Grain Crops.-2021.-Vol. 5.- №2
|Testing of maize hybrids of different maturity groups in the conditions of the south-western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Testing of maize hybrids of different maturity groups in the conditions of the south-western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
UDK 633.15:631.52:632 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0178
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2)209-217
Ya. D. Zaplitnyi 1, H. V. Kozak 1, I. S. Mikuliak 1, M. I. Linskaia 1, T. Ya. Karp 1, N. A. Bodenko 2
1 Bukovinian State Agricultural Research Station of the Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian Region of NAAS,
21a Bohdan Kryzhanivskyi St., Chernivtsi, 58025, Ukraine
2State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14,Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research results of maize hybrids of different maturity groups (FAO 199–399) during 2018–2020 in the conditions of the South-Western part of the Forest- Steppe of Ukraine are presented. 54 domestic registered and perspective hybrids of selection of various research institutions of Ukraine (SE Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, Plant Production Institute named after V. Ya. Yuriev of NAAS, Selection and Genetics Institute – National Center for Seed Production and Variety Studying, National Research Center Institute of Agriculture of NAAS, Bukovynian State Agricultural Research Station of the Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian Region of NAAS) were studied.
The planting density of early ripening hybrids was 70, midearly ripening – 60, mid-ripening – 50 thousand plants/ha. Plants were evaluated for uniformity, resistance to stem breakage below the productive ear, the damage degree by boil smut, resistance to root lodging and general condition were determined. All maize hybrids were characterized by high rating (8–9 points) on these traits. Over the years of research, the mid-early hybrids were more productive in the conditions of Bukovyna (9.06 t/ha), the mid-ripening hybrids - the least adapted to these conditions – (8.62 t/ha). The best samples with high grain yield and low grain moisture content at harvest were identified. On average for three years, DB Lada (9.64 t/ha) and DN Synevyr (9.43 t/ha) had the highest grain yield among the early-ripening hybrids, and DB Varta (10.81 t/ha), DB Khotyn (9.96 t/ha), and Kitsmanskyi 215 SV (9.61 t/ha) – among the middle-early one.
It was found that DN Synevyr and DB Lada early-ripening hybrids and Kitsmanskyi 215 SV, DB Kho-tyn, DB Varta mid-early hybrids significantly exceeded the standards each year. In view of this, the hybrids of these maturity groups merit attention in the conditions of the South-Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
Key words: hybrids, maize, selection, yield, harvesting moisture content, maturity group, lodging resistance.
|Selection of vetch (Vicia sativa l.) genotypes resistant to abiotic environmental factors in the agrocoenoses with various supporting crops||Annotation|
Selection of vetch (Vicia sativa l.) genotypes resistant to abiotic environmental factors in the agrocoenoses with various supporting crops
UDC 633.352:631.52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0179
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2) 218-225
S. D.Orlov 1, A. O.Hahin 2, S. V.Syniohub 3, S. M.Brovko 4.
1 Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beets NAAS of Ukraine, 25 Klinichna St., Kyiv, 03010, Ukraine
2 Bila Tserkva Research and Breeding Station of the Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beets of the NAAS of Ukraine, Mala Vilshanka 1 p/o, Bila Tserkva district, Kyiv region, 09178, Ukraine
Artificial selection of spring vetch began with hybrid materials selected from the nursery of the F1 hybrids.
When studying spring vetch on different backgrounds, there was a significant difference between the offspring in terms of plant survival rate: against the background of oats, its values ranged from 21.8 to 34.4 % with an average of 27.5 %, and after white mustard - from 40 .2 to 53.35 % at - 47.2 %. Stabilization of the competitiveness of spring vetch in mixed sowing with oats was not observed, but there was a decrease in the share of full-fledged plants of the artificial population F4 from 0.5 to 7.9% compared to F3. There were more full-fledged spring vetch plants against the background of mustard, it was indicates that mustard has much lower competitiveness compared to oats. It was found that in each population plants with low productivity prevailed both after oats and after white mustard. The selection coefficient (per a sheaf) averaged from 19 % against background oats and up to 34.1 % - after white mustard, a total of 2240 elite plants were selected. Thus, at the first stage, spring vetch plants survived under cultivation with a supporting crop were selected. The survival rate of spring vetch in the agrocenosis with oats varied from 17.3 to 31.3 %. 2054 elite plants were obtained. The second stage of the artificial selection nursery was formed from the material of spring vetch which was tested for resistance to the competitive background of the previous year. The survival rate of spring vetch plants varied from 17.6 % to 24.5 %, 2432 elite plants were obtained. At the third stage, the offspring of spring vetch in mixed sowing with oat and white mustard was studied: 546 elite plants against the background of oat and 1694 against the background of white mustard were selected, with a total of 2240 elite plants selected. The percentage of selected plants indicates that spring vetch genotypes which cannot compete with the supporting crops and between themselves are eliminated from the population. Purposeful selection of artificial hybrid population of spring vetch promotes the formation of genetically balanced lines with increased resistance to abiotic environmental factors.
Key words: spring vetch, hybrid, selection, productivity, mixed sowing
|Path analysis of the relationships between the performance and its constituents in corn lines||Annotation|
Path analysis of the relationships between the performance and its constituents in corn lines
UDC 633.15:631.527:581.16:519.237.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0180
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 226–232
S. Н. Ponurenko, V. P. Kolomatska, L. M. Chernobay
Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya.Yuriev of NAAS, Moscow Avenue, 142, Kharkiv, 61060, Ukraine
The article presents the results of studying the genotypic variability parameters and relationships between traits affecting the performance in corn lines. In a series of three-year trials in 2006–2020, genotypic levels of the performance and its constituents in mid-early and mid-ripening corn lines, which were bred in the Laboratory of Corn Breeding and Seed Production of the Plant Production Institute named after V. Ya. Yuriev and became a part of its working collection, were determined.
It was found that the average group performance of mid-ripening lines was higher than that of mid-early ones with differences depending on kernel type.
Path analysis of genotypic correlations between the performance and its constituents allowed for evaluation of direct and side effects. It was found that the coefficients of pair correlation between the performance and its constituents were positive and mostly low or moderate, ranging 0.327 for "kernel number per ear" trait to 0.656 for "ear diameter" trait. However, when the correlations between the studied traits were divided into direct and side effects, the direct path coefficients were only high for the impact of "kernel number per ear" and "1000-kernel weight" traits (0.835 and 0.812, respectively) on the performance. Such traits as the "ear diameter", "number of kernel rows" and "kernel number per row" had very low values of the direct path coefficients (0.041 – 0.098), but affected the performance indirectly through the “kernel number per ear” trait. The "number of kernel rows" (0.622) and "kernel number per row" (0.544) exerted the greatest indirect impact on the performance through the "kernel number per ear" trait. As to the “1000-kernel weight” trait, there were significant negative indirect effects of the "kernel number per ear" and "number of kernel rows" traits, with the path coefficients of -0.350 and -0.362, respectively.
It was shown that "ear diameter"- "number of kernel rows"- and "kernel number per row"-oriented selections were indirect, as they are components of the "kernel number per ear" trait and are at another level in the performance module. The “kernel number per ear”- and “1000-kernel weight”-oriented direct selections for performance can be most effective, but regarding the latter, one should take into account the negative side effects of the "kernel number per ear" and "number of kernel rows" traits, which can be achieved by building up aggregated indexes.
Keywords: corn, inbred line, performance, correlation analysis, path analysis.
|Methodical features of sugar content determination in sweet maize selection||Annotation|
Methodical features of sugar content determination in sweet maize selection
УДК 633.15:631.52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0181
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2) 233-243
T. M. Satarova, K. V. Denisyuk, O. E. Klimova
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro,49009, Ukraine
A currently important task for the evaluation of breeding samples at all stages of the sweet maize selection is to control the sugar content in the sweet maize grain of technical maturity. The methodical features of the sugar content determination in the sweet maize grain using the example of the inbred line CE401 and hybrid F2(CE401 × Chornosteblova) were investigated. We compared the content of total sugar, monosaccharides and disaccharides in the grain on the twenty-first day after self-pollination (21 DAP), on the day of sampling and after storage of the same ears at subzero temperature.
It was found that after storage of ears for 4.5 months at a temperature of –12 0C, total sugar content in grain of CE401 increased by 97.7 % and reached 46.84 % by mass of absolutely dry matter (ADM), and for F2(CE401 × Chornosteblova) – by 61.7 % and reached 15.93 %. Accordingly, the contents of mono- and disaccharides as components of total sugar content increased, although this increase in F2 (CE401× Chornosteblova) was very uneven for individual ears. Intact grains of the CE401 line contained 2.55 times more monosaccharides and 2.27 times more disaccharides compared to the F2 hybrid (CE401 × Chornosteblova). After keeping the ears at –12 ºC for 4.5 months, the share of total sugar content in ADM of the CE401B line grain exceeded the similar value of the F2 hybrid (CE401 × Chornosteblova) by 2.94 times, monosaccharides by 3.54 times, and disaccharides by 2.54 times. The degree of such increase depends on the genotype of the initial breeding material.
For the sweet maize selection, it is recommended to determine the total sugar content and its fractions on the day of sampling, and to refuse the common practice to store of grain samples at subzero temperature before analysis.
Key words: Zea mays L., grain in technical maturity, total sugar content, mono- and disaccharide contents, determination procedure, grain storage under subzero temperature.
|Influence of technical and technological indicators on the harvest and post-harvest processing seeds of maize hybrids||Annotation|
Influence of technical and technological indicators on the harvest and post-harvest processing seeds of maize hybrids
UDC 633.15:631.53.02 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0182
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 244–251
М. Ya. Kyrpa, Т. М. Lukianenko
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi, Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research result of technical and technological indicators, which largely characterize the seed condition and quality and allow to optimize the harvest and post-harvest processing of maize seeds, was presented. The harvest and post-harvest processing of seeds are particularly affected by such indicators as: size, uniformity, level of damage, the content of self-hulled seeds in the total mass.
In order to optimize the high-quality seed preparation, it is recommended to use for sowing the coarse seeds with a uniformity of more than 80 %. It was found that a uniformity of 80% or less causes the decrease of field seed germination (A) by 2–6 %, the extension of "sowing – full sprouts" period (B) by 6–8 days, and the decrease of index A/B by 32.1–41.0 %. Thus, the low seed uniformity has the negative effect. The indicator of uniformity is controlled by means the seed separation, and it must be at least 81 %.
It is not allowed a presence of self-hulled seeds with embryo damage level more than 10 % in the seed material. With a higher content of self-hulled seeds in the total mass, laboratory germination decreases by 5–7 %, field germination – by 10–17 %, growth rate by number of sprouts – by 6–12 %, by sprout weight – by 8.0–11.6 %.
To reliably predict the moisture loss rate of seeds at drying, it is proposed to determine the coefficient of the specific seed surface by a ratio of outer surface to volume. We established that an increase in the coefficient of specific surface area from 1.053 to 1.167 mm results to increase the moisture loss rate of seeds by 19.1%, and ears – by 30.9 %.
The effectiveness for determination of the seed quality, in particular, its viability was confirmed by the cold test (germination at a temperature of 6–10 ºC).
Key words: maize hybrids, technical and technological indicators, seed quality, harvest and post-harvest processing, fraction, cold test.
|Influence of treatment of seeds with disinfectants and microfertilizers on seeding quality and yield of spring wheat||Annotation|
Influence of treatment of seeds with disinfectants and microfertilizers on seeding quality and yield of spring wheat
УДК 633.11:631.53.027.2:632.95:631.86:631.559 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0183
A. A.Siroshtan,O. A.Zaima, V. P.Kavunets, S. F. Liskovskyi
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2).252–257 .
The V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS, Tsentralne village, Myronivka district,
Kyiv region, 08853, Ukraine
The research was conducted in 2019–2020 at the Myronivka Institute of Wheat. Seeds of such spring wheat varieties as MIP Zlata, Bozhena, MIP Raiduzhna, Diana were used in the experiment. When determining the sowing qualities of spring wheat seeds, depending on the treatment with the disinfectant, it was found that these preparations had a positive effect on them. Seed treatment was carried out with disinfectants Maxim Star 025 FS (1.5 l/t), Yunta Quattro FS 373.4 (1.5 l/t), Cruiser 350 FS (0.5 l/t) in combination with microfertilizer Orakul nasinnia (0,5 l/t). Seed treatment with the studied chemicals revealed an increase in seed germination activity by 5–15 % and a slight increase in seed vigor and laboratory germination.
The highest seed germination activity of the studied varieties was observed at treatment with combination of Cruiser 350 FS + Orakul nasinnia, highest indicator of seed vigor – Celest Max 165 FS + Orakul nasinnia, and laboratory germination – Yunta Quattro 373.4 FS + Orakul nasinnia.
The grain yield was significantly increased due to the seed treatment of spring wheat with dressing chemicals in combination with biological microfertilizers. The increase in grain yield was: MIP Zlata – 0.31–0.35 t/ha, Bozhena – 0.30–0.36 t/ha, MIP Raiduzhna – 0.32–0.38 t/ha, Diana – 0.31–0, 35 t/ha. Higher increases in grain yield of all varieties were observed when seed dressing was carried out with insecticides/fungicides together with the biological microfertilizer Orakul nasinnia.
On the basis of the conducted researches, it was established that grain yield and sowing seed qualities of spring wheat under seed treatment with combination of seed dressing chemicals with microfertilizer were significantly increased. As a result, we suggest seed farmers to apply the foregoing seed dressing chemicals.
Key words:spring wheat, seed dressing chemicals, microfertilizer, seed treatment, sowing quality, yield
|Seed quality indicators of maize hybrids for long-term storage||Annotation|
Seed quality indicators of maize hybrids for long-term storage
УДК 633.15:631.527.541/.563.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0184
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 258–266
Kyrpa M. Ya.1, Filipkova N.S.2
1State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, st. Volodymyr Vernadsky, 14, Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
2Dnipropetrovsk Regional Training Center for Training, Retraining and Advanced Training of AIC, 76/1,
Dmytro Yavornytskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research results about the influence of various factors on seed quality of maize hybrids during their long-term storage are presented. The main of them is seed moisture content and a packaging type. These factors largely determine the intensity of physiological and biochemistry processes, acidity, surface microflora affection level, and also influence the seed viability and germination.
It was found that the seed moisture content over one year during seed storage in airtight conditions (for example, in plastic bags) ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 %. This indicator did not exceed the critical level, which for maize consist of 15 %. During storage of seeds in paper bags, the seed moisture content ranged from 1.9 to 4.1 %, its maximum was 15.9 %; if in fabric bags, the indicator ranged from 2.8 to 5.1 %, with maximum of 16.8 %. It was established that: firstly, at storage for one year, the seed moisture content largely increased in the winter and spring, reaching a critical level; secondly, during further storage of seeds, namely in the summer, the moisture content was reduced, but did not reach the initial values in the experiment.
It was found that the storage longevity of seeds is extended by storage in airtight containers, in particular, in plastic bags, at a seed moisture content of 7–8 and 10–11 %. Under such conditions, for 3–4 years, the seeds have low acceptable acidity, low levels of bacterial and fungal affection, and are fully suitable for sowing, with conditioned laboratory germination and field germination – at 80 % and above.
Given the above, the guaranteed term of economic suitability of the seed material of maize hybrids should be no less than 3–4 years.
Key words: maize hybrids, quality, seeds, factors and conditions of long-term storage, germination.
|Sunflower yield forecast using ARIMA time series models||Annotation|
Sunflower yield forecast using ARIMA time series models
UDC 633.854.78:631.559:51/7 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0185
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 267–274
Chaban V. I. 1, Kliavzo , S. P. 1, Podobed O. U. 1, Chernyh S. A. 2
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, , 49009, Ukrainy
The forecast of sunflower yield was based on the analysis of the time series of yield data of this crop at its cultivation in the Northern Steppes of Ukraine against the background of natural fertility for 1971-2019. The true average yield value of sunflower ranged from 2.15 ± 0.17 t/ha, the average variation of yield data for the study period was: coefficient of variation – Cv = 24 %, standard deviation – s = 0.516 t/ha. Analysis of the scattering graph of the series showed a tendency to increase the sunflower yield over a given period of time. An adequate linear model with an increasing trend of yield data is obtained. According to the forecast results by this method for the period up to 2025, the sunflower yield is expected at the level of 2.59–2.67 t/ha. Forecasting with ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) was carried out by reduction of the yield data series to a stationary form, which was achieved by first order differentiation D (-1). The selection of the most adaptive model was carried out by varying the values of p and q, according to the type of autocorrelation (ACF) and partial autocorrelation functions (PACF). It was found that the best model is D (-1) ARIMA model: (2,0,0), the stationarity of which was achieved by first order differentiation, the residuals are not autocorrelated and normally distributed, and the regression coefficients corresponded to the values of residual probabilities less (p <0, 05). According to the short-term forecast based on the chosen model, it was found that the maximum of sunflower yield against the background of natural fertility in 2023 should be expected up to 3.56 t/ha.
Keywords: forecast, yield, sunflower, model, time series, ARIMA model
|Improvement of grain quality of winter wheat in the zone of thermal power station influence||Annotation|
Improvement of grain quality of winter wheat in the zone of thermal power station influence
UDC 631.95:633. https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0186
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 275–281
Viniukov O. O., Konovalenko L. I., Bondareva O. B.
Donetsk State Agricultural ResearchStation NAAS, 1, Zakhystnykiv Ukrainy St., Pokrovsk, Donetsk region, 85307, Ukraine
During 2018–2020, we conducted researches in the eastern part of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine, which were aimed to determine the complex influence of winter wheat seed inoculation with biologic polymyxobacterin and plant treatment with growth stimulants on the accumulation of heavy metals in grain under aerogenic emissions by thermal power station. It was established effectiveness of the biologic polymyxobacterin and humic plant growth stimulants, which complex action was aimed to decrease the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the grain of winter wheat cultivated in high man-made load areas. At 2 km distance from the thermal power station (extremely dangerous level of pollution), the copper content in the samples of wheat grain decreased compared to the control variant by 16.9%, the zinc content – by 19.5%. It was identified a significant decrease in the content of the Class 1 dangerous elements: lead – by 34.9%, cadmium – by 33.3. The winter wheat grain yield of Popeliushka variety was 7.9 t/ha, which was by 0.9 t/ha or 12.9% higher compared to the control. The introduction of seed inoculation and plant growth stimulants allow to reduce the pollution risk of grain products at the crop cultivation in industrial regions with a high level of man-made load on agricultural land.
The grain grown in 20 km distance from thermal power station (dangerous level of soil pollution) had the less content of heavy metals: copper and zinc – by 15.3%, lead – by 32.3%, cadmium – by 33.3%. The coefficients of biological absorption of chemical elements, which allow to assess the impact of agro-technological measures on the bioaccumulative processes of heavy metals in man-made load areas, decreased by 1.3 times.
Key words: winter wheat, technogenic load, biopreparation, growth stimulant, heavy metals, biological absorption coefficient of heavy metals, yield.
|Water consumption by uneven-aged winter wheat plants in arid conditions of the Steppe||Annotation|
Water consumption by uneven-aged winter wheat plants in arid conditions of the Steppe
UDC 633.11׃631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0187
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 282–294
Romanenko O. L.1, Kushch I. S.1, Agafonova A. V.1, Tenyukh Yu. O.1, Solodushko M. M.2, Usova N. N.3
1 Zaporizhzhia Branch of SE Soils Protection Institute of Ukraine, 94, Doslidna stantsiia Str., Zaporizhzhia, 69031, Ukraine
2 SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
3 Institute of Oilseed Crops NAAS of Ukraine, 1, Institutska St., Zaporizhzhia district, Zaporizhzhia region, 70417, Ukraine
It was established that there are significant changes in hydrothermal indicators over the past thirty years in the south of the Steppe. During the growing seasons of 1963/64–1989/90, the average annual air temperature was 9.6 °С, in 1990/91–2019/20 – 11.3 °C. Average annual precipitation in 1957/58–1989/90 was 456.1 mm, 1990/91–2019/20 – 400.5 mm. Thus, the increase in climate aridity over the last thirty years is obvious: the average annual precipitation has decreased by 55.6 mm, and the average annual air temperature has increased by 1.7 °C.
During the growing seasons of 1990/91–2019/20, scientific research found that water consumption by wheat plants after black fallow during the growing season decreased to 2536–2811 m3/ha in the Steppe zone. Moisture was most efficiently consumed by crops at sowing on September 25 (background N40P40K40, seed rate – 4.5 million germinable seeds/ha): total water consumption was 2605 m3/ha, water consumption coefficient – 428 m3/t, grain yield – 6,08 t/ha.
According to 28-year-old data, it was found that the available moisture reserves in the 0-10 cm soil layer on black fallow, as the most stable predecessor on water availability of soil, equaled 10.2 mm and ensured almost annual obtainment of full winter wheat seedlings.
It was found that the winter wheat plants did not evenly consume moisture during the growing season: in the autumn period – 8.0–19.2 % of the total water consumption, resumption of spring growing season – beginning of stem elongation – 28.3–30.9 %, stem elongation – beginning of heading – 22.1–24.2 %, heading – full ripeness – 30.0–36.9 %.
According to the research results, it was proposed the measures to minimize the negative impact of further climate aridity increase by an increase in the autumn-winter precipitation absorption by soil, an improvement of the agrophysical soil properties and its water permeability, the introduction of varieties with a more pronounced xeromorphic structure and an increased level of adaptation to arid conditions of the Steppe zone and resistance to abiotic stress factors.
Key words: predecessors, sowing dates, productive moisture reserves in the soil, water consumption, yield, winter wheat, water consumption coefficient.
|The yield of Hungarian sainfoin (Onobrychis are-naria L.) in the Right-Bank Steppe of Ukraine.||Annotation|
The yield of Hungarian sainfoin (Onobrychis are-naria L.) in the Right-Bank Steppe of Ukraine.
UDC 633.366:631.527 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0188
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 295–301
Hrygorieva O. N., Almaieva T. M., UmrykhinN. L.
Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe of NAAS,2 Tsentralna St., Sozonivka village, Kropyvnytskyi district,
Kirovohrad region, 27602, Ukraine
The results of scientific research conducted in 2017–2019 by the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe NAAS in the nursery of competitive variety trial under the selection and seed crop rotation with 12 breeding numbers of Hungarian sainfoin are presented. All these samples were analyzed for fresh mass yield, seed yield and dry matter content.
It was found that a cultivar No. 12 (breeding material of Kostiantyn variety) provided a stable significant increase at 3.2–12.4 t/ha, or 28.3–23.8 % compared to the Smarahd standard variety during three years study. On average, over the years of research, the dry matter yield of this selection number was maximal. The increase to the indicator of the Smarahd standard variety was 1.31 t/ha, or 12.00 %.
The Hungarian sainfoin spread depends largely on the development of new more productive varieties with high quality and at the same time well adapted to different growing conditions. Proper selection of varieties is extremely important to solve the problem of increase in the yield and Hungarian sainfoin resistance to adverse environmental conditions. The research results revealed that seed productivity of cultivar No. 12 (breeding material of Kostiantyn variety) in the competitive variety trial was significantly higher, and the seed yield exceeded the standard variety by 0.31 t/ha, or 26.3 %.
According to the research results of competitive variety trial on fodder and seed productivity of selection numbers, which were sown in 2017, it was selected the cultivar No. 12 (breeding material of Kostiantyn variety), which was characterized by high yields of fresh mass and seeds, and increased indicator of dry matter yield.
Keywords: sainfoin, selection numbers, cultivar, competitive variety trail, yield, dry matter yield, seeds.
|Influence density and sowing method of grain sorghum on the formation of assimilation surface and grain productivity of plants||Annotation|
Influence density and sowing method of grain sorghum on the formation of assimilation surface and grain productivity of plants
UDC 633.17:631.559(292.486)(1-17)(477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0189
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 302–309
Gyrka A. D., Alieksieiev Ya. V., Sydorenko Yu. Ya., Bochevar O. V.
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
In the course of conducted researches it was found that the leaf surface area of sorghum crops was directly proportional to the plant density. It was determined that the largest area of the assimilation apparatus forms in the panicle initiation stage. It was found that each increase in plant density by 20 thousand/ha leads to a decrease in the individual leaf surface area of the plant by 8.8–9.0 % (128–137 cm2) relative to the previous plant density. The row-width spacing was no influenced to this indicator.
The largest grain weight per the panicle was formed at a plant density of 80 thousand pcs/ha. Crowdedness of crop (by 20 thousand/ha) led to a decrease in this indicator by 4.8–22.0 % compared to the previous one. An increase in agrocenosis density caused to decrease in grain weight and grain size of the panicle, but the 1000 grain weight was relatively stable. The optimal values of the 1000 grain weight in varieties and hybrids were obtained at plant density of 120–140 thousand/ha. The structure of the yield was significantly influenced by the genetic features of sorghum and the sowing density. The influence of the method of sowing was insignificant.
On average, over the years of research, the highest yield of grain sorghum was in trials with a row spacing of 45 cm: Prime hybrid – 5.89 t/ha, Dniprovskyi 39 variety – 4.62 t/ha (plant density of 140 thousand/ha) and Vinets variety – 3.70 t/ha (160 thousand/ha). The grain yield of the Prime hybrid at growing with 70 cm row spacing was 5.70–5.71 t/ha at a plant density of 120–140 thousand/ha, respectively. The Dniprovskyi 39 variety had the same yield indicators (4.57 t/ha) at plant density of 120 and 140 thousand/ha. The grain yield of the Vinets variety at a plant density of 160 thousand/ha and a row spacing of 70 cm was 3.83 t/ha. Crowdedness of plants above the specified density caused a decrease in grain productivity.
Key words: grain sorghum, plant density, leaf area, individual area of the assimilation apparatus, agrocenosis density, grain productivity.
|Peas grain production in the Steppe zone of Ukraine and increasing efficiency by the application of biological products||Annotation|
Peas grain production in the Steppe zone of Ukraine and increasing efficiency by the application of biological products
UDC 633.358:631.811.98 (251.1) (477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0190
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 310–320
М. Lemishko 1, А. О. Kulyk 2
1 Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhii Yefremov St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
2State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
According to the results of economic analysis, the tendencies of development of grain legume crop production in natural and climatic conditions of the Steppe zone of Ukraine for the period 1990–2020 are established. The place of grain legumes and peas in the structure of sown areas, both in the Steppe zone and Ukraine whole is determined. The dynamics of indicators of harvested areas, yield and gross yield of peas in the Steppe zone for the last five years are analyzed; the reasons of instability of annual gross yield of pea grain and dynamic fluctuations of its productivity are established.
The pea grain production efficiency was investigated. Peculiarities of territorial location of pea production in the regions of the Steppe zone of Ukraine were analyzed. According to the economic analysis, the need for measures to improve the efficiency of pea grain production, in particular, the implementation of progressive agricultural measures was established. For chemical load mitigation and ecologization of growing grain legumes crops, it was determined that the primary direction is an application of effective biological products.
The article presents the results of the production inspection on compliance of application of biological products and their combinations under the cultivation of peas, which was conducted during 2013–2017 on the areas of the Hryvas farm of Piatykhatky district of Dnipropetrovsk region. The following biological preparations were used: Reacom-C-Beans – for seed incrustation; phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria – for inoculation of sowing material; a three-component mixture of Krystalon, Agat-25K and Aktofit for spraying vegetative pea plants. It was carried out a substantiation of cost standards on production of pea grain, which was grown under the different variants of biological products application, on the basis of process flow diagram of cultivation. According to the results of the production inspection, the most effective variants of biological products application were identified both in terms of productivity and economic efficiency.
Key words: peas, production, economic efficiency, biological products, yield, cost, profitability
|Economic efficiency of nitrogen feedings for winter wheat cultivation in northen Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Economic efficiency of nitrogen feedings for winter wheat cultivation in northen Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.11"324":631.811.1:338.432 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0191
Grain Crops, 2021.5 (2). 321–328
Drumova O. M., Hasanova I. I., Kulyk A. O.
State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, VolodymyrVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
In the northern Steppe of Ukraine at the State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS for 2016–2019, we studied the influence of plant feeding with different types of nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea ammonium nitrate mixture (UAN-32), ammonium sulfate) on the economic efficiency of winter wheat cultivation after black fallow and after sunflower. It was established that the lowest cost of one grain ton, the highest net income per hectare and profitability level were in the trial variant where after both predecessors against the background of pre-sowing fertilization (N30P60K30 – after black fallow and N60P60K60 – after sunflower) feeding crops with nitrogen fertilizers was locally applied on two dates: N30 on freeze-thawed soil + N30 at the end of plant tillering stage. The above indicators among the studied varieties of winter wheat, such as Kokhanka (valuable variety), Nyva odeska and Uzhynok (strong varieties), were the best in the Nyva odeska variety, and they achieved at cultivation after black fallow depending on the type of nitrogen fertilizers 2055– 2222 UAH, 28470–30089 UAH per hectare and 200.2–224.6 %, respectively. When growing the same variety after sunflower with nitrogen feedings on two dates, the indicators ranged depending on the fertilizer type: the cost of one grain ton – 2813–2953 UAH, net income – 16802–17821 UAH/ha and profitability level – 125.9–137.1 %. The Uzhynok winter wheat variety after the non-fallow predecessor had the lowest economic indicators and produced lower yield compared to Nyva odeska and Kohanka varieties. It was found that Urea Ammonium Nitrate mixture (UAN-32) fertilizer for nitrogen feedings provided the higher economic cultivation efficiency of all winter wheat varieties, and the more expensive ammonium sulfate had the lower efficiency after both predecessors.
Keywords: winterwheat, variety, predecessor, mineral fertilizers, nitrogen feedings, yield, economic efficiency.
|Efficiency of the nitrogen fertilizers for maize root fertilizing||Annotation|
Efficiency of the nitrogen fertilizers for maize root fertilizing
UDC 633.15:631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0192
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 329–335
Moldovan, V. H., Moldovan, Zh. A.
Khmelnitskyi State Agricultural Experimental Station of Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture Podillia of NAAS, Samchyky village, Khmelnytskyi district, Khmelnytskyi region, 31182, Ukraine
We carried out research on the efficiency of maize root fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers in the critical stage of plant development and presented its results, and clarified its influence on the indicators of individual plant productivity and grain yield. It was found that nitrogen fertilizers caused an extension of the growing season of the early-ripening DN Meotyda hybrid by 4–8 days, and the mid-early DB Khotyn hybrid – by 2–9 days depending on the rate and method of fertilizing. At the same time, maize root fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers provided an increase in the number of productive ears per hybrid plant: DN Meotyda - by 4.3–13.0%, DB Khotyn - by 2.1–5.3% compared to the control. The grain weight per 1 ear of these hybrids increased by 9.1–28.7 and 11.6–36.6%, and the 1000 grain weight - by 4.6–17.6 and 7.3–21.4%, respectively. The grain yield of hybrid plants in the studied variants on root fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers increased: DN Meotyda - by 1.24–2.47 t/ha, or 17.1–34.0%, DB Khotyn - by 1.41–2, 65 t/ha, or by 18.8–35.3%. It was observed that the indicators of individual productivity and grain yield in each of the studied maize hybrids were the highest when nitrogen application with a rate of N45 in 3–5th and 7–9th leaf stages.
The one-time-application of nitrogen fertilizers of N90 in the 7–9th leaf stages was the least effective. The increase in grain yield of the early-ripening DN Meotyda hybrid compared to the control was 1.24 t/ha, or 17.1%, the mid-early – DB Khotyn –1.41 t/ha, or 18.8%.
Root fertilizing maize plants with nitrogen fertilizers in the critical development stages both optimizes their nutrition and reduces unproductive nitrogen losses, but also has a positive effect on growth and development, leaf surface area, individual productivity, and provides a significant increase in grain yield.
Key words: maize, hybrids, nitrogen fertilizers, fertilizing, individual productivity, yield
|Growing energy willow in the conditions of Western Polissia||Annotation|
Growing energy willow in the conditions of Western Polissia
UDC 504:620.9 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0193
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 336–342
Furmanets Yu. S., Furmanets M. H.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissia of NAAS,
5, Rivnenska St., Shubkiv, Rivne district, Rivne region,35325, Ukraine
The research results of influence of the planting density, fertilization and soil type on the productivity of the energy willow in the conditions of Western Polissia are presented.
On average over five years of research in the cultivation of energy willow it was found that the highest yield of dry biomass 102.9 t/ha was obtained on dark gray light loamy soil with a planting density of 20 thousand pcs/ha and fertilizer application at the rate of N60 P200 K200.
The lowest yield of dry biomass was at planting density of energy willow of 10 thousand pcs/ha in the variant without fertilizers on dark gray light loamy soil and sod-podzolic cohesive sandy soil – 49.1 and 26.9 t/ha, respectively. The mineral fertilizer application with rate of N60 P100 K100 ensured an increase in the yield of dry biomass by 13.5 and 7.5 t/ha depending on the type of soil. The increase of phosphorus and potash fertilizers rate to 200 kg a.i./ha contributed to an increase in dry mass up to 23.6 and 13.0 t/ha compared to the variant without fertilizers.
A similar result was obtained on sod-podzolic cohesive-sandy soil. The lowest indicators were in the variant without fertilizers at the planting density of 10 thousand pcs/ha – 26.9 t/ha, 15 thousand pcs/ha – 30.2 t/ha and 20 thousand рcs/ha – 35.6 t/ha dry biomass. The application of mineral fertilizers with rate of N60P100K100 for all planting densities increased the dry biomass yield to 34.4; 38.5; 45.3 t/ha, respectively. Increase of phosphorus and potash fertilizers rate up to 200 kg a.i./ha against the background of N60 contributed to an increase of energy willow yield up to 39.9 t/ha (with a planting density of 10 thousand pcs/ha), 44.1 t/ha (15 thousand pcs/ha) and 52.3 t/ha (20 thousand pcs/ha) of dry biomass.
On average for five years, the application of fertilizer with N60P200K200 rate on dark gray light loamy soil, and at planting density of 20 thousand pcs/ha provided the highest yield of solid biofuel from energy willow of 22.7 t/ha and energy of 363 GJ/ha, while on sod-podzolic cohesive-sandy soil under the same growing conditions the yield of solid biofuel from willow was less by 11.1 t/ha and energy of 178 GJ/ha.
Keywords: energy willow, dry biomass, solid biofuels, energy, soil.
|Productivity of spring barley in short-term crop rotation of Left-Bank Forest Steppe depending on the fertilization system||Annotation|
Productivity of spring barley in short-term crop rotation of Left-Bank Forest Steppe depending on the fertilization system
UDC 631.582 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0194
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 343–348
Martyniuk I. V., Boiko P. I., Tsymbal Ya. S.
National Scientific Center "Institute of Agriculture NAAS", 2-b Mashinobudivnykiv St., Chabany,
Kyevo-Svyatoshynskyi district, Kyiv region, 08162, Ukraine
The article analyzed the research results for 2016–2020 in a long-term stationary experiment, which was established in 2001 on typical chernozems with unstable humidity of the Left Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, namely, on the Panfil research station National Science Center "Institute of Agriculture NAAS". The research results convincingly showed that 4-field crop rotations with 100 % saturation with grain crops (peas–winter wheat–maize for grain–spring barley) under different fertilization systems, such as control (without fertilizers), mineral (with the application of N60P60K60), organo-mineral (NPK + by-products of the predecessor), organic (by-products of the predecessor) fertilization systems, are most rational for highly specialized farms the in this area. The grain yield of spring barley, depending on the fertilization system, was in the range of 4.18–5.54 t/ha. Productivity of crop rotation area in a 4-field crop rotation for harvesting spring barley per 1 ha was: grain – 5.50–7.69 tons, fodder units – 7.48–10.47; digestible protein – 0.60–0.84 tons. The economic efficiency of growing spring barley in short-term crop rotation depending on the fertilization systems is: relatively net profit – 14.2–20.7 thousand UAH/ha, profitability – 122.6–197.0 %.
Balanced short-term crop rotations with an optimal set and ratio of crops have been studied and introduced into production. Under market conditions, these crop rotations will ensure the production of competitive products and the preservation of soil fertility.
Key words: crop rotation, rotation, fertilizers, productivity, yield, grain, fodder units, digestible protein, economic efficiency.
|Influence of non-fallow predecessors on yield of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) in the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of non-fallow predecessors on yield of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) in the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.14 «324»/.16 «321»/.854.78:631.559 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0195
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 349–355
Bezsusidnia Yu. V.
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi, Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research results of influence of non-fallow predecessors on growth, development and formation of productivity of winter rye plants in the northern Steppe of Ukraine are given. It was found that higher grain yields (6.55 t/ha) were formed due to sowing dates from 20 to 25 September of Stoir winter rye variety after spring barley. Sowing winter rye after sunflower significantly reduced morpho-physiological indicators of plants that resulted to decrease grain yield. The yield of more plastic Pamiat Khudoierka variety had did not exceed 4.63 t/ha.
According to research, higher moisture reserves of 23.5 mm in a meter soil layer were after spring barley on the sowing date of winter rye. In addition, it was determined that the productive moisture soil reserves at the arresting growth season of winter rye plants in autumn depend on the predecessor: after spring barley the amount of agronomically valuable moisture in the 0–20 cm arable layer was 33.6 mm, after sunflower – 28.4 mm.
Over the two years of research, it was found that the plant height of the high-yield Stoir variety at the beginning of the winter averaged 23.1 cm, and the number of shoots and nodal roots - 4.6 and 9.3 pcs/plant, respectively.
It was established that predecessors and weather conditions significantly influence on the winter rye yield formation. Indicators of structural elements of yield show that stubble predecessor of spring barley dominates over sunflower, and provides better conditions for growth and development of winter rye plants. At the time of harvest, the winter rye spike length averaged 11.2 cm, the number of spikes and grains per the spike – 22.8 and 37.2 pcs, respectively.
Key words: winter rye, variety, predecessors, moisture reserves, morpho-physiological parameters of plants, yield structure, yield.
|Technical efficiency of herbicide tank mixtures under sunflower cultivation in the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Technical efficiency of herbicide tank mixtures under sunflower cultivation in the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 504.3:632.5:631.5:633.854.78 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0196
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 356–367
Tkalich Yu.I., Tsyliurik O.I., Kozechko, V.I, Shevchenko S. M., Honchar N. V., Rudakov Yu. M.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhii Yefremov St., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
At the current weed infestation level of chernozem, it is almost impossible to grow sunflowers without the regulated use of the most effective herbicides with different action spectrum on weeds. It was established that tank mixtures of ethametsulfuron-methyl herbicides (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.2 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml/ha and ethametsulfuron-methyl (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.5 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml/ha provided the highest technical efficiency and the lowest air-dry mass of weeds in the oilseed agrocenosis. Their technical efficiency was 61.2–65.8%. Almost all variants of herbicide tank mixtures showed a high phytotoxic effect on green amaranth (Amarantus retroflexus L.) – 51-61%, common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) – 52–76%, field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) – 100%, yellow foxtail (Setaria pumila L.) was the less controlled – 21– 31%.
The variants with the application of herbicide tank mixtures of ethametsulfuron-methyl (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.2 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml/ha showed the highest indicators of the yield structure elements, here the 1000 seed weight was 73.1 g at a maximum basket diameter of 31.5 cm. These indicators were less in 1.2–1.7 times for other studied variants with the herbicide tank mixtures.
When application of the tank mixtures of ethametsulfuron-methyl (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.2 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml / ha and ethametsulfuron -methyl (750 g/kg) – 25 g/ha + aclonifen (600 g/l) – 1.5 l/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300 ml/ha, it was obtained the maximum yield of sunflower seeds 2.15 and 2.07 t/ha, respectively. Other variants with herbicides and their tank mixtures had significantly lower yield of sunflower seeds – by 23–27 %.
Key words: sunflower, weeds, herbicides, tank mixes, yield, technical efficiency
|Influence of tillage and fertilization systems with by-products use on the winter wheat productivity in Western Polissia of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of tillage and fertilization systems with by-products use on the winter wheat productivity in Western Polissia of Ukraine
UDC 633: 11: 631.81: 631.51: 631.432 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0197
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 368–373
Furmanets M. H., Furmanets Y. S.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissia of NAAS, 5 Rivnenska St., Shubkiv, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325, Ukraine
The peculiarities of influence of tillage and fertilization systems with use of by-products on the winter wheat productivity were established by research, which was conducted on dark gray podzolic soil the in a four-field short-term crop rotation (winter rape - winter wheat – maize – spring barley). We studied three tillage systems (nonmoldboard plowing to 20–22 cm, shallow tillage to 10–12 cm, and surface tillage to 6–8 cm) and fertilization system with the use of crop by-products on the background of mineral fertilizers N128P90K120 kg/ha of crop rotation area.
The highest plant productivity was formed by moldboard plowing to 20–22 cm and shallow tillage to 10–12 cm in fertilization variants with straw and straw + Ecostern destructor, in this case, the thousand grain weight was 47.1 and 47.9 and 46.4 and 47.0 g, the of grain weight per spike – 2.1 and 2.2 and 1.9 and 2.0 g. And lowest plant productivity was under surface tillage to 6–8 cm and various fertilization systems, where the thousand grain weight was 45.2–45.6 g, and the grain weight per spike 1.8–1.9 g. At moldboard and non-moldboard plowing to 10–12 cm and using straw + destructor, it was observed that an gluten content in winter wheat grain increased to 23.5 and 22.7 %, and protein content – to 12.9–11.7 % compared to with surface tillage, where these figures were 21.5 and 9.5 %, respectively.
It was found that the moldboard plowing to 20–22 cm and shallow tillage to 10–12 cm was effective at winter wheat cultivation, which formed a higher grain yield – 6.80 and 6.32 t/ha. It was clarified that surface tillage to 6–8 cm caused a decrease in grain yield by 1.45 t/ha compared to the moldboard plowing.
On average, over the research years, there was an increase in yield by 0.36 and 0.45 t/ha due to the use of straw as a fertilizer separately and in combination with the Ecostern destructor. By comparison, in the variant without straw, the yield was 5.89 t/ha on average by a factor.
Consequently, we established that for winter wheat cultivation in the Western Polissia of Ukraine, it is expedient to carry out the moldboard plowing to 20–22 cm and the non-moldboard plowing to 10–12 cm and to use fertilization system with straw + Ecostern destructor + N 10 kg (ammonium nitrate) per 1 ton of straw.
Key words: winter wheat, tillage, fertilizers, yield, destructor.
|Effectiveness of the biodestructor action on the decomposition of rice residues in soybean cultivation technology||Annotation|
Effectiveness of the biodestructor action on the decomposition of rice residues in soybean cultivation technology
UDC 631.572:633.18:631.559:633.34 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0198
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 374–382
Dudchenko V. V. 1, Markovska O. Ye. 2, Sydiakina O. V. 2
1 Institute of Rice of NAAS, 11 Studentska St., Antonivka, Skadovsk district, Kherson region, 75705, Ukraine
2 Kherson State Agrarian and Economic University, 23 Stritenska St., Kherson, 73006, Ukraine
For the implementation of productive potential of soybeans, it was presented an effective method of post-harvest residue destruction with the biologics in rice crop rotation. The research was conducted at the Institute of Rice of NAAS during 2016–2018. In autumn, post-harvest rice residues were treated with the Biocomplex-BTU Ecostern biodestructor (1l/ha) in combination with carbamide (concentrated amide water-soluble fertilizer) (30 kg/ha). The variant with the carbamide application (30 kg/ha) in autumn was a control.
The application of the Biocomplex-BTU Ecostern biodestructor (1 l/ha) in combination with carbamide increased the total number of pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi in the soil from 65.5 to 80.5 thousand/g of soil, or 22.9 %. Thus, the pathogenic microflora content in the studied variant was lower than in the control (carbamide application at rate of 30 kg/ha) by 21.8 %, and the number of saprotrophs increased 3.3 times. When Ecostern biodestructor and carbamide were combined for application, the number of antagonistic fungi doubled, while the number of toxin-forming fungi reduced by 9.4 %. Soybean yield at the combined application of Ecostern biodestructor and carbamide increased by 0.6 t/ha, or 17.9 % compared to the control (carbamide – 30 kg/ha). In addition, in this variant, the content of post-harvest rice residues in the soil at the soybean sowing was lower by 1.25 g/kg of soil, or 20.3 % compared to the control, which created favorable conditions for seed germination. It was observed that the yield increased due to the higher plant density and the number of beans per plant. Before harvesting, the soybean plant density due to the high field germination of seeds in the studied variant was 45 pcs/m2, which is 9.7 % more than the control (41 pcs/m2). The number of beans was 24 and 28 pcs/plant, and exceeded the control by 16.7 %; the thousand grain weight was 156.2 and 157.5 g which is more than the control by 0.8 %.
Key words: post-harvest residues, microorganisms, fertilizers, soil, rice, soybeans, grain yield, thousand grains weight.
|Chemical protection of soft winter wheat against root rots||Annotation|
Chemical protection of soft winter wheat against root rots
UDC 633. 11: 632. 9 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0199
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 383–389
Kuzmenko N. V., Avramenko S. V., Hlubokyi О. M.
Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya.Yuriev of NAAS, 142 Moscow Avenue, Kharkiv, 61060, Ukraine
We are given research results of the effectiveness of pre-sowing treatment of soft winter wheat seeds with combined chemical fungicides against root rot and its influence on grain yield in the eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
The research results shown that development degree of root rots as Helminthosporium (Bіpolarіs sorokіnіana Shoemaker) and Fusarіum (Fusarіum Lіnk.) in control variant without fertilizers and protection at the spring tillering stage was 10.1 % with a prevalence of 22.6 %. In meteorological and phytosanitary conditions of research years, the intensity of root rots development in the spring tillering stage was reduced with pre-sowing seed treatment from 3.9 (Vitavax 200 FF standard) to 0.1% (Lamardor Pro). The technical efficiency of the pesticides was for Insure Perform - 69.7 %; Scenic - 77.4 %; Vincit Forte - 77.9 %; Lamardor 400 and Lamardor Pro - at the level of 78.3-78.8 %; Vitavax 200 FF standard - 50.0%, compared to the unfertilized control. In the grain dough stage, pesticides were ineffective.
Grain yield in unfertilized control was 6.64 t/ha, and in the fertilized control - 7.37 t/ha, which is 10 % more.
The combined action of fertilizers and pre-sowing seed treatment significantly increased grain yield gain - from 0.78 (Vitavax 200 FF) to 1.15 t/ha (Scenik), or by 11.7–17.3 %.
Seed dressing with Vincit Forte, Insure Perform, Lamardor 400, Lamardor Pro and Scenic resulted to obtain the relatively net profit of 795, 687, 763, 139 and 857 UAH/ha, respectively. Lamardor 400, Insure Perform and Vincit Forte provided the highest profitability of 119 %, 93 % and 78 %, respectively.
Keywords: soft winter wheat, root rots, systemic seed dresser, technical effectiveness, yield.
|Agroeconomic justification of the maize and soybean production at coulisse-strip planting||Annotation|
Agroeconomic justification of the maize and soybean production at coulisse-strip planting
UDC 631.531.2:633.15:633.34 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0200
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (2). 390–396
ArtemenkoS. F., Kovtun O.V.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi St.,
We researched the formation of maize and soybean grain productivity in conditions of insufficient moisture at coulisse-strip planting with mineral fertilizer application in a rate of N30Р30К30 under primary tillage and rational use of moisture.
In conditions of insufficient moisture and at the alternation of maize and soybean rows, it was found that the illumination of the agrocenosis significantly changed, especially in adjacent rows. In this case, there were differences in temperature and humidity of air, on soil surface and between rows on the plot. The best results were obtained with the wide-row sowing maize and soybeans with 45 cm row spacing compared to 70 cm row spacing. Under the canopy of closed soybean leaves in 30 and 45 cm row spacing, the air temperature at afternoon (1:00 p.m.) was by 4.5–6.2 ° C lower than in open soil areas and above the agrocenosis surface. In adjacent rows, maize plants shaded soybean plants in the morning and afternoon; they were less exposed to sunlight and had more favorable conditions for growth and development.
The soybean and maize plot with 45 cm row spacing was the most productive. Grain productivity of soybean and maize plants from the whole plot was 2.04 and 4.55 t/ha, respectively, and was maximum. The cost of 1 ton of soybean and maize grain was the lowest at coulisse-strip planting with 45 cm row spacing. When growing soybeans in coulisse-strip planting with row spacing of 30 cm, the cost of production was slightly higher.
In case when row width was 70 cm, a cost increased and a profit decreased by 240 and 98 UAH, respectively. The profitability of soybean and maize cultivation at coulisse-strip planting with 45 cm row spacing was 114 and 128%, respectively.
Keywords: maize, soybeans, coulisse-strip planting, sowing method, production costs, cost price, profit, profitability.
Сongratulations on the anniversaries
|Responsibility for scientific results - the key to success in solving urgent issues of agriculture||Annotation|
Responsibility for scientific results - the key to success in solving urgent issues of agriculture
Annotation is being prepared
|Honest work and its results||Annotation|
Honest work and its results
Annotation is being prepared
|Success is the ability to move towards a goal without losses of enthusiasm||Annotation|
Success is the ability to move towards a goal without losses of enthusiasm
Annotation is being prepared
|To the 85th anniversary of the birth of I. A. Pabat||Annotation|
To the 85th anniversary of the birth of I. A. Pabat
Annotation is being prepared
|To the 90th anniversary of the birth of P. P. Dyha||Annotation|
To the 90th anniversary of the birth of P. P. Dyha
Annotation is being prepared
|To the 110th anniversary of the birth of I. S. Godulian||Annotation|
To the 110th anniversary of the birth of I. S. Godulian
Annotation is being prepared
|150 years to the outstanding scientist-breeder organizer of research practice V. V. Talanov||Annotation|
150 years to the outstanding scientist-breeder organizer of research practice V. V. Talanov
Annotation is being prepared