Grain Crops.-2018.-Vol. 2.-№ 1
|Characteristics of test-crosses ofripening lines corn of plasma Iodentin the conditions of the northern zone of the Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Characteristics of test-crosses ofripening lines corn of plasma Iodentin the conditions of the northern zone of the Steppe of Ukraine
Dziubetskyi B. V., Abelmasov O. V. Grain Crops, 2018, 1 (1). 5–13.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
World maize selection (Zea mays L.) ismainlybasedontheuseofrelatedlinesofvariousgeneticplasmas – Lancaster, Reid, Iodent, andothers. They are created mainly on the basis of special hybrid combinations obtained when crossing the best elite lines.A small quantity of such lines still allows you to synthesize a large quantity of different hybrid structures that react differently to self-pollination.At the same time, further progress in heterosexual selection is ensured by constant improvement of known basic models based on alternative groups of lines.
The characterization and evaluation of test-crosses, while comparing them with the best standards, is a very important link in the selection of a new source material and the improvement of the early-season lines associated with the genetic plasma of Iodent.It also allows you to set the correct direction of selection of the source material for a more effective result.
Assessment and selection on a complex of economic-valuable signs of test-crosses of ripening constant lines (DK555, DK714/195, DK744, DK237, DK216, DK234, DK213, DK1274) of plasma Iodent concerning their adaptation to the conditions of the zone Steppe of Ukraine.
The research was carried out in the experimental farm "Dnipro" of the R&D Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine in 2013–2015. The source material was 8 early-season lines of the plasma Iodent: DK555,DK714/195,DK744,DK237, DK216, DK234, DK213 andDK1274.To determine their combination ability, 4 lines were used: testers of different genoplasms: DK247 (Mixed), DK296 (Lancaster), DK272 (BSSS х Laukon), DK951 (BSSS).The standards for testing the test-crosses were hybrids: early-season – Dniprovsky 181SV, Middle-season – Orzhitsa 237MV and Medieval – Soloniansky 298SV.
In our research, the test-cross hybrids of constant lines differed significantly in terms of the average population yield of grain over the years. In particular, the grain yield in them varied from 5,72 to 7,34 t/ha at harvest moisture from 11,2 to 21,1%, depending on water supply. In 2013 it was 1,62 t/ha higher than in 2014 and by 0,94 t/ha compared to 2015.At the same time, test-crosses in 2013 on average exceeded the standards of the early-season Dniprovsky 181 SV at 1,19 t/ha and the mid-season standard Orzhitsa 237 MV at 0,18 t/ha, but yielded the medium-season hybrid Soloniansky 298 SV at 1,25 t/ha.In 2014 and 2015 all the test crops slightly exceeded the standard yield of the Dniprovsky 181 SV standard, but yielded to the other two. Regarding the length of the ladder period – the flowering of 50% of the cobblestones, then the test-crosses lines studied on the average for 2013–2015, then it averaged 54,6 days, with fluctuations from 50 to 57 days. This indicator in the standards of hybrids Dniprovsky 181SV, Orzhitsa 237 MV and Soloniansky 298 SV was 53,7; 54,3; 56,4 days, respectively.Testcroses were selected in which the length of the period of the staircase – the flowering of 50% of male and female inflorescences was 1–7 days less than in the early-seasonDniprovsky 181 SV. Among them: DK555 х DK247, DK714/195 х DK296 and DK555 х DK272 which in average for the years of research it was 54; 51,8 and 55 days, respectively. In years the course of our studies, the weather conditions were very constrictive for moisture, so it was possible to observe a significant variation in the height of plants in the test-crosses of constant lines.It's minimum average population (228,2 cm) was noted in 2013, and the maximum (275,0 cm) in 2015, which was close to the standards. The average height of attachment in 2013 they made 83,4 cm. Limits of the studied feature of test-crosses varied from 71,0 to 103,5 cm.The test-crosses on average were at the level with the standard of Dneprovsky 181 SV and they were inferior to the Orzhitsa 237 MV hybrids and the Soloniansky 298 SV hybrid by 3,2and 15,2%, respectively.
The results to the research in the 2013–2015, the reaction to the weather conditions of test-crosses of constant lines was studied, which allowed to reveal the peculiarities of the manifestation of their yield potential and indicators of economic-valuable signs. Highlight test-crosses DK1274 х DK951, DK 1274 х DK 296, exceeded the yield of grain, respectively, by 0,30 and 0,82 t/ha than the medium-season hybrid standard Soloniansky 298SV and indicators of economic-value characteristics at the level or better than standards.
Key words: maize, constant line, germplasmIodent, test-crosse, yield of grain, correlation.
|Sorgo collection: formation, stady and use of genofond examples||Annotation|
Sorgo collection: formation, stady and use of genofond examples
UDК 633.174:631 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0002
Baisa I. P. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1). 14–21.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The basis of any selection process is the availability of a source material with a wide genotypic variability along the main economic-valuable traits. In this regard, the mobilization of the genetic diversity of the original forms is the first and very important stage in the development of varieties. The formation and effective use of collections of cultivated plants is of great importance for the implementation of scientific, breeding, training and other programs.
The goal of the work is a comprehensive study, conservation of genetic diversity of sorghum, enrichment of the gene pool with the raw material and its effective use in the selection process.
At this stage of work in the Sorghum Breeding Laboratory of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, a basic collection of sorghum, numbering 591 samples, including grain sorghum – 347, sweet sorghum – 127, broomcorn – 29, sudan grass – 88.
Most of the collection is made up of selection varieties, much smaller – breeding lines, insignifi-cant – synthetic populations and local varieties.
Сollection samples have a fairly wide range of origin and represent 34 countries around the world. Most of all in the collection of samples from Ukraine – 303, among them a significant part of their own selection. The collection also includes samples from China – 68, the USA – 44, Russia – 40, Hungary – 25.
France– 13. In a smaller number are samples from India– 9, Argentina and Sudan – 7, Turkmenistan – 6, Vietnam – 4. In addition, the collection has several samples from 22 other countries, including Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Switzerland, Denmark, Greece. Mongolia, Palestine, Turkey, Australia and others.
During 2011–2015 years in the laboratory of sorghum breeding, the samples of the available sorghum gene pool were studied, systematization and description of collection samples according to international catalogs, identification of sources and donors of valuable economic features, identification of variability of quantitative traits, formation of a collections of grain sorghum and sugar sorghum in accordance with the vegetation period.
According to the data of phenological observations, the sorghum collection material, which was in the study, is divided into maturation groups. In addition, biometric measurements of the main quantitative characteristics were carried out: the height of the plants, the size of the panicle and the third on top of the sheet, the thickness of the main stem, the number of leaves on it, the number of stems per plant and others.
Based on the results of the study, 39 sources of valuable economic characteristics were identified among the collection samples of grain sorghum. Namely: coarse-grained (9), high productivity (9), rapid return of moisture during ripening of grain (9), increased rate of initial growth (4). Among the early-maturing forms, donors were identified for the selection of grain sorghum for precocity (8). In addition, among the samples of grain sorghum, those with the highest yield (6) were identified.
Among the collection samples of sweet sorghum isolated samples with a consistently high content of sugars in the juice (18–21%) and are sources of this feature (8).
Among the collection samples of broomcorn, sources of early ripeness (2), short stature (2), and thin-stalkedness (3) were identified.
Among the collection samples of sudan grass, specimens distinguished by thin-stalkedness (8), intensive initial growth (2), and seed productivity (4) have been isolated. And they are sources of these characteristics.
All samples of the collection are certified and 93% of varieties are stored in the National Storage for long-term storage. The National Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine registered 3 samples of grain and 3 samples sweet sorghum, which are characterized by different characteristics parameters, 4 more samples of sorghum are submitted for registration. Formated and presented for registration of the collection of grain sorghum and sweet sorghum according to the vegetation period.
Samples of the sorghum collection, evaluated by a set of economic and biological characteristics, are a valuable source for the creation of new hybrids and varieties of sorghum and are actively used in the selection process.
Key words: sorghum, gene pool, collection samples, sign, sourc.
|New flint lines of corn||Annotation|
New flint lines of corn
UDK 633.15:631.52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0003
Bielikov Ye. I., Kuprichenkova T. G. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1). 22–28.
SEinstitute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
Semi-dent hybrid of corn is the most versatile, since yields are not inferior to hybrid of dent corn and are widely
The main objective of our research was to create and comprehensively evaluate new flint corn lines as parent
components for the selection of semi-dent hybrids.
The starting material for the research was selected 9 new flint lines of corn, created by the standard method
based on the semi-dent hybrid IK 124-1 x IKC 217-342-1. Experiments were carried out at Synelnikovska
breeding and research station of the SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine during 2015–2017 years.
It is known from literary sources that the corn endosperm consistency is inherited by the additive-dominant
system, therefore, after 3 self-pollination the flint type of grain had 18.4% of the S3 families, and after 6
self-pollination in S6– 24.0%. Subsequently, among the families of S6 were selected 9 flint lines, which fertility
reducer of S-type cms.
As a result of the conducted research it was established that the manifestation of the main agrobiological
features in most lines was within the initial forms. The length of the "germination of plant – flowering" period
in the ILK 124/217-39 line was significantly lower than the parent components, the number of kernels
on the ear in the ILK 124/217-32 line, the mass of 1000 kernels in ILK 124/217-39, ILK 124/217-37 and
the pant productivity in the ILK 124/217-32 line. The plant height in the line ILK 124/217-32 was significantly
higher than the initial forms; height of fastening of the ears in the lines ILK 124/217-1, ILK 124/217-2,
ILK 124/217-6, ILK 124/217-14, ILK 124/217-16, ILK 124/217-21, ILK 124/217-32; the number
of rows of kernels in the line ILK 124/217-37; number of grains on the ears in the line ILK124/217-37;
the weight of 1000 kernels in lines ILK 124/217-6, ILK 124/217-32, ILK 124/217-1, ILK 124/217-14,
ILK 124/217-21, ILK 124/217-16 and ILK 124/217-2. The ILK 124/217-1, ILK 124/217-37 and
ILK 124/217-14 lines were the best for a set of valuable traits. They are recommended for the selection of
hybrids of maize according to the heterosis model (Iodent S x Iodent FS) x Co 125/Lancaster RS.
Key words: corn, selection, initial forms, siliceous line, heterosis model, heterosis group, agrobiological signs.
|Biological life of seeds and economic suitability of grain crops, depending on the peculiarities of its treatment and storage||Annotation|
Biological life of seeds and economic suitability of grain crops, depending on the peculiarities of its treatment and storage
UDC 631.364.6 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0004
Kirpa N.Ya., Bazileva Yu. S.,Loy O. Yu. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1). 29–37. SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The organization of seed production of any culture is closely connected with the establishment of proper storage of seed. The smallest period of time is allocated for storage of the seeds of the current year of use, in particular winter crops – wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale),
etc. In such a short period of time, the seeds do not even have time to pass the stage of post-harvest ripening, especially, if you collect it wet and in low temperature. Post-harvest maturation can be accelerated by drying, active ventilation, pre-sowing heating.
The aim of the research is to find out what the biological durability and economic suitability of the seeds is and to establish ways to extend the shelf life of the grain by the example of corn.
Various storage regimes of the cereal masses were established by analysis, in the dry state, cooled and by the method of sealing. In the experiments, the features of the effect of moisture, temperature and oxygen content in the grain mass on the germination were elucidated. We considered two methods of storing seeds: in paper bags – under conditions of free moisture-gas exchange with the environment and polyethylene – under conditions of limited moisture-gas exchange.
Analysis of the results of studies showed that the longevity of seeds depends on a complex of biotic and abiotic factors, the main ones being: moisture and temperature of the grain, access to oxygen, the level of damage to the grain mass by microflora during storage. Depending on the combination of these factors, the shelf life of the seeds is significantly extended or, conversely, markedly reduced. In addition to the main factors, the biological properties and physiological characteristics of the crop, the conditions for growing it, the timing of the onset of full ripeness, and the technology of post-harvest processing influence the seeds' longevity.
In the course of our studies, it was found that, when stored in the cooling regime, seed germination remained practically unchanged, but the dynamics of germination underwent noticeable changes (Table 5). For example, at a temperature of 8–10 and 3–5 °C, the seeds germinated, reaching the conditioned values (germination not lower than 92%) already on day 4, and the maximum – on day 7. When stored at low temperatures (-1 – -3 °C), the dynamics of seed germination slowed down: germination on day 4 was 83–92%, and at 7 – 89–95%. In this case, seeds with lower moisture values were more stable when stored at low temperatures.
In addition to studying the influence of the main factors – moisture, temperature and storage methods, we also investigated the effect of grain size on the storage time. On the example of winter wheat and corn, it is established that large seeds, with a larger mass of 1000 grains, are more stable and do not lose high germination for a long time.
Other technical and technological factors that cause active respiration, aging and rapid loss of germination are also traumas in the stages of harvesting and post-harvest seed treatment, the content of impurities in the grain mass, infection with diseases, the degree of primary germination, and the like.
In order to mitigate the negative impact of the above-mentioned technical and technological factors in industrial seed production, as a rule, chemical treatment and dressing of seeds with various preparations is used. Chemical treatment of maize seeds can be carried out in advance, during post-harvest processing. But recently, due to the unstable realization, the seeds are dressed just before sowing. Therefore, in order to study the effect of etching, we considered the following options: first – storage and seeding of NOT etched seeds; the second is the dressing and storage of seeds; the third is the storage and dressing of seeds before sowing. During storage and sowing of NOT etched seeds (the first variant), the field germination and yield of maize hybrids decreased significantly. In the case of seed dressing and storage for a long time, its laboratory germination somewhat decreases due to the toxic effects of the preparations on the fetus. It was revealed that in the third variant the field germination of seeds increased by 3–8%, and the yield by 0.24–0.95 t/ha (4.1–19.4%) compared to the second one, where the seeds were stored with etched seeds.
Based on the results of the research, factors that significantly affect the biological durability and economic suitability of seeds are established. On the type of storage technology (GOST 2240-93), the period of the economic life of the seed is nearly 3 years, the biological durability – 15 years or more, depending on the biological properties of cultural, technical and technological factors of its cultivation, harvesting and postharvest processing of seeds. To prolong recommended based on the following factors shelf life of the seeds of maize: grain moisture 9–10%, the temperature is 3–10 °C, storage in a sealed condition, moisture limited gas exchange. If these conditions are met, the seeds do not lose their conditioning germination (at least 92%) for 4–5 years or more. To determine the germination of seeds that were stored at a low temperature (-1– -3 °C), the germination period should be increased to 10 days.
Key words: seeds of grain crops, long-term storage, biological durability, economic suitability, longevity factors.
|Influence of ground herbicides proponet for easy nutrition of family compounds of hybrides of corn||Annotation|
Influence of ground herbicides proponet for easy nutrition of family compounds of hybrides of corn
UDC 633.15: 632.954 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0005
Kravets S. S., Aldoshin A. V., Lyashenko N.O., Bernatsky M. M. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 38–43.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str.,Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The specific reaction of seeds of parent components of maize hybrids, different on a genetic basis, on doses of soil herbicide is proposed. Specific doses that can be applied to each of the parent components studied were determined.
Studies aimed at identifying the selective action of herbicides have proven that within the same species there are representatives with different herbicide resistance. Data on different varietal reactions of maize on herbicides have been confirmed in the works of many scientists.
Lack of recommendations for the application of herbicides, in the cultivation of parent components, often leads to an uncontrolled decline in the yield of seeds due to the adverse effects of herbicides on corn plants, and sometimes even until complete culling of seed crops.
The results obtained by us testify to the presence of significant influence of weather conditions on the system "corn plant – herbicide Proponit". The maximum dose of this drug (3.0 l / ha) is characterized by a more negative effect on the similarity of the seeds of parent components of maize hybrids than the minimum (2.0 l/ha). The presence of different reactions of maize genotypes to propionate herbicide was established. The most vulnerable to the action of the herbicide was a subspecies of sugarcorns.
According to the revealed features of herbicide Proponit we recommend the use of this drug in the seed in the areas of reproduction and hybridization of maize as follows:
1. In the cultivation of parent components of the maize hybrids included in the first group (DK232MV, DK 296S sterile, Cross 253S sterile, DK 272C sterile, DK239MV, etc.), whose seeds did not decrease or did not significantly reduce the similarity under the influence of the minimum, and the maximum dose of Proponit, apply from 2.0 to 3.0 liters per hectare, depending on the degree of perturbing sowing.
2. In the cultivation of parent components included in the second group (DK744SVZM, Cross 239M sterile, DK233MVSV, Cross 267 Steril, DK253ZSZM, etc.), whose seeds did not reduce the similarity under the influence of the minimum dose of Proponit and significantly reduced the similarity under the influence of the maximum dose, apply 2.0 l / ha.
3. In the cultivation of parent components of the hybrids of maize, included in the third group (DK 2 / 427zS, DK 247MV, DK 411M sterile, DK 6496 with M, SV, DK 257zM, SV, etc.), whose seeds significantly reduced the similarity, as under by the influence of the minimum and maximum dose of the drug, use herbicide Proponit is not recommended.
Key words: parent component, self-pollinated line, hybrid, herbicide Proponit, dose of introduction, field similarity.
|Agrotechnical measures for increasing the cropyield of sunflower in conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Agrotechnical measures for increasing the cropyield of sunflower in conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.854.78:631.5(251.1:477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0006
Tkalich I. D., Gyrka A. D., Bochevar O. V., Tkalich Yu. I. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 44–52.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
DniproState Agrarian-economic University, 25 Serhii Efremov str,Dniprо, 49027, Ukraine
The article presents the results of research on sunflower growing technology in the Steppe of Ukraine. The influence of crop rotation supply withsunflower and the period of its return to the previous place are shown. The time and methodsof sowing, the density of sunflower plantingand the crop yield of recommended hybrids are investigated. The timeand rateof fertilizer application, physiologically active substances, biological preparations and pesticides are optimized.
In Ukraine, sunflower is the main oilseed crop, which is cultivated on an area of about 5 million hectares. The gross output of sunflower seeds is 9–11 million tons, and crop yields in recent years reached 1,65–2,15 tons/ha. Further increase of the gross output of sunflower seeds should take place without sacrificing the sowingareas, but increasing the crop yields. There are many reserves for a successful solution to this problem. This is confirmed by the best agricultural farms in Ukraine, where the crop yield of sunflower seeds is more than 3,0 t/ha.
Field experiments were carried out at the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS during 2008–2015. The soil of the test plotswas ordinary, heavy-loamychernozem. The humus content is 4,0–4,2%.
By the results of researcheswere established, that among the hybrids of domestic selection,the high rating deserve: Limit, Charodii, Basalt, Antracyt, Sonagro, Sibson, Forward, Riurik, Zorepad, Oreoland others.
According to data of multi-year researches, obtained in the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, were proved, that the return of sunflower to the previous place in 9 years provided the crop yield of seeds 2,63 t/ha, in 5 years – 2,60; in 3 years – 2,19; in a year – 1,63 t/ha, and in monoculture –1,28 t/ha.
An important factor in the effective use of moisture and obtaining thebumper seed crop is the application of fertilizers. Sunflower provides an efficient usage of fertilizer aftereffects and provides an increase in the crop yield for 0,2–0,4 t/ha due to application of mineral fertilizers N40Р60К30before sowing crop. It is the most effective to applythe fertilizers in the autumn before the plowingat depthof 25–27 cm or in the spring just before sowing at depth of 10–12 cm,locally. The increase in seed yield,for 0,15–0,18 t/ha, provides a local placement of fertilizer P10. Also effectiveare liquid complex fertilizers (LCF)of brand (N10P30) at the rate of 1,5–2,0 dt/ha for the basal application.
Thus, based on the data of multi-year researches,the sunflower should be sown in favorable climatic conditions zones. In the cropping pattern it should be no more than 20 % of sunflower, with the return it to the previous place in 4–7 years. For sowing sunflower it is necessary touse only hybrids of high productivity and resistant to diseases. The highest crop yield of sunflower hybrids is provided by placing them after plowing at a depth of 25–27 cm. With reducing the depth of cultivation to 10–12 cm or direct sowing in uncultivated soil leads to a decrease in the yield of sunflowerseeds. An important factor in increasing the crop yield is the use of fertilizers (N40Р60К30), which is better to applybefore plowing or before the pre-sowing cultivation. The high efficiency in the technology of sunflower growing also provides the use of physiologically active substances and biological products. For sowing of sunflower it is need to use the seeds with a weight of 1000 pcs not less than 28 g. It is better to sow the sunflower seeds in spring when the soil is warmed to 8–12°C. Late-autumnsown crops are often died and are effective only in 30% of cases. It is possible to grow sunflower without herbicides, but better results can be achieved with weed control using the soil-applied and post-emergent herbicides. The high productivity can be providedat narrowingthe inter-row spacingout of 70 to 35 cm, which is explained by the best placement of plants in the area. In crops with narrowed inter-row spacingthere are no inter-row cultivations, and the crop density is increased by 8–12 thousand of plants/ ha correspondingly to the optimum crop density at conventionalwide-row spacing (70 cm).
Key words: sunflower, seeds, sowingmethods and time, mineral fertilizers, soil cultivation, herbicides, crop yield.
|Influence of pre-seed treatment of seeds on frost and winter resistance of winter wheat after various predecessors||Annotation|
Influence of pre-seed treatment of seeds on frost and winter resistance of winter wheat after various predecessors
UDC 633.11." 324" :631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0007
Cherenkov A. V., Gruzinov S. K., Kobos I. O. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1). 53–60.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
State Enterprise Experimental Farm "Krasnogradske"
The results of researches on the influence of predecessors, varietal features and pre-sowing seeds treatment on frost and winter resistance of winter wheat in the conditions of the northern steppe of Ukraine are presented. Based on these studies, a significant effect of pre-sowing seeds treatment on the content of carbohydrates in plant tissues was established. It was determined that the minimum amount of sugar in the leaves and nodes of tillering was marked in control, the maximum – in the variant with pre-sowing seed treatment by micro-fertilizer reakom-plus-grain and adisinfectantselest top, which was used in full and reduced by 30% norm of consumption.
According to research results, it was found that the minimum amount of sugar in leaves and nodes of tilleringwas accumulated in the winter wheat growing after sunflower, the maximum one in black pair. When growing winter wheat after peas, this indicator was characterized by average values.The total carbohydrate content of wheat plants on the above-mentioned predecessors, depending on the varietal characteristics and pre-sowing seeds treatment, fluctuated within a sufficiently wide range. To the end of autumn vegetation, the content of sugar in plant cells on average over the years of research was: in black pair – 39.1–42.7%, after peas – 36.5–39.6% and sunflower – 34.6–37,1%
It should be noted that pre-sowing seeds treatment by the disinfectantselest top in the full norm of consumption, or reduced by 30% oneand micro-fertilizer simultaneously,in no way affected the total sugar content in the leaves and nodes of tillering. On average, over the years of research, the largest amount of sugar during the winter was consumptioned on plants of Antonivka variety: in black pair – 8.6–9.4%, after peas – 8.0–8.9%, and sunflower – 7.7–8.5%. Less amount of sugar was consumptioned on plants of the Podolianka and the smallest one on Donetsk 48 variety.
A similar tendency to increase the total content of carbohydrates in plant tissues was traced to sites with other predecessors. According to the results of the research, it was found that the maximum values of the frost and winter resistance index were noted in the experiment with seed treatment by selest top and micro-fertilizer reakom-plus-grain during the cultivation of the Antonivka variety by black pair.
|Influence of agrotechnological measures of growth on the formation of above-ground mass of barley plants in Nothern Steppe zone Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of agrotechnological measures of growth on the formation of above-ground mass of barley plants in Nothern Steppe zone Ukraine
Mamiedova E. I. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1). 61–66.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str.,Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
In the Ukrainian Steppe with its arid climate and fertile soils, quite favorable conditions are created for the formation of high-quality grain of spring barley, but frequent recurrence of spring and summer droughts in this region, which sometimes become threatening (basically insufficient water availability during the period of vegetation) limit the possibility of forming a high level of productivity of culture, which leads to its instability.
The results of the research of the effect of biopreparations and agrotechnological practices of growing on the peculiarities of growth and development of spring barley plant in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine are presented.
The research was carried out at the Erastivska Research Station of the State Institution Institute of GrainCrops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine during 2015–2017.
Field experiments were laid after two predecessors (winter wheat and maize) on two mineral nutrition backgrounds (without fertilizers and N30P30K30). The middle-early variety of spring barley Sovira was sown.
The scheme of the experiment included variants of the use of biopreparations Diazophyte, Phosphoentherin, Biopolycide and microfertilizer Sizam. Fertilizer and biopreparations at the control were not used.
The soil cover of the experimental site ispresented by common czernozem heavy clayey loam low in humus. The gross content of nutrients in the arable layer of the chernozem of the experimental station varies in the following limits: nitrogen – from 0.23 to 0.26 %, phosphorus – from 0.11 to 0.16 %, potassium – from 2.0 to 2.5 %.
The reaction of the soil solution of the humus horizon of chernozem is close to the neutral, pH of the aqueous suspension is 6.5–7.0.
The climate of the region is moderately continental with insufficient and unstable moisture. According to the long-team data of the Komissarovsky meteorological station, the average annual rainfall is 430–440 mm, including during the growing season of barley – about 200 mm.
The distribution of their intensity is uneven: 18 % of annual precipitation falls in winter, in spring – 23, in summer – 37 and in autumn – 22 %.
The results of observations and experimental research have shown that in general, weather conditions during 2015–2017 in the Northern Steppe zone were characterized by significant fluctuations of hydrothermal indices and significantly influenced on the peculiarities of the growth processes of spring barley plants, which was appeared in a significant variation in the duration of interphase periods of development of culture.
It was determined that under the influence of biopreparations, the mass of 100 absolutely dry plants increased by 10.7 % compared to the control; 28.6 and 25.0 % (without fertilizers) and by 8.8 %; 20.6 and 17.6 % (mineral background) in the tillering phase after winter wheat and 42.3 %; 66.4 and 55.8 % (without fertilizers) and 61.8 %; 69.2 and 65.2 % in the booting stage after corn. But much more was the weight of 100 absolutely dry barley plants after winter wheat – the excess reached 7.4–7.7 g and 12.4–12.6 g (in the tillering phase) and 78.8–88.2 g and 117.4–126.8 g (in the booting stage). It was established that the largest absolute dry weight of plants was obtained in the areas where a compatible seed treatment with microorganisms Syzam in combination with a microbiological complex were used. It was recorded that in crops after winter wheat, the weight of 100 absolutely dry plants of spring barley exceeded the corresponding mass of plants after the precursor corn at 3.7 g (without fertilizers) and 7.6 g (N30P30K30) in the tillering phase and at 13.9 g and 15,3 g – in the booting stage, respectively.
Key words: spring barley, absolutely dry weight of plants, biological preparations, mineral fertilizers.
|Growth and development of plants of modern winter wheat varieties in the Northern Steppe of Ukrainе||Annotation|
Growth and development of plants of modern winter wheat varieties in the Northern Steppe of Ukrainе
УДК 633.11”324”(477.63) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0009
Yerashova M.V. Grain Crops, 2018, 1 (1), 67–73.
In the conditions of the Northern Steppe (State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of theNationalAcademy of Sciences of Ukraine) in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 vegetative years (VY) in a bare fallow and after spring barley we have been compared the biometric indices of plants of modern winter wheat (Kochanivka, Misiia Odeska and Pylypivka) during their vegetative stage. According to the zonal recommendations the background fertilizer N30P60K30 in the bare fallow and N60P60K30 after spring barley to the presowing cultivation was applied. To determine the biometric indices of the plants, the sampling of plants were conducted in different phenological phases on preliminarily fixed plots. The area of the foliage surface was determined by means of multiplication the length of the leaves by their width and by the coefficient for recalculation (for winter wheat it is equal to 0.65). To determine the absolutely dry vegetative mass the plants were dried at a temperature of 105 0C then they were weighed.
Analysis of hydrothermal conditions of fall vegetative period of winter wheat in years of studies have shown that restrictive factor for passing of processes of growth and development of plants in 2015 was the lack of rainfall, and in 2016 – cool weather in October and early termination of the vegetative period. After the non-fallow predecessor in 2015, the seedlings of winter wheat were not marked at all in the autumn, a survey of crops carried out on December 09 showed that at this time, the seeds only began to swell and to germinate in the ground.
But due to the early resumption of plant vegetation in the spring (March 01), as well as in connection with significant excess of the average long-term rainfall indicators in April and May, the state of crops after all of its predecessors in 2015/2016 vegetative years was noticeably improved. At the time of the reproduction of the spring vegetation we observed a large difference in the values of biometric indices of plants that were grown after different predecessors. By bare fallow the number of stems, depending on the varieties studied, was on average per plant from 3.3 to 4.4 pcs.,crown roots – from 4.8 to 5.7 pcs., leaves - from 6.3 to 7.4 pcs. The value of the area of the foliage surfacewas within the range of 13.1 to 16.2 cm2, and the absolute dry mass of 100 plants – 30.3–34.4 g. After the spring barley in the extreme weather conditions of the autumn period, the average number of stems was 1.0–2.0 pcs. on the plant, crown roots – 2.6–3.6 pcs., leaves – 2.0–3.0 pcs., the value of the area of the foliage surface was only 1.4–2.2 cm2, and the mass of 100 dry plants was 4.0–5.0 g. In the stem extension stage also noted significant differences between the biometric indices of plants that were grown on bare fallow and after spring barley, in ear formation phase these differences for some positions have not been so contrasting.
At the time of the reproduction of the spring vegetation in 2017, the number of stems per plant by varieties in bare fallow varied from 3.0 to 3.6 pcs.,crown roots – from 6.6 to 9.0 pcs., and leaves from 7.4 to 10.2 pcs. After spring barley, the value of similar indicators was respectively within the limits of 3.2–4.0, 7.8–8.0 and 7.4–9.6 pcs.respectively. In conditions of 2017 in some variants of experiment should be noted an advantage of winter wheat plants after spring barley compared with plants on bare fallow by the number of stems, crown roots and leaves, which can be explained more intense background of mineral nutrition and lower density stand of plants after non-fallow predecessor.
As a result of complex action of weather conditions which were formed during the studies, better plant growth and development of winter wheat on the bare fallow in the spring vegetative period have noted in 2016, and after spring barley in the tillering stage and in the stem extension stage – in 2017. In the ear formation phase in both years of research the winter wheat plants of variety Pylypivkahad a higher height in comparison with others.
Key words: winter wheat, variety, predecessor, biometric indices, vegetative mass of plants, area of foliage surface.
|Іnfluence of granulated bіоgumus on development of sainfoin plants in summer sowings||Annotation|
Іnfluence of granulated bіоgumus on development of sainfoin plants in summer sowings
UDC 631.872 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0010
Gavrish S. L., Vinyukov А. А., Bondareva O. В., Chugrii Н. A.
GrainCrops, 2018, 2 (1), 74–81.
Donetsk State Agricultural Science Station of NAAS, Gagarina 1, Vlg. Grishinо, Pokrovsk district, Donetsk region, 85330, Ukraine
In order to accelerate the selection or reproduction of scarce sainfoin seeds, or for the rational use of land, freshly harvested seeds are often used in summer sowing time. With the summer sowing time, the problem of adapting crops to unfavorable hydrothermal conditions becomes extremely topical. To solve this problem, it is expedient to use measures aimed at stimulating intensive development of plants at the initial stages of organogenesis.
In previous research, we studied aspects of the adaptability of sainfoin plants by applying a method of improving the seed quality of seeds. It envisaged sowing with peeled seeds, biological protection and stimulation of peeled seeds with bacterial strains of antagonists of phytopathogens, nitrogen-fixing and phosphomobilizing bacteria.
The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of the sowing introduction of granulated biohumus on the plants condition of sainfoin and the yield in summer crops.
The scheme of the experiment included the sowing introduction of granulated superphosphate in a dose of 10 kg/ha of active ingredient, granulated biohumus in doses of 200, 250 and 300 kg/ha, control – without fertilizers.
Was sowed by the tilled seeds of sainfoin by the sort Amethyst Donetsky in a fourfold repetition by the SKS-6-10 seed drill in an ordinary way with a width of between rows of 15 cm on a depth 3–4 cm. The seeding rate is 4,5 million seeds per 1 ha. Before sowing, seeds were encrusted with Reakom-C-soya micro-fertilizer (3,5 l/t) in combination with inoculation with Aurill biologics (1,0 l/t), Rizobophyte (1,0 l/ton) and Phosphoenterin (1,0 l/t).
The harvest of green mass was accounted in the second year of life, the harvest of the seeds – in the third year.
Observations and calculations were carried out in accordance with generally accepted methods: "Methodology of field experience" by B. A. Dospekhov, "Technique of conducting experiments on fodder production", a method for determining the volume of the root system by D. A. Sabinin and I. I. Kolosov.
The sowing with granulated biohumus on the sainfoin at a dose of 300 kg/ha compared to granulated superphosphate at a dose of 10 kg/ha of the active ingredient ensured high field germination (63,3 %), survival of young growth (82,7 %).
After the appearance of the first true leaf on the sites where granulated biohumus was applied at a dose of 250 or 300 kg/ha, the effect of microorganisms as growth stimulants was manifested in more intensive plant development.
At the age of 2,5 months, the average volume of the root system of plant when using biohumus at a dose of 250–300 kg/ha was 6,3–6,4 cm³, which is 12,5–13 % more compared to the control, the number of true leaves – 6,0 pieces per plant, height of plants – 11,4 cm.
After the renewal of vegetation in the spring, the crops of 2 year of life in these areas were characterized by the maximum density of 267–280 plants per m², the winter hardiness of plant was 88.4–88.9 %, which was on 4.0–4.5 % higher than the control and on 0,3–0.8% than the variant with mineral fertilizers P10.
The best growth of plants contributed to the resistance of plants to pathogens, the overall prevalence of which declined from 19 to 14 %.
Maximum yields of green mass were achieved – 35,20 t/ha (+4,33 t/ha) and seeds – 1,03 t/ha (+0,18 t/ha) and profit – 12322 UAH/ha (+2462 UAH/ha).
Due to high production costs at sowing with granulated biohumus at a dose of 300 kg/ha, the profitability index was 2.9 % lower compared to a dose of 250 kg/ha and amounted to 140 %. For the rational use of financial resources in combination with high yields and measures for stimulating sainfoin plants in summer crops, it is advisable to use the of biohumus in sowing at a dose of 250 kg/ha.
Key words: sainfoin, biohumus, field germination, volume of root system, winter hardiness, yield, profit, profitability.
|Effiсiency of application of biological preparations and growth stimulants in the pea crops of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Effiсiency of application of biological preparations and growth stimulants in the pea crops of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDК 633.11"324":631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0011
Lemishko S. M. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 82–87.
Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian-economic University, 25 Serhii Efremov str,Dniprо, 49027, Ukraine
The current state of the crop production industry in the conditionsof the expansion of value of mineral fertilizers and plant protection means induces to reduce their use, that stipulates necessity of the search, studying and use of alternative sources of nutrients, by means of using of less environmentally harmful biological means, the use of biotechnological agricultural methods, optimization of the resource-saving technological measures, etc.
The purpose of the work is to determine the effectivenessof tank mixtures of modern biological preparations and growth stimulants of plants in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine.
The research on the studying of the effectiveness of biological preparations inthe pea crops (variety Kharkivskyiyantarnyi) was conducted in the farm enterprise "Hryvas" of the Pyatyhatskyi district of the Dnipropetrovsk region during 2013–2017 at the section of crop rotation: peas – winter wheat – sunflower. On the field, as the background fertilizer under basic soil tillage was applicated mineral fertilizers N20P40 for better starting growth of peas.
As the results of the research has been showed, tharall the used biological preparations in pea growing technology were quite effective. Bacterization of seeds and treatment of pea vegetative plants stimulated the activation of growth processes since the beginning of emergence of seedlings, which was confirmed by biometric measurements during the vegetation period of bean culture. Thus, the indices of field germination rate increased relative to the non-treated variant (control) on average by 4.0–7.0 %.
The rate of passage and occurrence of the phenological phases of peas' plants descended on all variants of the applicatedpreparationsalmost simultaneously. Only a small difference in time between fertilized and non-fertilized backgrounds was noted, which was 1–2 days.
The maximum height of the pea plants was formed at the time of grain harvesting in consequence of incrustation with the biological preparation Reacom-C-bean – 29.5 cm and inoculation with phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria (PhMB) – 28.9 cm, which exceeded the control index by 2.9 and 2.3 cm, or 9.8 and 8.0% respectively.
Somewhat lower peas' height values were obtained by spraying of the vegetative plants in a 2–3-leaf phase with a threecomponent mixture (Сrystallone + Agate-25K + Actophyte), namely a decrease in the height of plants by 1.6 cm, or by 5.6 %.
The optimum conditions for the formation of the area of foliage surface in peas plants were dependenton optimization of the nutritional conditions at a combination of different bacterial preparations. Inoculation with phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria on the fertilized background (N20P40) contributed to an increase in the area of foliage surface compared to the control by 13.3 %.
The indicesof photosynthetic potential of the foliar apparatus showed a clear tendency to increase (up to 16–18 %) at the application of microbiological preparations, as well as on the assumption ofoptimization of nitrogen-phosphorus nutrition of the plants. The most intensive measurements of the photosynthetic potential of the foliar apparatus were increased in the interphase periods from budding to flowering, when about 1000 units of photosynthetic potential increased, and from the flowering phase to the formation of grain repeness they decreased almost twice.
Pea harvest estimate also showed high efficiency of the used biological preparations and their mixtures, in particular, the maximum increase in grain was obtained from seed incrustationwith biological preparation Reacom-C-bean – 0.60 t/ha (17.3 %) and inoculation with phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria (PhMB) – 0.46 t/ha (13.6 %).
The application of spraying of the vegetative pea plants in the 2–3-leaf phase with the three-component mixture of Crystallone + Agate-25K + Actophyte was inferior tothe previous variants for grain yielding capacity by 0.34 t/ha (10.3 %) and 0.20 t/ha (6.3 %) respectively, but exceeded the control (without treatment of the biological preparations) by 0.26 t/ha (7.7 %).
The best indicators of economic effectiveness were provided by the following preparations: Reacom-C-bean and phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria (PhMB). They provided the maximum income (2200-2300 UAH/ha) and the level of profitability of grain production at the level of 72.8 and 78.0 % respectively.
Minimum indicators of the economic effectivenessprovided the use of spraying of the pea plants in the period of vegetation in the phase of 2–3 leaf withthe threecomponent mixture Cristallone (1.7 kg/ha) with Agate-25K (10 g/ha) and Actophyte (1.33 l/ha).
The income from 1 hectare was 1899 UAH/hectare at the level of profitability of grain production – 62.4 %.
Key words: peas, biopreparations, inlay, inoculation, crop.
|Growtn, development and productivity of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage and sowing systems||Annotation|
Growtn, development and productivity of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage and sowing systems
UDC 633.11«324»:631.5:631.4 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0012
A. D. Gyrka, I. I. Gasanova, T. V. Gyrka, O. I. Bokun. Grain Crops, 2018, 1 (1), 88–93.
The results of the field experiment on production testing and implementation of the systems and introduction the soil tillage and sowing systems of winter wheat are presented. On the results of experimental researches were stated, that the applying the direct seeding of winter wheat using the seeding machine ATD-6.35 contributed to an increase in the indicators of the density of productive stems for 7,4– 20,9%, a decrease in the grain weight out of 1 ear for 0,11–0,27 g and the weight of 1000 grains for 2,8–4,7 g compared with the use of surface tillage and seeding with seeding machine ATD-6.35 and SZ-3.6.
The highest grain yield of winter wheat was formed in the variant that mentioned a surface soil tillage and seeding with ATD-6.35 and was 5,62 t/ha, which was 0,12 and 0,16 t/ha more than the variant using the seeding machine ATD-6.35 without tillage and seeding machine SZ-3.6 on surface tillage. Analysis of winter wheat grain in the phase of full ripeness showed, that the protein and gluten contents of in samples of variants 1 and 2, where the ATD-6.35 was used were higher compared to option 3 and amounted respectively to 12,7–13,3 and 24,0–25,3% which corresponds to the requirements of grain class 2.
Key words: winter wheat, plant, soil tillage, seeding, growth, development, grain, crop yield, quality.
|Sowing terms and norms of winter hard wheat||Annotation|
Sowing terms and norms of winter hard wheat
UDC 631.53.04:633.112.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0013
Yarchuk I., Melnik T. Grain Crops, 2018, 1 (1), 94–100.
Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The article covers questions about the growing technology of winter hard wheat in the conditions of the Northern Steppe. The main part is dedicated to sowing terms and norms. Despite of good conditions for growing hard wheat there is a lack of this culture in Ukraine. High water demand and low winter resistance prevent from increasing of the crop area. In general, of all crops need to be resowed every year. The reason for plant death is not only hard winter conditions but also lack of knowledge of how technological operations influence on adaptive properties and winter resistance. Due to the development of agriculture, new sorts and climate change sowing terms and norms have changed a little. That’s why the main part of the article is dedicated to a finding of the best sowing terms and norms, which influence on the amount of yield and the plant resistance. (Можливі варіанти: In general, Generally, On the whole, )
Field experiments were held on the “Samarsky” study field of Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University (Dnipropetrovsk region) on ordinary low-humic middle loamy chernozem. During
the experiments, weather conditions, in general, were typical for the Steppe zone. More favorable for the growth and yield development were vegetations of 2013/2014 and 2016/2017 years; less favorable – 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 years.
There is a direct dependence between the level of plant development in autumn and sowing terms. Moving sowing terms from early to later causes decreasing of all biometrical indicators: height, weight of the plant, amount of stems and nodal roots. The highest level of development have plants with early sowing term (10th of September) with a minimum sowing norm (3.5 million seeds per hectare). Mineral fertilizers even at early stages can positively influence on biometrical indicators; plants were developing intensively, gained bigger weight, got a bigger amount of stems and nodal roots.
Higher winter resistance was shown by plants sowed later (24th of September). In general, the younger the plant the higher resistance it has.
Regardless the level of mineral background the biggest yield of winter hard wheat is formed sowing on the 17th of September with sowing norm 4.5 million seeds per hectare. 4.04 tons/hectare on low mineral nutrition and 4.49 tons/hectare on high mineral nutrition.
Keywords: winter hard wheat, sowing terms, sowing norms, growth and development, winter resistance, crop yield.
|An estimation of indexes of the individual productivity of plants of corn is at presowing treatment of seed and outside the roots signup||Annotation|
An estimation of indexes of the individual productivity of plants of corn is at presowing treatment of seed and outside the roots signup
UDK 633.15:631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0014
Moldovan, Zh., Sobchuk, S. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 101–108.
Khmelnitsky State Agricultural Experimental Station of Institute of Feed Rezearch and Agriculture Podillya of NAAS, Samchyky village, Starokostyantynivsky district, Khmelnytsky region, 31182, Ukraine
The results of researches on the effectiveness of pre-sowing processing of seeds and extra-root crops of corn on the formation of indices of individual productivity on chernozems of podzolized western forest-steppe are presented. Positive influence of pre-sowing seed treatment and spraying of corn crops in the phase of 3–5 leaves and 7–9 leaves was established on the formation of plant height indices, leaf area, number of productive swaths per plant, weights of 1000 seeds and others.
On average, over the years of research, the combination of pre-sowing processing of maize-seeded seeds in the early stages of development has ensured an increase in the height of plants of the early-seasoned hybrid DN Meotida at 8,6–24,6 cm or 3,6–10,2 %, mid-morning DB of Khotin –on 4,1–9,9 cm or 1,7–4,0 %. The area of the leaf surface, respectively, increased by 0,041–0,086 m2 or 11,8–24,8 % and 0,043–0,090 m2 or 11,8–24,7 %.
It was found that maize hybrids formed a different number of swaths. So, in the early maturity hybrid of DN Meotida, the total number of swaths per 100 plants varied from 100 to 150 pcs, while the productive at harvest time – from 100 to 128 pcs. depending on the ways of feeding, whereas in the mid-day hybrid, DB Khotin – 120–140 swarms and 100–110 swingers, respectively.
The calculations showed that the investigated methods of pre-sowing seed treatment and corn-foliar application of corn at different stages of growth provided for an increase in the weight of grain from 1 cork, as compared to control, by 4,2–18,0 g, or 4,0–17,3 %, in the early fall a hybrid of DN Meotid and 6,0–30,0 g or 5,4–27,1 % – in the mid-day hybrid DB Khotin. The indicators of the yield of grain from 1 cocoon at the same time increased by 1,6–4,5 % and 1,5–3,1 % respectively.
However, it has been noted that the investigated methods of pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar fertilization of the plants have the greatest impact on the weight index of 1000 grains. On average, over two years of research, the investigated methods of pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar feeding ensured an increase in the weight of 1000 grains of the DN Meotid hybrid on 10,7–24,4 g or 5,2–11,8 %, the hybrid DB of Khotin – by 10,6–32,2 g or 5,5–16,7 %.
Since, corn plants of the studied hybrids formed a different number of productive swamps, then the individual productivity of the plants was different. Thus, the average weight of grain from 1 corn plant of the early-stage hybrid DM of Meodide was 111,9–163,6 g, mid-morning DB Khotin – 114,5–178,7 g. The studied variants of pre-seed treatment of seeds and crops provided an increase in the index of individual productivity of corn hybrids by 12,8–51,7 g and 2,5–64,2 g respectively.
Thus, the highest individual productivity indices on both hybrids studied provide an option where a complex pre-seed treatment of seeds and crops in the phase of 3–5 leaves and 7–9 leaves of corn is envisaged.
Key words:corn, microelements, seed dressing, nutrition, individual productivity.
|Agrophysical and biotic factors of regulation of biological activiti of soil in crop rotation||Annotation|
Agrophysical and biotic factors of regulation of biological activiti of soil in crop rotation
UDK 631.41:631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0015
Grain Crops,2018, 2 (1), 109–115. Shevchenko M. S., Shvets N. V., Shevchenko S. M.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14 Volodymyra Vernadskoho str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhiya Yefremova Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
On the basis of field stationary experiments the dynamics of the total biological activity of the soil, depending on the biomass of plant residues of crop rotation crops, methods of basic soil cultivation and hydrothermal factors, was studied. It has been established that the release of carbon dioxide from the soil with greater intensity was observed on the background of deep plowing, where better conditions for aeration were and the distribution of plant residues in the profile of the arable layer was more quantitative. Minimal methods of soil cultivation, through consolidation of the soil, led to a decrease in the parameters of the zone of biotic activity and growth processes of crop rotation crops. It also inhibited total biological soil activity and reduced the amount of carbon dioxide released.
Among the crops of crop rotation, the largest mass of organic matter left behind corn (4,34 tons/ha), and the minimum sunflower (2,24 tons/ha), which determined the potential of biological soil activity. Reducing the depth of the basic soil cultivation is accompanied by an increase of soil hardness and deterioration of its water absorption, which enhances conservative processes and inhibits the decomposition of organic matter. Biological activity of the soil on the background of plowing exceeds the direct sowing by 15–20%.
Key words: crop rotation, soil cultivation, biological activity, organic mass, hardness of soil, crops.
|Implementation of the potential productivity of field crops under the conditions of the northern Steppe||Annotation|
Implementation of the potential productivity of field crops under the conditions of the northern Steppe
UDC633:551.506:631.559 (251.1)(477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0016
Chaban V. I., Podobed O. U., Klyavzo S. P., Gorbatenko A. I. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 116–122.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyra Vernadakyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,Ukraine
High demand for food and feed grain and oilseeds on the market of agricultural products contribute to the further development of the agrarian sector. Modern varieties and hybrids of agricultural crops have a high biological productivity potential. However, in the steppe zone, it is realized at best of 40-50%, which in most cases is associated with the high probability of drying phenomena in the continuation of plant growth. Therefore, an adaptation of steppe farming to climate change remains a matter of concern. The purpose of the research is to establish the level of implementation by grain and oil crops of the productivity potential in the conditions of the northern steppe of Ukraine on the background of climate change.
Estimation of the productivity potential of winter wheat, spring barley, corn, and sunflower was carried out by summarizing the harvest data of stationary experiments of soil fertility laboratories, crop rotation and environmental protection systems of soil cultivation (DPDG Dnipro) on control variants and organo-mineral fertilizer system. Ground cover – the black earth is an ordinary low-humus heavy-bodied. The content of humus is 4.2–4.3 %. The availability of moving nitrogen forms is moderate, phosphorus is medium and elevated, and potassium is high. The assessment of the climatic conditions of 1991–2017 was carried out according to the data of the AMC of the Dnieper, comparing them with the climatic norm (1961–1990). Data arrays were statistically processed using programs in Excel 2003 and Statistica (version 6).
Formation of productivity of agricultural crops takes place against the backdrop of climate change. They are manifested by an increase in the temperature regime over the past 27 years (1991–2017). The average temperature per year, the growth of early cereals and late crops increased by 0.7–1.0 °C, and in January and July – by 1.6 and 1.4 °C. The number of years with a reliable excess of air temperature ranged from 14 to 19, and their relative repeatability reached 52–70 %. Occurrence is characterized by high variability and uneven distribution (Cv = 36-60 %). Despite the growing trend of their annual amount (561 mm), it is statistically not confirmed. During the years of observation only in 7 cases (26%) their number corresponding to the norm, in 12 (44 %) – a lack of moisture was detected and in 8 (30 %) – exceeding the norm. That is, in the face of temperature rise, the conditions of moisture do not change.
Zonal chernozems are characterized by high fertility. In control, the average yield was: winter wheat (steam) – 4.49 t/ha; after unpaired – 2.52 t/ha; a corn – 4,35 t/ha; a spring barley – 2.39 t/ha; a sunflower – 2,13 t/ha. The variation of weather conditions during vegetation caused significant fluctuations. Reduction of non-parietal winter wheat, corn, barley compared to the average was 3.2–3.7 times, and wheat in steam and sunflower – 2.2 times.
The established dependence is confirmed by the variability index (Cv) of the yield data. Only for sunflower, it corresponded to the average level (Cv = 25 %). For grain crops, the coefficient of variation is high (Cv = 33–39 %). The systematic application of fertilizers in crop rotation positively impacted the productivity of plants. The average yield of crops increased: steam wheat – by 17% (5.24 t/ha); after non-steaming – by 57% (3.95 t/ha); corn – by 13% (4.91 t/ha); a barley yarrow – by 40 % (3.34 t/ha); a sunflo-wer – by 11% (2.37 t/ha). At the same time, the variability of the indices of non-wheat and maize crop remained high (Cv = 34–35 %), and steam winter and barley – declined to an average (Cv = 24–30 %). At the same level (24%) he remained for sunflower.
Using the confidence interval, crop yields are set with a slight deviation from the mean values. Thus, according to the natural fertility of chernozem, the usual harvest of wheat in a steam range is 4.01–4.97 t/ha, corn – 3.87–4.83 t/ha, barley– 2.10–2.68 t/ha, sunflower – 2,19–2,56 t/ha is estimated as average. The grouping of harvest data makes it possible to determine the patterns of distribution and frequency of certain cases, which allows us to assess the adaptive properties of crops to the ecological conditions of cultivation. Against the background of natural soil fertility, only 22–29 % of cereal crops form a crop at the average level, while sunflower – 42 %. Almost identical was the probability of the formation of a winter wheat crop and maize lower or higher than the average (33–39 and 38–39 %). Adaptability of barley was inferior – the repeatability of harvests below the average reached 46 %.
There was an increase in the cases of the formation of average and high yields of field crops on fertilizer variants due to effective soil fertility.
Keywords:field crops, productivity potential, adaptive properties, climate change.
|Integrated control of weeds when growing winter wheat on summer fallow||Annotation|
Integrated control of weeds when growing winter wheat on summer fallow
UDК 631.581:632.51:633.11 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0017
Sudak V. М., Gorbatenko А. І., MatyukhaV. L. Grain Crops, 2018, 1 (1), 123–131.
Years-long research aimed at studying the quantitative and mass dynamics and weed species composition and determining the effectiveness of various cultural weed control methods when growing winter wheat on summer fallow was conducted under stationary conditions, on ordinary chernozem (northern steppe), in the field experiment of the Institute of Cereal Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
It has been found that maintenance of the arable land by leaving it fallow for a season is accompanied by an increase in the regenerative capacity of the sow thistle and field bindweed, the appearance of such non-typical weeds for unirrigated farming as dandelion, warmot and pickpocket as well as growth of the common ragweed and pig weed in the fields. Exclusion of the under-winter ploughing system from the technology of preparing a summer fallow leads to the weed seeding and reduction of time intervals between cultivation and infestation in winter wheat crops, which requires one-time application of total herbicides (on stubble) on a summer fallow land or bulk shielding of the soil surface with post-harvest plants.
A smaller number of annual gramineous weeds and fallen sunflower on early fallows compared to autumn fallows was recorded, which is due to dehydration of the upper untilled layer of soil where the main part of seeds is located. Cleavers grass, which starts vegetating early and tolerates shading well and therefore is highly harmful for winter crops, was present on the stubble early fallow. In comparison with other variants of the experiment, ploughing of the autumn fallow contributed to the more intensive germination of late spring weeds because of the better warming of the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer and the decrease in physiological toxicity of post-harvest residues due to their more thorough mixing in the soil environment.
According to our observations, the sow thistle grew and developed better on a sunflower fallow than on a stubble one, especially in wet years. In droughty weather, it often fell into a state of deep conservative dormancy and weakly recovered in the second half of the summer. The regenerative potential and adaptation of the perennial to mechanical control measures increase with decreasing the depth of root cutting in the spring to 8-10 cm and lengthening the time intervals between cultivations to more than 20 days after the weed reaches the shooting stage, i.e., the bud-formation stage. With the beginning of the shooting stage, the sow thistle quickly restores the depleted reserves of inulin (reserve nutrient) in its roots and increases its ability to survive. The field bindweed reacts weakly to the fallow precursor. It is characterized by drought tolerance, has a high regenerative capacity and infests the fallow until winter wheat is sown. The methods of regulation of levels of the fallow infestation with perennials provide for an increase in the number of cultivations and the use of spring-tooth harrows which destruct the roots and shoots of plants very well due to vibration effect of spring teeth.
The struggle with the amaranth and pig weed became much more complicated when nitrogen fertilizers introduced for fertilization were not fully used by the previous crop (spring barley) and stimulated the growth of annual weeds on the fallow; in wet weather, their seeds sprouted throughout the entire period of fallowing.
A high abundance (20-30 pcs/m2) of dicotyledonous annual species, the dangerous babies’-breath in particular, is observed under unfavorable conditions for weed seed sprouting in autumn and sufficient soil moisture during spring tillering of grass after soil mulching. Chemical weeding is necessary when the economic threshold of harmfulness of wild species is exceeded (more than 10% of the total biomass of agrophytocenosis).
With the involvement of all by-products of crop rotation in the circuit, the cultivation of winter wheat on summer fallow (surface spring tillage) requires mandatory fertilization of plants in the spring with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 45-60 kg d.r./ha (low supply of soil with nitrates) or 30 -45 kg d.r./ha (normal supply of soil with N-NO3). Optimization of nitrogen nutrition of wheat significantly increases its competitiveness in relation to weeds and ensures an average yield of food grain at the level of 5.52-6.66 t/ha.
Key words: weeds, fallow, winter wheat, soil cultivation, herbicides, grain yield.
|The direction of development of dairy cattle breeding in the Erastovskaya experimental station||Annotation|
The direction of development of dairy cattle breeding in the Erastovskaya experimental station
UDC 636.082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0018
Kozyr V. S. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 132–136.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
Given that Ukraine has a significant deficit in milk, the state has recently increased funding for dairy cattle breeding. In the Erastovskaya experimental station of the Institute of grain crops, the indicators of this industry to some extent do not correspond to the tasks of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences. Therefore, the scientists of the Institute together with the specialists of the station have developed and implemented a program for the development of dairy cattle breeding. During its preparation, selection, zootechnical, and statistical methods were used.
In the next 3 years (2018–2020), before Erastovskaya experimental station, the task is to increase milk production by 4,5 % annually and bring in the level of 1300 tons in 2020, due to the growth of the productivity of the herd to 5000 kg.
A set of measures is proposed that will ensure the effective use of the main herd. This process started with the growing of heifers, which are the future of the entire flock of herds. In the group of repair population only those who had some value in the breeding work were selected, and created conditions for them to meet the developed requirements.
When growing heifers for future lactation it is envisaged to provide optimal conditions for their growth, development and timely fertilization at 18 months of age with a live weight of at least 400 kg. In the first period of life, it was controlled that the newborn animals necessarily received the first portions of colostrum (12 kg) and milk fat (15 kg). Balanced rations (not less than 6 MJ per 1 kg of dry matter feed) satisfy the needs of the body. Particular attention was paid to the balance of sugar and its ratio with digestible protein in different age periods (0.8–1.2:1), as well as the number of macro- and micronutrients.
Future cow productivity, the development of their fetus and reproductive ability depend to a large extent on the conditions of feeding and keeping infants. The energy level of nutrition balanced by all nutrients was up to 40 thousand MJ and 1,1 kg of digestible protein for each of them.
The construction of the selection process depends on the qualitative composition of the cows, their productive qualities, and especially on the leading group of animals, from which the repair young animals with high profit and pedigree potential are obtained. It was found that on the basis of milk fat, the proportion of cows, which by this sign exceeds the average indicator of a herd 22 %. This is a strategic reserve of high-performance animals in the herd that needs to be effectively used during reproduction and receive repair heifers from them. Such heifers are potentially capable of qualitatively replacing the pedigree class of animals in the herd.
Normalized feeding of animals is a prerequisite for the manifestation of their genetic productivity potential. Taking into account the strengthening of the forage base in the enterprise, a program for organizing the use of forage has been developed. In the structure of the diet of cows juicy (in winter – silage, haylage) and greenery (in the summer) make up 60% of the total nutrition, rough (hay, straw) – 24 %, concentrated – 16 %. Total annual requirement for 1 head of succulent feed is 50 с, green – 10, rough – 20, concentrated – 6 с (for 1 kg of milk 120 g).
Key words: production, livestock, reproduction, selection, feed, feeding, young, content.
|The fattening qualities of young pigs and their association with some indicators of protein-lipid metabolism||Annotation|
The fattening qualities of young pigs and their association with some indicators of protein-lipid metabolism
UDC 636.4.082.43 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0019
Khalak V. I. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 137–143.
The purpose of the work is to investigate the fattening and meat qualities of young pigs of large white breeds of foreign origin, as well as some biochemical parameters of blood serum, to determine the level of correlation between the features of these groups.
The experimental part of the research was conducted in conditions of a breeding reproducer of large white pigs of the Druzhba-Kaznacheyivka LTD in Dnipropetrovsk region in 2017–2018. The estimation of the young pigs of large white breed (n = 25) on the parameters of fattening and meat qualities was carried out taking into account the following indicators: average daily gain of live weight during the period of control fattening, kg, age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg, days, bream thickness at level 6–7 thoracic verteb-rae, mm.
The integrated assessment of the specified group of signs in the animals of the experimental group was carried out according to the complex index of fattening and meat qualities. The biochemical parameters of blood serum of animals (total protein content, g/l, mmol/l, concentration of total lipoproteins, mg%) were investigated at the Research Center for Biosafety and Environmental Control of Agroindustrial Resources of the Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University according to generally accepted methods.The biometric processing of the obtained research results was carried out according to the method of GF Lakin.
It was established, that the average daily gain of live weight during the period of control fattening is 0,574 ± 0,0039 kg, the age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg – 171,7 ± 1,18 days, the thickness of the spit at the level 6–7 of the thoracic vertebra – 21,0 ± 0,40 mm, complex index of fattening and meat qualities – 152,04 ± 2,350 points. The total protein and urea content and the "concentration of common lipoprotein" in the serum of young pigs in the experimental group were 93,84 ± 2,359 g/l, 5,35 ± 0,299 mmol/l, and 654,32 ± 45,399 mg % respectively.
It was established, that the maximum performance indicators were characterized by young pigs, in which the complex index ranged from 160,14 to 174,04 points. Thus, animals of the M+ class dominated the peers of other classes (M0, M-) by age reaching a live weight of 100 kg by 6,7 (td = 3,03, P<0,01) and 9,5 days (td = 4, 87, P<0,001), the average daily gain of live weight during the period of control fattening was 0,022 (td = 3,00, P<0,01) and 0,028 kg (td = 4,32, P<0,001), the thickness of the spike at the level 6–7 thoracic vertebrae – by 1,5 (td = 3,00, P<0,01) and 4,6 mm (td = 15,54, P<0,001). The difference between the animals of these groups according to the complex index of fattening and meat qualities was 11,48 (td = 5,62, P<0,001) and 27,46 points (td = 11,83, P<0,001) respectively.
The content of total protein in the blood serum of young pigs of different classes of distribution in the complex index of fattening and meat qualities ranged from 89,16 to 99,50 g/l. By the concentration of common lipoproteins, the difference between animals of the class М- and those of other age groups (М0, М-) was 119,03 (td = 0,71, P>0,05) and 131,67 mg% (td = 0,82, P>0,05).
Investigation of the phenotypic manifestation of the main characteristics of the fattening and meat qualities of young pigs in terms of "total protein content, g/l" and "concentration of common lipoproteins, mg%" indicate, that the animals of the category "norm" were superior to those of the category "deviation" for At the age of reaching the live weight of 100 kg by 2,6 (td = 0,98, P>0.05) and 3.8 days (td = 0,99, P>0,05), the average daily gain of live weight during the period of control fattening – at 0,006 (td = 0,07, P>0,05) and 0,013 kg (td = 1,08, P>0,05). The difference between the animals of these groups in the thickness of the shpіk at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebra was 0,8 (td = 0,84, P>0,05) and 1,5 mm (td = 1,35, P>0,05), a comprehensive index of fattening and meat qualities – 7,98 (td = 0,73, P>0,05) and 1,11 points (td = 0,11, P>0,05) respectively.
It was established that the correlation coefficient between the biochemical parameters of blood serum, fattening and meat qualities of young pigs varies from -0,321 ± 0,1975 (average daily gain of live weight in the period of control fattening × total protein content) to + 0,329 ± 0,1969 (age of reaching a live weight of 100 kg × total protein content) and is unreliable.
Key words: young pigs, biochemical parameters of serum, proteins, lipids, fattening and meat quality, index, correlation.
|Slaughter qualities of pigs with different duration of nursery and all mash system||Annotation|
Slaughter qualities of pigs with different duration of nursery and all mash system
UDК 636.4:636.033:635.084.421 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0020
Nechmilov, V. M., Vdovichenko, Yu.V., Povod, M. G.Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 144–149.
1 Institute of livestock breeding of steppe regions NAAS nd. a. M. f. Ivanov "Askania-Nova" – National scientific breeding and genetic center of sheep breeding, st. Cathedral, 1, Askaniya-Nova,
Chaplinsky district, Kherson region, 75230, Ukraine; 2 Sumy National Agrarian University, st. Gerasim Kondratiev, 160, Sumy, 40021, Ukraine
The problem of reducing the duration of rearing of pigs due to the increase in their growth energy in the industrial complex was relevant and motivated to conduct research in this aspect. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of shortened duration of piglets rearing on their further meat productivity. The slaughter qualities of pigs slaughtered for live weight of 100, 110 and 120 kg, which were grown in identical conditions for 49 and 42 days, were compared. For this purpose, two groups of pigs were formed by the method of a group of analogues, in an amount of 160 heads each, one of which was grown 49 days, the other 42 days in identical conditions of detention and feeding. Further, these groupsthodologies in the same conditions, and then were slaughtered at different live weight.
The study shows that at almost equal perejaume live weight of pigs with different duration of weaning had no significant difference on the basic destructive qualities. So during the control slaughter with a live weight of 100 kg, the animals which used for 7 days were transferred to fattening tended to increase slaughter output, reducing the thickness of fat in all measurement points, the decrease in the area of "muscle eye" and the length at the side is practically equal to the weight of the rear third of the carcass.
At slaughter of animals of experimental groups for live weight of 110 kg increase in slaughter exit at animals with traditional term of growing was observed, whereas for the reduced growing the slaughter exit decreased a little. The difference in the thickness of the fat at all points of measurement in animals with different duration of rearing is practically absent. There was also virtually no difference in terms of thickness of bacon in the carcasses of animals slaughtered for live weight 100 and 110 kg.
The area of the muscle eye with the increase of live weight from 100 to 110 kg significantly increased by 1.2 cm2 (p>0.05) in animals with the traditional duration of rearing and tended to increase by 1.1 cm2 in their analogues for a reduced period of rearing.
The carcass length was significantly (p<0.05) 2.6 cm longer in carcasses of slaughtered pigs with a live weight of 110 kg, compared with the slaughtered weight of 100 kg for the traditional duration of rearing and 4.0 cm (p< 0.001) for reduced.
The length of the bacon half also increased with an increase in pre-free live weight in animals with a traditional term of grazing of 2.6 cm, and with a reduced – by 2.4 cm (p <0.05).
With an increase in the pre-slaughter weight of pigs up to 110 kg, there was a tendency to increase the mass of the rear half of the half-carcase by 0.80 kg for the traditional length of graying and by 0.74 kg – for a shortened, compared with the slaughter, live weight of 100 kg.
With an increase in premature live weight of both experimental groups to 120 kg, the mortality rate in the animals of these groups was almost the same. Probably, 4.6 mm (p <0.05) had a higher thickness of spika in the intestine in carcasses of pigs that grew up in the traditional period of the period. They also showed a tendency to increase the thickness of fat in the sacrum and over 6-7 thoracic vertebrae.
According to the plane of the muscular eyelid, the length of the carcass and its bacon halves and the mass of the rear half of the half-axis, no significant difference was found.
When comparing the slaughter rates in animals slaughtered for different live weight, an increase in slaughter rates of its growth in all groups of experimental animals. So when comparing the control and slaughter of pigs 100 and 110 kg perejaume their weight increased by 9.5 %, while the slaughter weight increased by 10.8 %, slaughter yield by 1.3 %, thickness of fat above 6–7 thoracic vertebrae is not changed, whereas on the shoulder and on the rump decreased respectively by 3.8 and 5.5 %. The area of the muscle eye increased by 4.2 %, the length of the carcass by 6.7 %, and its bacon half by 1.8 %, while the weight of the back third increased by 6.0 %.
With an increase in the pre-slaughter live weight for the next 10 kg, the slaughter mass increased by 8.5 %, the thickness of fat above over the 6–7 thoracic vertebra – by 9.4%, in the withers – by 20.3 %, and in the sacrum – by 18.3 %
The area of the muscular eye increased by 6,3 %, the carcass length was 2,3 %, the bacon half – by 4,2 %, and the mass of the rear half of the half carcass – by 10,2 %.
When comparing slaughter indices of slaughtered animals with live weight of 100 and 120 kg, the advantage of the latter in slaughter weight by 20.2 %, slaughter yield by 1.2 %, fat thickness over 6–7 thoracic vertebra by 9.4 %, at the withers by 15.7 %, in the sacrum by 11.7 % was established.
At the same time, the area of the "muscle eye" increased by 10.8 %, the length of the carcass – by 9.2%, bacon half – by 6.1%, and the weight of the rear third of the carcass – by 16.8 %.
Conclusions. There were no differences in slaughter yield, thickness of fat, length of half-carcass and its bacon half, weight of the back third of half-carcass in pigs with the duration of rearing 49 and 42 days for the live weight of 100, 110 and 120 kg. The dependence of slaughter weight and morphometric indices of pig carcasses on their live weight was revealed.
Key words: piglets, rearing, slaughter yield, carcass length, fat thickness, weight of back third of half-carcass, area of "muscle eye".
|Cleavable feed protein and the effectiveness of its use||Annotation|
Cleavable feed protein and the effectiveness of its use
UDK 636.2.085: 636.2.034 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0021
Dimchya G. G., Maystrenko A. N. Grain Crops, 2017, 1 (2), 150–155.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof naas, 14, VolodymyraVernadskyi Str.,Dnipro, 49027, ukrainian
The purpose of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount of digestible and non-cleavable protein in the rabies of highly productive cows in the first third of lactation on the productivity and conversion of energy and protein in milk using typical ration for the steppe zone and balance of ration by the amount of dry matter and basic nutrients.
Investigations were carried out in the agricultural private enterprise "Chumaky" Dnipropetrovsk region on cows of Holstein black-and-white breed with a productivity of 6–7 thousand. kg of milk during the first 150 days of lactation.
In the winter, the diet consisted of corn silage, alfalfa hay, barley straw, cereal germ and sunflower popcorn. When kept on such a ration, a cow with a live weight of 580–600 kg was actually consumed: dry matter(DM) – 17,5 kg, available for energy exchange (АЕE) – 179,9 MJ, crude protein – 2497 grams, per head per day. The energy concentration per kilogram of dry matter of such a ration was 10,28 MJ, crude protein – 143 g or 13,9 g/MJ АЕE. The food remains at 9,7% of the predetermined ration.
During the summer, cows used a diet consisting of green alfalfa mass, green mass of corn, green mass of bean-and-cereal grasses, alfalfa hay, oat hay, grass seed, sunflower sprouts and soy beetroot. On this ration, cows consumed 16,86 kg of dry matter daily, 180,55 MJ available for energy exchange and 2678 g of crude protein at a concentration in kilogram of dry matter of 10,71 MJ available for energy exchange and 158,8 g of crude protein (residues feed was 12,2% of the daily ration).
An analysis of the productivity of cows indicates that the maximum milk yield was in the second month of lactation and practically did not differ in the use of winter and summer rations.Energy expenditure for the synthesis of 1 kg of milk in the winter period of the content varied within the range of 6,27–7,9 MJ, in the summer – from 6,3 to 8,11 MJ. Starting from the third month of lactation, the fat content in milk of cows in summer compared with winter was lower by 4–5% (P<0,01; P<0,001), and protein content was lower throughout the summer period. The energy value of milk yield in the summer months was also less and statistically significantly different from the third to fifth month of lactation of cows.
The energy conversion of the ration to milk energy was quite high and stable for five months of lactation. On average, during winter and summer, it was 0,421 and 0,418 MJ of АЕE/MJ of milk, respecttively. At the same time, the conversion of crude protein to milk protein in the summer period was less, compared with winter, on average by 10%, and was respectively 0,305 and 0,339 g DM/g protein.
Thus, in the summer, the protein contained in rations split in the rumen was 7,9% more than in norm and 19,3 % more than in winter rations. As part of the daily rations of the summer period, a significant part of the green fodder was alfalfa, whose protein has high solubility and cleavage in the rumen. Obviously, the excess amount of digestible protein was the main cause of its unproductive use. As a result, ammonia formed in the rumen, in the absence of sufficient amount of energy in this period, is excreted from the body with urine.
Consequently, for highly productive cows with a daily milk yield of more than 25 kg, it is not enough to balance the ration with the total amount of crude protein. It is necessary to consider the degree of its digestibility in the scar. In our experiment, the ratio of cleavable and non-cleavable protein in rations averaged 74,3:25,6 in winter and 78:22 in summer. That is, this indicator was overestimated in the summer (according to the norms, the ratio at 25 kg should be 75:25 per day, at 30 kg – 70:30).
Thus, even if the ration is balanced by the general nutrient indices, the assimilation of the protein depends to a large extent on the ratio of its cleavable and non-cleavable fractions.
Keywords:cow, ration, energy, cleavableprotein, non-cleavableprotein, conversion.
|The results of evaluation of stud bulls by summation of economic-valuable features of their daughters||Annotation|
The results of evaluation of stud bulls by summation of economic-valuable features of their daughters
UDC 636.22/.28:636.082.4:636.034 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0022
Denisyuk O. V. Grain Crops, 2017, 1 (2), 156–161.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof naas, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str.,Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The estimation of bulls-pupils on the combination of signs of reproductive ability and milk productivity of daughters is carried out.
Studies have shown that the level of support for cows for I, II and III lactation was 5291 ± 77,6; 5871 ± 109.2; 5968 ± 221.8 kg with a fat content of 3,80 ± 0,004; 3,79 ± 0,005; 3,78 ± 0,019% and the total milk fat content 201,2 ± 2,96; 222,7 ± 4,17 and 225,3 ± 8,14 kg, respectively.
In the study of indicators of reproductive ability of cows, it has been established that with the increase in the age of cows, the period of colonization (277 ± 0,9 days after fertilization and 280 ± 1,2 after the fifth) is prolonged, and the duration of the service period is reduced. Thus, the duration of the 1st service period is equal to 176 ± 13,8, the second – 130 ± 10,8, the third – 135 ± 16,7 and IV – 104 ± 21 days. The dry period, depending on lactation, lasted from 54,1 ± 1,84 to 59,1 ± 4,1 days.
It has been established that the reproduction rate and efficiency of cows use increases with the number of heifer. Thus, in the case of heifer, the reproductive capacity of the flock was 0,85 ± 0,021; 0,93 ± 0,020; 0,90 ± 0,028 and 0,98 ± 0,039. The age of the first fertile insemination of animals is 629 ± 10,9 days with a live weight of 377 ± 5,1 kg.
For milk fat per day and the reproduction rate is desirable when increasing milk fat and increasing the reproductive capacity. Of the six evaluated pedigrees with the combined signs, the best bulls by desirable features are A. F. Kh. Difens Et Red (50,0% of daughters), R. Chasey Et Red (50,0% of daughters), Inozey (42,8% of daughters), most bad Мerry (30,8 % of daughters), and others bulls (25,0% of daughters). According to the indicators of milk fat reduction and the reproduction rate, the greatest percentage of daughters has a Мerry (53,8 % of daughters).
As can be seen from the data of the daughter's table, obtained from the S.S. Houm Et Red and Merry puppies dominated by the same age derived from the bovine R. Chasey Et Red for 1040–831 kg of milk, which is within the error of the arithmetic mean value, and therefore can not be considered significant and reliable. Therefore, the advantage is eliminated by the majority of productive features in the daughters of R. Chasey Et Red, since they have hopes though and below the specified value of signs, at the same time they were lacted for 87–81 days less. Daughters from A.F.H.Difens Et Red have the lowest lactation duration (320 days) with good milk yield (5421 kg of milk).
According to the indicators of reproduction, and this service-period, the dry period, the interoceanic period, the reproductive capacity of the daughter of bull AFF Kh. Diffens Et Red and R. Chasey Et Red have better results than the daughters of other bulls.
The results of the research show that the highest figure is among the daughters of BFAF A. F. H. Diffens Et Red (1,031) and R. Chasey Et Red, respectively – 0,913.
Each bull has daughters who have high milk yields (0,64–0,67 kg of average daily milk fat) and high reproductive capacity (reproductive capacity – 0,984–1,090).
This once again indicates that the formation of productivity and reproductive capacity in animals is affected both by genotypic and paratypic factors.
The two-factor dispersion analysis revealed that in the assessment of the bulls, taking into account several characteristics of their daughters, the father had the greatest influence on reproductive ability (75,2% in the factor dispersion), milk productivity (14,0%), and the interaction of these factors (10, 9%).
Keywords: bull-producer, cow, coefficient of reproductive ability, economic-valuable features, yield of milk.
|Slaughter qualities of pigs growing in pens for various type of grating floor||Annotation|
Slaughter qualities of pigs growing in pens for various type of grating floor
УДК 636.4:636.033:635.084.421 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0023
shpetnyi n. b., povod n. g. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 162–169.
Sumy National Agrarian University, st. Gerasim Kondratiev, 160, Sumy, 40021, Ukraine
Slaughter qualities and morphological composition of pig carcasses on growning from 29 to 77 days in pens with partially grating polymeric and concrete floors were studied. The conditions of keeping pigs during growing had an impact on the realization of their meat productivity potential. A tendency to decrease in animals of the control group of slaughter weight and slaughter yield, compared with animals of control group was found. There was also a tendency to increase the thickness of fat over 6–7 thoracic vertebrae and in the sacrum.
The thickness of fat in the area of withers was probably (p≤0,05) higher than 3,0 mm in animals, that were kept on the concrete flooring as compared to their counterparts, which were kept at that time on the polymeric floor.
The area of "muscle eye" was found to be less than 1,7 cm2 (p≤0,05) in animals that were grown under less comfortable conditions on a concrete slotted floor.
By the carcass length and its bacon halves, there was also a tendency towards their reduction in pigs, which were kept on the concrete floor. By weight of the rear third of half-carcass pigs of the control group had a probable advantage (p≤0,05) by 0,58 kg compared with animals of experimental group.
At the slaughter of animals for a heavier live weight of 110 kg, a similar tendency was observed. At practically equal to the pre-slaughter live weight, the weight of pair carcass in animals of the experimental group was lowered by 0,80 kg. Respectively, 0,04 % of them had a lower slaughter yield.
As for the 100 kg live weight, there was a tendency towards a higher fatness of animals that were grown on a concrete perforated floor.
The area of "muscular eye" was lower by 1,3 cm2 compared with animal carcasses that were grown in concrete-floor pens.
There was also a tendency to increase the length of carcass and the length of bacon half of animals in the control group.
A significant difference of 0,50 kg, or 3,7 % (p≤0,01) in favor of animals in control group was found by the weight of the rear third of carcass.
When slaughtered with a live weight of 120 kg, there was also a tendency to reduce the slaughter weight and slaughter yield in animals of experimental group.
Along the carcass length and bacon halves and the "muscle eye" area showed a tendency to increase in animals of control group.
By weight of the rear third of half-carcass, advantages of animals in the control group were 1,1 kg or 7,5% (p≤0,05) compared with those of experimental group.
According to results of deboning carcasses of slaughtered pigs with a live weight of 100 kg, a greater number of meat and fewer bones were found with an equal amount of fat in animals that were grown on the polymer floor.
In percentage terms, the amount of meat in animals of the control group was 0,6 % higher compared to the experimental ones, while the amount of fat and bones in them was 0,3 % less. According to the ratio of the amount of meat in the amount of fat was better by 0,09 scores were animals of the control group. According to the ratio of meat to bones, the advantage of animals in the control group was 0,2 scores.
For higher pre-slaughter mass tended to increase fat content and decrease in the content of meat and bone in carcasses of both groups. But in the carcasses of animals that were grown on the concrete floor found at 0,9% or 1,3 kg more meat. The fat content in carcasses of animals of the control group was 0,5 kg or 0,3% less. There were also 0,2 % fewer bones in them. The ratio of meat and fat of animals in the control group exceeded analogues of the experimental group by 0,16 scores or 4,8 %.
The meat-to-bone ratio increased in comparison with animals slaughtered with a live weight of 100 kg in both groups by 0,08–0,15 scores while it remained higher in the animals of the control group.
According to the results of slaughter animals with a live weight of 120 kg, the amount of meat in the carcasses of animals of both groups was almost equal, while the mass of fat in animals of the experimental group was 0,2 kg, and bones 0,1 kg more.
With increasing pre-slaughter live weight difference in the meat content of carcasses was reduced. The ratio of meat and fat in slaughtered animals and live weight of 120 kg was less in comparison with analogues slaughtered live weight of 100 kg and 110 kg, although there was a slight advantage for animals that were kept in the growing period on the polymer floor.
When calculating the ratio of meat to bones was set its growth compared to animals slaughtered live weight of 100 and 110 kg. But at this weight, was higher in the control group.
Conditions of growing pigs in the pens with replacement of the floor with a polymer on a concrete negatively affected on the realization of the potential meat productivity. The tendency to deterioration of all slaughter qualities of pigs, were grown in pens using concrete slatted floor, and mass rear third side of half-carcass was revealed a significant decrease of 3,6–7,5 %,at the slaughter for all studied weight conditions.
In carcasses of pigs which were kept in pens with a grating polymeric floor, a higher content of meat and less fat, in comparison with analogs which were grown on a concrete grating floor was revealed.
With increasing preslaughter live weight of pigs of both types of content in their carcasses, the content of meat and bones decreases and the content of fat increases.
Key words: pigs,growing, type of floor, slaughter weight, carcass length, area of "muscle eye", weight of carcass rear third, meat yield.
|E-mailing as an Internet marketing tool||Annotation|
E-mailing as an Internet marketing tool
UDC 339.138 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0024
Nosenko Yu. M.1, Sinelnik L. M.2 Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 170–179.
1National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 9 Myhayla Omelianovycha-Pavlenka Str., Kyiv, 01010,Ukraine;
2NSC "Institute of Agriculture NAAS", 2b Mashinobudivnykiv Str., Chabany, Kyiv-Sviatoshynskyi district, Kyiv region, 08162, Ukraine
The main components of e-mail marketing are analyzed: e-mail analysis of competitors' e-mails, e-mail mailing services and their functionality, target audience identification and segmentation, ways of generating mailing databases, the main types of e-mail lists, their advantages and disadvantages; types of letters; e-mailing efficiency parameters, technical aspects of e-mailing, e-mail strategy planning elements.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the components and mechanisms of e-mail marketing for constructing an algorithm and determining the strategy for conducting e-mail messages.
A study of literature and Internet resources on the use of e-mail newsletters in the marketing activities of science institutions.
According to the results of the research, 10 components of e-mail marketing have been identified. The analysis of the types of mailings and their use at each stage of e-mail marketing: on the covered audience (mass mailing, distribution by segments, individual offers) and on the tasks (regular information (thematic) distribution, transactional letters, letters-anons, event letters, service letters, advertising letters, electronic newspapers.The methods of research of the target audience and its segmentation by common features (geographic, frequency of purchases, the spectrum of purchases, social belonging etc.). Studies in more than 30 mail services for mailing lists and describes the characteristics of the six most used SendExpert, eSputnik, SendPulse, MassDelivery, UniSender, Mailchimp. The conditions for the production of the subscription page (simplicity, attractive design, call to action, obvious advantages, confidence indicators, limitations, relevance), free methods for its replenishment of the mailing list are identified, and 8 basic parameters for evaluating the effectiveness of email e-mails are identified. Summarized technical details of successful e-mail newsletters. The elements of the e-mailing strategy are highlighted: the strategy of attracting subscribers, the strategy of retaining subscribers, the sales strategy.
The results of the research show that e-mail marketing is one of the fairly simple but effective marketing tools, a means of communication with potential customers and increase of confidence in the enterprise. E-mail marketing is closely related to the basic marketing strategy of the institution and other components of Internet marketing, in particular the quality and relevance of content. There are 7 main components of e-mail marketing strategy, which should be taken into account by scientific institutions when planning marketing activities: 1. Definition of the purpose of e-mailing (goods will be promoted, consulting support, etc.). 2. Analysis of competitors (analysis of e-mail rivals of competitors, weak and strong points). 3. Analysis of types of mailings and selection of the type of mailings to be used. 4. Analysis of the target audience and its segmentation. 5. Creating an image of the master mailing. 6. Choosing a platform (service) for distribution 7. Creating a subscription sheet. 8. Making a subscription page. 9. Formation of distribution databases. 10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of e-mailing mailings. For the formation of effective e-mail marketing, planning is advisable with a combination of subscriber engagement strategy, subscriber retention strategy and sales strategy.
Keywords: e-mail marketing, e-mail distribution, target audience, segmentation, mail services.
|Productivity and efficiency of growing grain and leguminous plants in short crop rotations||Annotation|
Productivity and efficiency of growing grain and leguminous plants in short crop rotations
UDC 631.1:631.582:633.15:633.34 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0025
Artemenko S. F., Kovtun O. V. Grain Crops, 2018, 2 (1), 180–193.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The main task of agriculture is to ensure human needs in food products and animal feed in high quality. The important and real and the most effective way to solve this problem is to expand production of high-energy cereals and grain legumes crops by increasing of the cultivated areas and improvement of the basic elements of technology of cultivation of these crops. In the area of domestic agricultural production solve the problem of ensuring of reliable balance of food and feed grains is inextricably linked to the stabilization of the production of barley. This culture playing a positive role not only in increasing the productivity of livestock industry and improving its economic situation but also interested in the production of winter barley. One of the main grain reserves to increase the productivity of these crops is the introduction of scientifically based crop rotation, cultivation adaptive technology that combines innovative achievements in perspective tillage system, fertilization and protection. The successful combination of these basic elements allows to receive high yields of grain with appropriate resource savings.
In the Erastivska research station of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe zone of NAAS of Ukraine in 2008–2015 researches have been conducted to ground not only agricultural but also economic aspects of expediency of application of different ways of basic tillage, systems of fertilising in short-rotation crop rotation using the soybean, corn and barley in the concrete soil and climatic conditions of Northern Steppe. In terms of significant climate change area under crops of winter barley are growing rapidly. Crops of winter barley is almost at the level of winter wheat and greater that grain productivity of spring barley.
The experiment was laid on the background of two ways basic tillage: mould board ploughing and chiseling. We have studied the saturation of crop rotations by soybean: in two-field crop rotation i was 50%, in three-field crop rotation it was 33%, in four-field crop rotation it was 25 and 50%, and by corn in two-field crop rotation it was 50%, in three-field crop rotation it was 33%, in four-field crop rotation it was 25 and 50% respectively. In the three- and four-field crop rotations in order to decrease herbicide load an interrupt rotation of corn and soybeans by one field of barley is envisaged. The systems of fertilization in crop rotation were studied by the scheme: control – no fertilizer, fertilizer use under planned yield according to the results of soil diagnostic for corn – N90Р60К30, for barley – N60Р50К30, for soybeans – N30Р60К20 and use of fertilizers in recommended doses: for corn – N60Р45К30, for barley – N40Р40К30, for soybeans – N40Р60. Fertilizers introduce in autumn under the basic tillage. Before earning their basic tillage into soil by heavy disk harrows.
For weed control using the complex of agrotechnical measures (crop rotation, tillage system basic afterplanting weed control methods) and chemical (herbicide harness the use of 2 l/ha of soybeans and corn, and if necessary insurance herbicides recommended for these crops)
The soil place research – ordinary chernozem little by humus. Characterizing the weather conditions during the period of the research should be noted that 2008 and 2011 were quite favorable in respect moisture, and 2009, 2010, 2013, 2014, 2015 in different degrees dry, very dry was 2012.
The complex nature of the local weather conditions definitely allowed to more fully explore the impact of measures designed performance and features of formation of grain crops in short-rotation crop rotations.
Economic evaluationof the resultsof experimentscarried outaccording to generally acceptedmethods. Basic economicindicators:cost price andprofitabilityof grainproductionwere determinedto evaluate the effectivenessof cornand soybeansgrowing inshort-rotation crop rotation.
In all short-rotations crop rotations more competitive crop rotation system was recommended fertilizer. It was noted increase in grain yield with less fertilizer, while expenditure growth was lower than in options where they are used for the diagnosis of soil. Chisel plowing in all variants was economically more advantageous compared to plowing, due to lower fuel costs during the execution of the main cultivation.
The biggest cost of products grown in the three-field crop rotation received when entering the field of spring barley, which significantly reduced the grain yield of 1 hectare of crop rotation area. In four-field crop rotation at saturation corn and soybeans and 50% for the use of recommended doses of fertilizer provided somewhat better grain production costs.
The highest indicators of profitability of grain production (123,4 and 121,6%) it was got due to thesaturation of short-rotation two-field (soybean – corn) and four-field crop rotations by corn up to 50% by growing of cultures without chemical fertilizers application.
Experimental data in the study of the efficiency of basic tillage methods and the use of fertilizer in short-rotation crop rotations of corn with soybeans show in condition of low moisture of Northern Steppe promising implementation of the recommended and balanced system of fertilization, which involves the use in moderate doses of fertilizers on background chisel deep plowing with effective system of protection from weeds with the introduction in short-rotation crop rotation at least 50% area of rotation under corn which increases productivity and economic efficiency of crop rotation as a whole.
In favorable weather conditions for humidification for the Northern Steppe of Ukraine in the fall, it is advisable to introduce into triple and four-field crop rotation after a predecessor such as soy high-yielding varieties of winter barley instead of spring that provides a significant increase in the productivity of crop rotation and economic efficiency.
Keywords: plowing, chisel plowing, fertilizer system, short rotation,winter barley, spring barley, soybeans, corn, costs of production, cost, profit, profitability.