a seminal bed, and applying of sufficient amount of fertilizers are recommend. Measures on increase of viability of plants, limitation of their damage by pests and infections by other diseases during vegetation helps to prevent the accumulation of infections of grain diseases // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 85–88.
|Resistance of corn hybrids to lepidopteran pests.||Annotation|
Resistance of corn hybrids to lepidopteran pests.
In integrated pest suppression the most radical method is growing of varieties and hybrids which resistant to the pests and diseases. Researches were conducted in the educational-scientifically production complex Lugansk NAU «Kolos», which functions in north east Steppe of Ukraine. The purpose of our researches was to study of resistance of corn hybrids to pests. Work was conducted under the guidance of doctor of biological sciences, professor, academician of NAAS Ukraine, honoured worker of science and technology of Ukraine, president of Ukrainian society of entomologist Fedorenko V. P.
Altogether 39 hybrids were studied. In 2011 from thirty hybrids twelve were excluded from a subsequent study, in 2012 nine included additionally. Small distribution of European corn borer – Ostrinia nubilalis of Hb. (on the average 1,3%) did not allow to differentiate hybrids on resistance to the pest. At the same time, considerable damage of Cotton bollworm – Heliсoverpa armigera Hb. allowed to find out hybrids of different resistance.
Thus, most hybrids appeared not resistant to phytophagan – 53,8% hybrids which were studied, 28,2% it is attributed to mid resistant and only 18% – to resistant// Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 132–134.
|Features of use of different raw materials by production of biogas||Annotation|
Features of use of different raw materials by production of biogas
Experimentalstudiesconductedin the laboratoryof effectivetechnologies forlivestock of Institute of Agriculture of Steppe zone of Ukraine of NAAS in2011–2012.
The aim ofresearchwas the developmentofalternative sources ofenergyconversionfor autonomousenergy supplyprocesseson farmsof different sizesand directions ofproduction.
In thefermentationof raw materials,components of whichare: green mass ofcorn,cattle manure, observed fluctuations inpH within 5,28-7,36with somegrowthduringexperiment.
Found thatthe process offermentation of20 kgof biomassefficientlyheldin the firstandthe thirdbiogas generatormethane tankswhereraw materialsconsisted of3/4shareof green massof cornand 1/4 share ofpig and cattle manure, respectively. Theirperformancewas higherthanthe second (1/2 share ofgreen mass of cornand 1/2 – pig manure) and fourth(1/2share ofgreen mass of cornand 1/2 – cattle manure) methane tank to the firstoneat 33,7 and39,4% and the third –by 31,8and37,3%.
The calculationsassumedthat thebiogasderived frommanure processingbothspeciesmethane contentis 65%, energy value of1 m3 ofbiogas– 2kWof electricity and3kW of heatusing electricityitselfBGEPthe processing of20, 40and 80tons ofcattlemanurelivestockis respectively80,160 and500kW, andpigs –60,120,and 400kW.
Thus, biogasfrom organic wasteto farmsof different sizesand directionsof specialization iseconomically feasibleandenables to providethe energy needs ofthe economyand profit fromprocessinginto biogas1ton ofpig and cattlemanurein the amount119–137thous. UAH.
The greatestefficiencyin the production ofrawbiogasnotes, consisting of 3/4green mass of cornand 1/4 – pig and cattle manure, respectively // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 143–146.
|Feeding and meat quality of pigs of different breeding herds in the control station of the Institute of fattening pigs and APP of NAAS of Ukraine.||Annotation|
Feeding and meat quality of pigs of different breeding herds in the control station of the Institute of fattening pigs and APP of NAAS of Ukraine.
Study of quantitative traits that characterizes the feeding and meat quality of growing pigs of different genotypes and breeding herds have shown that animals breed Landrace (LLC "Agroprime Holding" Odessa region) were superior to their peers and Mirgorod large white rocks on average daily weight gain of 4,8 (P <0,01) and 8,7% (P<0,05), reaching the age of live weight 100 kg – 6,2 (P<0,001) and 5,6% (P<0,01) cost of feed per 1 kg of body weight – 9,3 (P<0,001) and 14,0% (P<0,01). The difference in the length of the chilled carcasses and backfat thickness of 6–7 thoracic vertebra was 3,4 (P<0,001) and 3,1% (P<0,001) 20,2 (P <0,001) and 31,5% (P<0,001), respectively.
The definite effect of genotype on the levels of certain characteristics: large white rock on – on reaching the age of live weight (35,1%, P<0,01), (86,1%, P<0,001) and backfat thickness (57,9%, P<0,001) on Mirgorod breed – the length of the chilled carcasses (46,2%, P<0,01) and backfat thickness (59,4%, P<0,001). By the number of boars with a positive selection index 36,4% were large white breed animals, 50,0% – Landrace breed and 33,3% – Mirgorod breed.
Thus, research findings suggest that the assessment of the results of the control boar fattening – the most effective method of improving feeding and meat quality of pigs. Its effectiveness depends on the amount of the estimated breeding boars and the accuracy of the estimate itself // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 146–152.
|Features of forming of feed conduct in a pair «cow-calf»||Annotation|
Features of forming of feed conduct in a pair «cow-calf»
Studies were conductedon an arrayUkrainianmeat breedof cattle(cows+calves, n=20+20) belonging to "Polyvanivka" Mahdalynivka district of Dnipropetrovs’k region. Purpose – toexaminethe behaviour ofcowsmothers anddepending onethologicaland productivecharacteristicsof calves.
Found thatmost of the timecowsspentfeedingaction.Thus,functional activity(T)for forageisof0,6399±0,01406includingeatingfood0,3660±0,01767andgum– 0,2461±0,01156.In thecomfortof, rest and movinganimalsspendfrom 88to 175min.or10,4–20%.Note thatphysical activitywas raisedcowsin the morningand evening.
Bull sucking periodmost of the timespent onmotor andBrakeaction.In2 or 3months of agecalvespositivecorrelativerelationship betweenfeedingbehavior ofcowsand theircalvesis not set(r=-0,170).
The live weight ofcowswas579±12,2 kgreceivedcalvesat birthhada lot of25,1±0,77,and at excommunicating – 194,6±2,14 kg.Average dailygainfor sucking period were, respectively – 0,940±0,011 g.
Analysing theimpactbehaviour ofcalveson their developmentfounda positive correlation betweentime spent on: eatingconcentrated feed×increments: 0,517(P>0,95), use of water×increments: +0,284, ×incrementsofmovement: +0,270, gumlying×gain: +0,155.
In totalphenotypicvariability oftime spent oneatingroughage andmovementofyoungUkrainianmeat breed65% and64% ofthe variabilitydue tothe influence ofgroup behaviourin a couple of"cow-calf" and only 35%and 36% –paratypeinfluencefactors.
To improve theperformance ofbeefanimalsis desirable toselectyoungstersfor furtherdilutionof thevalue of the coefficientof functional activitywhen feeding onconcentrated feed– notbelow T=0,0505±0,00311 (r=0,517)andmotoraction –not more thanT=0,0669±0,00383 (r=0,270) // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 152–155.
|System influence of natural stabilizing selection on pheno- and genotypes of imported Holstein.||Annotation|
System influence of natural stabilizing selection on pheno- and genotypes of imported Holstein.
Studies were conducted correspondingly of mini-herd cows of Holstein breed in Agro-firm «Privat-agro» (the former agricultural company «Scientific») of Dnipropetrovs’k region. The aim of the research – to develop the ways of further use of modern descendants of imported cows of Holstein breed of different pheno- and genotypes on the basis of natural stabilizing selection in the steppe zone of Ukraine. Microevolutionalchanges in body weight, exterior, interior, milk output ratio signs of the pheno- and genotypes studied in animals, depending on the classification of the normalized distribution.
The effectiveness of screening and selection of pairs of parents, investigated within pheno- and genotypes which are preserved in animals in the new region. During the research it was set that negative changes in the ratio of Holstein mini herds of various classes of the normalized distribution by type of constitution under the influence of natural stabilizing selection were hidden installation in the direction of increasing the adaptability of cows modal classes, elimination of animals Mˉ, M+, strengthening narrowly bodies, density and tenderness of the constitution, decrease body weight, quality indicators and the level of productivity of dairy cows.
The transformation of energy feed ration in the protein of milk in cows of different classes of the normalized distribution depended on the type of the constitution of these animals. The most economical this process was in animals that belonged to the modal class. Installed a statistically significant difference between cows with extreme types, constitution Mˉ and M+ variants of the normalized distribution of indicators of milk quality composition. In study the composition of genotypes of the firstborn in the mini-herd found that 26 genotypes ten years from among the descendants of these cows there was only 7 genotypes, and the 19 – elimination. In connection with the negative influence of factors of stabilizing selection in some part of the cows of the same genotypes significant reduction felt the valence of the breast and the yield of milk per lactation as a result of adequate reaction of the organism on environment, feeding and comfort of the region.
Restore lost during microevolution Holstein level of milking is a very complicated process, which, along with significant improvements in the conditions of growing, feeding and comfortable housing of animals, requires slow (2–3%) of genetic progress of improvement in every generation the growth in the milk lactation and optimization of selection of pairs of parents within the genotypes have been preserved. Further negative microevolutional (adaptation) changes in the ratio of animal mini-herds of various classes of the normalized distribution by type of constitution are aimed towards increase of fitness of animals modal classes, with a particular interest for future selection, elimination of animals Mˉ, M+, some of elimination M0 variants and strengthening narrowly bodies, density and tenderness of the constitution, decrease body weight, quality and the level of productivity of dairy cows, which requires the elimination of appropriate breeding techniques // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 156–162.
|Signs of early ontogenesis repair in pigs and their further productivity depending on the class of distribution of sowmothers on the index of BLUP.||Annotation|
Signs of early ontogenesis repair in pigs and their further productivity depending on the class of distribution of sowmothers on the index of BLUP.
Researches are conducted in LTD. «AF «Dzerzhynets’» of the Dnepropetrovsk region.
Investigated the performance of gilts own productivity of large white breed, verifiable evidence of reproductive ability of sows, as well as the efficiency of selection of animals in the herd on the main index BLUP breeding females mothers.
Index BLUP repair gilts and sows, maternal equal to 87,0±2,82 and 98,6±1,67 points respectively. Calculation of the correlation coefficient between pairs of attributes "index sows BLUP-mothers – weight jacks on the date of weaning sows-daughter" and "sow-BLUP index mothers – the index of the reproductive capacity of sows-daughter" is 0,552 (tr=79,39; P>0,999) and 0,496 (tr=765,78; P>0,999).
Index BLUP gilts and sows, mothers stood at 87,0±2,82 and 98,6±1,67 points, respectively. Calculations of the correlation coefficient between pairs of signs "index BLUP breeding females mothers – weight of the nest on the date of weaning sows-daughter" and "index BLUP breeding females mothers – the index of the reproductive ability of the sow-daughter" of 0,552 (tr=79,39, P>0,999) and 0,496 (tr=765,78; P>0,999).
Found that in terms of repair pigs own productivity by age reaching a live weight of 100 kg, body length, backfat thickness show that they meet the requirements for animal bacon productive direction.
In terms of reproductive capacity of more high-production daughter sows are obtained from sows M-class mothers with BLUP index in the range of 110,5 to 149,4 points. Their twins, indices and evenness of the nest and IVG, the weight of the nest on the date of weaning and the index of the reproductive capacity of sows: 11,3 piglets at farrowing 1, 13,13 and 5,52 points, 79,3 kg (calculated on a 60-day age – 198,2 kg) and 38,7 points, respectively.
In order to speed up the breeding process and the establishment of populations of pigs with high levels of production believe it is necessary to use the method of evaluation index and method of assessing the breeding value of the animals by the method of BLUP. Proof of this is the calculation of the correlation coefficient between the index BLUP breeding females mothers, the index of reproductive ability and the weight of the nest on the date of weaning sows-daughters – 0,496 and 0,552 with a probability P>0,999 // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 162–168.
|Norms and feeding rations of dryingoff cows and their improvement||Annotation|
Norms and feeding rations of dryingoff cows and their improvement
The chemical composition and nutritive 22-typical of the steppe zone of green, bulky and concentrated feed to view the content of structural carbohydrates and protein of different fractions. Found that the solid content, protein, energy and nutritive feed varies widely, and essentially differs from the reference data.
During the summer, the cows consumed an average of 62 kg/day of green mass on the head, which was 16,3 kg of dry matter (DM), 164,45 MJ ME and 2195 g of crude protein at a concentration of energy 10,1 MJ/kg DM, crude protein – 138,4 g/kg DM. In the analysis of the diet compliance with current regulations established that he was not fully balanced, especially minerals. Thus, shortages of more than 50% of phosphorus, copper, zinc and manganese and vitamin D and at the same time have a surplus of energy, protein, and iron. When feeding the specified diet for the duration of the dry period 62,4±3,42 days condition cows (on a 5-point scale) remained relatively high (3,83±0,159 points at the beginning of the period, 3,8±0,145 in the middle and 3,81±0,165 points at the end of the period P>0,05). Much of the cows (15–18%) had a body condition score 4,0–4,3. The live weight of cows with increased from 646,5±3,24 to 722,9±14,77 kg, due to the growth of the fetus and associated structures and deposition of body fat cows.
In winter, when used in the feeding of corn silage, alfalfa hay and cereal, cereal concentrates and sunflower oil cake cows consumed per day 15,7 kg of dry matter, 159,3 MJ ME and 1605 g of crude protein. Climate cows with slightly worse (3,82±0,363 points in the beginning of the period, 3,66±0,651 and the middle 3,72±0,173 points at the end of the period, P>0,05). The live weight of cows grew mainly due to the growth of the fetus.
When calculating the needs of cows factorial method to support the body and the fetus found that energy demand in the early dry period amounted to 72,07 MJ in the middle – 79,93 MJ, at the end of the period – 96,75 MJ. On average, the dry period energy requirements for maintenance of the cow's body and the fetus were 82,92 MJ. The protein requirements in the periods of pregnancy were 856, 966 and 1185 g, 1002 g on average for the period. That is, the actual energy consumption of the cows was significantly more protein on needs
|Use of methods of index estimation for determining the tribal operational value of the animals||Annotation|
Use of methods of index estimation for determining the tribal operational value of the animals
Index estimation methods pigs contribute to increase the accuracy and allowed to be excluded from the selection process of animals with undesirable for the economy and the industry's productivity level combination of characters.
The experiments were conducted in reproducers large white pigs "Victory" Tomakivs’kyi district. The farm has been evaluated by the quality of their offspring boars Solonians’kyi breeding enterprise. It was found that in assessing manufacturers on all livestock feeding quality of boars were divided into four different groups: first – 2 score (20%), the second – 5 goal (50%), the third – 2 score (30%), the fourth – 1 goal (10%). The producers of the first group had a mean score 3.0 bonitation at the value index 0,171–0,165, respectively, the second – 2,5 (0,153–0,147), third – 2,0 (0,144–0,142), fourth – 1,0 (0,125). Found that the method of evaluation index productivity features a factor of 2 rather than according to the requirements of "User bonitation pigs, 2003." In turn, this assessment allows the breeder farms to minimize errors in selecting young animals for further breeding of the fathers evaluated the quality of offspring. It is also proved that one of the tricks of the index evaluation of carcasses "T-Factor" to fully disclose the commercial potential of the carcass in terms of length and thickness of the back fat levels.
Feeding of animals appropriate to determine the quality of the evaluation indexes for (Mazaraki, 1966), which allows farms in different ownership forms most accurately determine the breeding value of young boars and cull from the best animals for further breeding. Use in the reproduction of cattle rearing received from their fathers, estimated using an index methodology, accelerate the establishment of the herd with the most successful sectors of the economy for signs of union productivity, and in turn increases the profitability of the industry // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 173–177.
|Comparison characteristics of antibacterial activity of some ftorhinolon preparations||Annotation|
Comparison characteristics of antibacterial activity of some ftorhinolon preparations
Analyzedandsummarizedthe results of monitoringthe infectious diseasesinpoultry farmsin Dnipropetrovsk, Cherkasy, Mykolayiv,Poltava regions, carried out the experimentalstudies on determination thesensitivity ofbacterialculturesto someftorhinolonpreparations used inpoultryfarmsto prevent and treatbacterial infections.
keywords:antibacterialactivity, ftorhinolonpreparations, testingculture, resistance, susceptibility // Bul. of In-te of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the NAAS of Ukraine. – № 4. – P. 177–179.