Grain Crops.-2020.-Vol. 4. - № 1
|Variation of breeding traits of popcorn’s lines||Annotation|
Variation of breeding traits of popcorn’s lines
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 5–11.
Cherchel V. Yu., Kuprichenkova T. G., Kuprichenkov D. S. .
SE Institute Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14,Volodymyra Vernadskyi Str.,
Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
Popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt.) has certain biological features that set it apart from other subspecies. The plants of popcorn form a large number of corncobs and many lateral shoots of different heights. They have a less developed root system than dent corn, so they are more often to lie down and have less drought resistance.
The cobs of popcorn are smaller in size and have small grain. Grains are very hard, glassy, almost completely filled with horny endosperm. Popping expansion volume is the most important quality trait in popcorn and the one that distinguishes it from all other types of maize.
The purpose of the research was to study the popcorn’s lines on a complex of valuable traits. The starting material for the research was sixty one lines of popcorn created in the laboratory of the selection of corn for eating. Experiments were carried out at Synelnikovska breeding and research station of the SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine during 2016–2018 years.
As a result of the research it was found that a considerable part of the lines of working collection have FAO 200–390 and are suitable for mechanized cultivation. The analysis of the structure of the cob showed that most lines of popcorn have the following parameters: the cob is medium in length (11 – 14 cm), thin in diameter (2–3 cm), with the number of rows of grains from 10 to 16, grains in a row from 26 to 35 and weighing 1000 seeds from 100 g to 200 g.
It was found that, under more extreme growing conditions, average, minimum and maximum values on all traits decreased. Strong variation was observed on the characteristics of "attachment height of cob", "cob length", "number of grains in a row", average – "plant height", "diameter of cob", "number of rows of grains" and strong and medium – "weight of 1000 seeds".
Consequently, the high and average values of the coefficients of variation make it possible to select the best lines for breeding hybrid of popcorn.
Key words: selection, popcorn, line, breeding traits, variation parameters, source material.
|Appraisal of barley spring genotypes for yield and resistance to diseases||Annotation|
Appraisal of barley spring genotypes for yield and resistance to diseases
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 12–19.
Marukhnyak A. Ya., Bilovus H. Ya., Pushchak V. I. .
Institute of Agriculture of Carpathian Region of NAAS, 5, Hrushevskogo Str., Obroshyne vilege, Pustomyty distric, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The research was conducted in the years 2017–2019 on the fields of the grain and forage crops breeding laboratory at the conditions of breeding and seed crop rotation of the Institute of Agriculture of Carpathian Region of NAAS. The subject of research was 10 spring barley breeding lines and standard varieties Komandor and Orvel.
The purpose of our work was the realization of complex evaluation of the barley genotypes for productivity, resistance to pathogens, and adaptive features. The highest yields were achieved by the Orvel variety (4,17 t/ha) and the breeding line 740-231 (4,11 t/ha). Two more lines 742-221 and 699-2-18 showed slightly higher productivity than the standard, but the increases of yields grain were mathematically unreliable. The variability of yield indexes was insignificant (R = 0,78 t/ha, V = 5,92%). According to the regression coefficient, the highest plasticity for yield was distinguished the breeding lines 740-231, 700-3-17, 702-1-12, 409-1-4 and 699-2-18, but only the latter had high stability. The highest homeostaticity was found in 703-111 – 152,36, and the varieties Komandor, Orvel and lines 742-221, 762-2-11 and 703-111 were assigned to the category with high breeding value (30,66–37,26). Agronomic and phenotypic stability coefficients are used to determine the range of trait stability. According to these coefficients, the line 703-111 (As = 97,58; SF = 1.05) and varieties Komandor (As = 95,83; SF = 1,09) and Orvel (As = 95, 44; SF = 1,10) were marked withthe more stability of trait “yield“.
The immunologic appraisals were conducted with the conversion of infection degree by disease in proofs of removal from average meaning (resistance indexes) to all studied variety-samples for determination of the genotypes spring barley resistance to agents of powdery mildew, meshy spots, dwarf rust and loose smut. The integral reaction on harmful organisms (index of complex resistance) can be evaluated through the determination of an average of the resistance indexes to agents of barley diseases. For evaluation of the resistance to diseases, the lines 545-5-9, 702-1-12, 742-221 and Orvel variety showed the less infectivity by the powdery mildew; lines 702-1-12 and 703-111– by the net blotch; lines 740-231 and 545-5-9 – by the dwarf rust; lines 702-1-12 and 740-231 – by the loose smut. The resistance of barley genotypes to pathogens relative to the adaptive norm, as well as their level of genetic protection was evaluated for the complex resistance index. The genotypes 702-1-12, 740-231, Orvel and 545-5-9 have the highest proofs of the complex resistance index to the agents of four diseases.
Key words: spring barley, breeding line, yield, appraisal, resistance.
|Features of formation and demonstration of signs of grain productivity in winter triticale||Annotation|
Features of formation and demonstration of signs of grain productivity in winter triticale
UDC 631.527: 631.1: 633.1123.9
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 20–27.
Levchenko O. S., Starуchenko V. M.
NSC “Institute of Agriculture of NAAS”, 2-B, Mashynobudivnykiv str., v. Chabany, Kyiv-Sviatoshynskiy district, Kyiv region, 08162, Ukraine
The results of the evaluation of collection samples of winter triticale (Ч Triticosecale) by the elements of the structure of grain productivity are presented. A genetic diversity of the collection according to the parameters of productivity traits was astablished. The smallest variability of collection samples was found with the grain mass per plant (V – 8.6%, lim – 2.5–3.5 g), the weight of 1000 grains (V – 8.8%, lim – 37.1–52, 8 g) and the height of the plants (V – 9.8%, lim – 96–149 cm), the average – the number of grains per plant (V – 10.6%, lim – 55.5–72.3 pcs.), productive bushiness (V – 15.3%, lim – 1.3–2.3 pieces) and the number of grains per ear (V – 19.9%, lim – 27.8–59.3 pieces), strong – by weight of grain per ear (V – 20.4%, lim – 1.1–2.5 g). A strong positive correlation was established between grain productivity and grain weight per ear (r = 0.78) and medium strength – with the number of grains per plant and ear (r – 0.47 and 0.63, respectively). There is practically no correlation between the grain productivity and the mass of 1000 grains and the height of the plants. A negative correlation of medium strength (r = -0.43) was establish-hed between the mass of grain per plant and the number of productive stems. Using the method of regression analysis, we determined the direction and magnitude of changes in grain productivity in the collection samples of winter triticale when alternating the parameters of the attributes of the elements of its structure.
Key words: winter triticale, collection samples, elements of the structure of grain productivity, variability and correlation of traits.
|Genotypes diversity in the ampelographic repository of NSC “Tairov Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-Making” (Ukraine) and its potential in breeding process||Annotation|
Genotypes diversity in the ampelographic repository of NSC “Tairov Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-Making” (Ukraine) and its potential in breeding process
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 28–37.
Kovalova I. A., Skrypnyk V. V., Vlasov V.V., Muliukina N. A., Gerus L. V., Fedorenko M. G., Salii O. V.
National Scientific Center «Tairov Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-Making» NAAS, 27, 40 let Pobeda str., Tairovo, Odessa, 65496, Ukraine
Traits collection of donor varieties (valuable economic traits donors), in particular seedlessness trait, has been created. An analysis some of the registered varieties on the resistance scaile to fungal diseases showed a tendency to increasing the adaptability of new generation varieties.
According to the degree of seed rudiments development, an assessment of 36 grape varieties ori-ginated from 12 countries was made, the first category seedlessness varieties were identified, which in the future can be used as parent components in crosses.
Screening data analysis of the registered grape varieties resistance to fungal diseases was presented, and the tendency to increase of resistant varieties number in State Register of plant varieties for dissemi-nation in Ukraine compared to the last decades of the last century. Genotypes with high productivity and ecological plasticity were presented, which are suitable for the formation of a new adaptive variety structure that provides stable yield annually, combined with exclusive taste and aroma of wine made from new wine varieties and high-quality table grape along with a considerable decrease of a number of pesticide treatments. This fact along with high resistance to biotic and abiotic factors makes such genotypes potential donors of valuable traits for new breeding programs.
Aromatic profiles of wines from new wine varieties and selections grades and forms of grapes were compiled, the exclusivity of their taste and aroma complex was confirmed. Promising table varieties were distinguished by the traits of the bunch and berry size and the marketability of the bunches.
By the SSR analysis the origin of varieties was confirmad, which is especially important for varieties obtained using a pollen mixture.
Key words: SSR-analysis, genotype, resistance seedlessness, variety, organoleptic profile, marketa-bility, large berry and bunch size.
|Marker-associated selection by the Sh1 gene forthe creation the anthocyanincolored sugar maize line||Annotation|
Marker-associated selection by the Sh1 gene forthe creation the anthocyanincolored sugar maize line
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 38–45.
Psolova A. O., Denysiuk K. V., Satarova T. M.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
Today, there is a trend in the world to create new maize genotypes with a controlled content of anthocyanins, carotenoids, proteins and carbohydrates in grains and use them as functional foods. A high content of anthocyanins is characterized by some maize varieties and hybrids of dental, scaly and flintly subspecies on the Ukraine territory, however, sugar maize with anthocyanin colored grains is not widespread.
The aim of our work was to obtaining the later generations of plants from the crossing of yellow grains sugar maize with anthocyanin colored grains maize and identification from them the homozygous plants for marker phi033 of Sh1 gene to create a inbred of sugar maize with anthocyanin colored grains.
The material of the study was the CE401 sugar maize inbred with yellow grains, the population Chornosteblova, which has a dental anthocyanin grains, the F1 hybrid (CE401хChornosteblova) and the self-pollination hybrid generations F1(CE401хChornosteblova).
All grains of all F1 hybrid studied plants had a yellow color and a semi-dental structure (not wrinkled endosperm). Splitting in the F2–F3 generations had more compound display. Splitting by color and grain structure was observed. The anthocyanin colored grains with wrinkled endosperm typical for sugar maize were obtained in the F4 generation from self-pollination of the CE401хChornosteblova hybrid.
Molecular genetic analysis was carried out in parallel. According to the results of the polymerase chain reaction, the molecular marker phi033 of the Sh1 gene is represented with the 236 bp allele or/and 310 bp allele in the CE maize sugar inbred. This marker is represented with the 264 bp allele in the Chornosteblova population with a dental structure of grains. Heterozygotes with the marker phi033 of the Sh1 gene with the 236 bp/264 bp and 310 bp/264 bp are occurred among plants of the F1(CE401хChornosteblova) hybrid. Alleles of parental forms and their various combinations are noted also in the self-pollination F4 ge-neration of the CE401хChornosteblova hybrid for the marker phi033 of the Sh1 gene. The allele of the only maternal sugar marker form with 236 bp was observed at 15 among 35 analyzed F4 plants that indicating homozygosity for this marker. Self-pollination and reproduction of such plants is recommended for obtaining the sugar maize inbred with anthocyanin colored grains.
Key words: maize, polymerase chain reaction, geneSh1, phi033, anthocyanin colored grains.
|Peculiarities of corn seeds germination depending on their coarseness||Annotation|
Peculiarities of corn seeds germination depending on their coarseness
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 46–52.
Kyrpa M.Ya., Kovalov D.V.
SЕ Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The aim of research was identifying the dynamics of water absorbing by grain, determination of its laboratory similarity and the strength of growth depending on coarseness and fraction composition.
The hybrid corn breeding of SE of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS was used while researching, which were separated on sieves with round and long holes. After separating six fraction of each hybrid were got, they were different by line size, among them three – according to the width of the seed (sieves with round holes) and three – according to the thickness (sieves with long holes). While researching, three fractions were separated into large, average and tiny, which were different by according to dynamics of water absorbing, similarity and strength of seed germination.
It was identified that the fraction which consisted of tiny grain absorbs water the most intensively, its mass increases to 2,9–6,1% in comparison with large and average. The amount of water needed for germination of grains, which were researched, was 35,8% from the starting mass of grain.
The dynamics of germination of seeds of different coarseness was special. In the beginning the tiny grains were germinating the most intensively, after 24 hours the amount of germinated grains has already been 31–37%, after 48 hours – 59–73%, after 72 hours – 88,3–95,3%, which was 2,3–42,0% higher, than the results received from grains of average and large size. But after 96 hours of germination the amount of germinated seeds from different fractions was almost the same.
The strength of germination was researched in the depth of planting seeds in 5, 9 and 13 cm, imitating the period of sowing-germination in the field. The highest strength of germination during sowing was identified for the seeds of large and average fractions in comparison with tiny seeds, but only in case, when the fraction is formed according to the «width of seeds».
While forming the fraction according to «thickness of seeds» the regularity was broken, strength of germination was almost independent of fraction coarseness.
The identified peculiarities should be taken into consideration in the technologies of seed separating into different fractions according to size, and in agricultural equipment for breeding corn hybrids.
Key words: corn, hybrid, fraction, water absorbing, germination, strength of germination.
|Agroresources and scientific modeling of production of 100 million tons of grain||Annotation|
Agroresources and scientific modeling of production of 100 million tons of grain
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 53–63.
Cherchel V. Yu., Shevchenko M. S.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskogo Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The analysis of the ways of implementation of the national program "Grain of Ukraine – 2010" is given. Proposals for the main agro-environmental and economic parameters of the program of production by 2030 100 million tons of grain, methods of forecasting gross grain harvests, agro-climatic potential of agricultural zones, capacity of grain market, dynamics of innovative progress, results of zonal tests of varieties and technologiesis presented. The complex of regulatory factors included the assessment of the fertility of zonal soils, the yield potential of promising varieties, the level of technical support for growing of crops, the effectiveness of fertilizer systems, the protective functions of pesticides and environmentalmeasures.
Three models of development of the grain production industry are proposed: intensive, agro-ecological bio-conservative, ecologically-economically balanced. It is calculated that the agro-ecological conservative model will contribute to the reduction of the use of production resources, the radical reduction in environment pollution by aggressive chemical substances, the creation of bio-conservative and recreational zones. Climatic deformations, change of zonal weather conditions and their influence on yield, structure of acreage in agricultural regions were traced. Methods of using mineral fertilizers and increasing their payback in the system of various agro-technologies of moisture-saving and ecological direction are recommended.
Widespread use of crop by-products as a major factor in regulating soil fertility has been proposed. The question of introduction of differential tillage in crop rotation is discussed and agro-physical characteristics of soils are given depending on plowing, disking, chiseling and No-till system. The basic tendencies of improvement of agricultural machinery, energy saturation, minimization of energy consumption, increasing of labor productivity, improvement of quality of soil cultivation operations and harvesting are shown. The proven priority of varieties and hybrids with a yield potential of 10–15 t/ha is substantiated.
The advantages of targeted use of a complex of measures against harmful organisms are clearly demonstrated.
Keywords: grain, program, climate, soil, structure, crop rotation, fertilizers, cultivation, varieties, protection, technologies, methods
|Frost resistance and grain productivity of winter wheat depending on agricultural growing methods||Annotation|
Frost resistance and grain productivity of winter wheat depending on agricultural growing methods
UDC 633.11:631.8: 547.461.4
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 64–70.
Yaroshenko S. S. .
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
Features of action and interaction of precursors, mineral fertilizers, varieties and terms of sowing on frost resistance and productivity of winter wheat are highlighted. The regenerative ability of winter wheat under the influence of biologically active compounds-succinic acid and ammonium molybdate after low-temperature stress was investigated. It is established that under the influence of the growth regulator of succinic acid in winter wheat plants damaged by frost, the formation of a link of protective reactions aimed at repairing the damage occurs. During the research period (2016–2018), the maximum yield (6.83 t/ha) of winter wheat formed on the background of mineral fertilizers N90P60K60 after the predecessor bare fallow. In General, on fertilized backgrounds, the yield of winter wheat ranged from 3.35 to 6.83 t/ha, reaching maximum values in the variants of the optimal sowing period (September 25) against the background of mineral fertilizers N90P60K60. The creation of optimal nutrition backgrounds provided in most cases a significant additional increase in yield, on average from 0.73 to 1.80 t/ha compared to the control variant.
With the shift of sowing dates, both in the direction of early (September 5) and late (October 10), the yield of winter wheat plants decreased by an average of 0.36 t/ha and 0.56 t/ha, respectively.
Autumn development of winter wheat plants and associated with it, the formation of winter hardiness, depended on all the studied factors: the predecessor, varietal characteristics, sowing period and background of mineral nutrition. Sowing on September 25 and October 10, according to the predecessor of bare fallow, plants died less than at earlier sowing dates (September 5), which is due to the short period of their vegetation in autumn and less overgrowth. The highest level of winter hardiness of plants after the stubble predecessor was formed at sowing on September 25, and within one sowing period-with sufficient nutrient supply (N90P90K90).
Studies have shown the prospects of using succinic acid to activate the protective reactions of winter plants, aimed at repairing damage and reducing the negative impact of low-temperature stress. Treatment of winter crops with succinic acid increased the survival rate of shoots and plants by 19.4 and 17.2 %, respectively.
Key words: winter wheat, sowing time, mineral fertilizers, precursors, frost resistance, yield, grain.
|Yield and sowing qualities of winter wheat depending on pre-sowing bacterization of seeds in the conditions of western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Yield and sowing qualities of winter wheat depending on pre-sowing bacterization of seeds in the conditions of western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.11: 631.53.01: 631.86
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 71–79.
Voloshchuk I. S.
Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region NAAS, 5 Grushevskogo Str., Obroshin village Pustomytovskogo areaLviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The widespread use of biological methods of plant protection and nutrition is of great interest to producers of both grain and seed products. Microbial preparations today are considered as one of the ele-
ments of energy-saving technologies. With their help, it is possible to influence the growth and development of plants, given the agricultural background not exceeding the physiological needs for nutrients. Only through the interaction of introduced bacteria with the host plant will their maximum and effective action be manifested.
In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in the creation of biological products based on associative microorganisms, the implementation of which is actively involved in a number of leading domestic and foreign companies in the world, among them the leader in Ukraine is the Institute of Agricultural Microbiology and Agro-Industrial Production of the NAAS, whose scientists have proposed a number of inoculants for presowing seed treatment.
With sufficient moisture supply of the soil-climatic zone of the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, the use of bacterial preparations of nitrogen-fixing action (Diazofit, Agrobacterin) and phosphomobilizing (Polymyxobacterin) in pre-sowing seed treatment provided an increase in seed productivity and sowing qualities of soft winter wheat seeds.
Over the years of research, weather conditions during the sowing-seedling period were characterized by variegation both in air temperature and in the amount of precipitation. The third decade of September 2010 was characterized by 1,0 °C higher air temperature and less rainfall (10,5 mm) with an average annual norm of 19,0 mm. The temperature was higher by 2,8 °С in 2011 with a lower (11,0 mm) amount of precipitation, which amounted to 57% of the norm. In 2012, air temperature prevailed over a long-term average of 3.2 °C, and the amount of precipitation was 7,7 mm, however, in the second decade it was more than 32 mm with a norm of 20 mm. In 2013, a decrease of 2.3 °C in air temperature and a decrease in precipitation were observed (69% to normal). In the second decade, precipitation amounted to 42,1 at a rate of 20,0 mm. The temperature conditions of the sowing-seedling season 2014 were within the long-term average of indicators with low moisture supply – 12,4 mm.
The productive moisture of the sown soil layer, which in 2010 was 32 mm, in 2011 – 33 mm, in 2012 – 38 mm, in 2013 – 39 mm, in 2014 – 34 mm was sufficient to produce friendly seedlings.
The obtained experimental data suggest that pre-sowing treatment of winter wheat seeds with bacterial preparations increased field germination of seeds by 2,1–2,7 %. When using microbial preparations, physiological processes in the seed were activated, which subsequently affected the best growth and development of plants in the autumn period. The microorganisms introduced into the agrocenoses contributed to the higher wintering of plants by 3,8–8,2 %.
Under the influence of bacterial preparations, the best growth and development of plants was observed, which contributed to an increase in yield of 0,21–0,23 t/ha, for the application of Agrobacterin and Diazofit to the background of mineral nutrition N90Р90К90. The effectiveness of Polymyxobacterin was higher against the background of the mineral nutrition N30Р90К90 + N30 in the IV and VII stages of organogenesis – 0,59 t/ha and 0,44 t/ha – at a lower rate of phosphorus application (P45).
Bacterial preparations positively affected the seed productivity of plants, increasing the seed reproduction rate by 0,8–2,3 units, the yield of conditioned seeds by 1–3 %.
Against the background of mineral nutrition N30Р90К90 with phased introduction of nitrogen in the norm N30, microbial preparations based on nitrogen fixators contributed to the formation of a mass of 1000 seeds in the range 43,6–44,0 g, on the basis of phosphate mobilization bacteria – 44,7–45,3 g. Germination energy and laboratory germination of the collected seeds mostly depended on the weather conditions of the period of its formation, however, with options for seed pre-sowing inoculation, these indicators were higher, by 5–10 and 7–11 %, respectively, until absolute control and by 4–7 and 1–3 % to the background of mineral nutrition of plants.
Keywords: winter wheat, bacterial preparations, productivity, sowing qualities of seeds.
|The effect of fertilization on the effectiveness of microbial treatment of seeds and crops of spring barley||Annotation|
The effect of fertilization on the effectiveness of microbial treatment of seeds and crops of spring barley
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 80–86.
Khmelnitskaya State Agricultural Experiment Station Institute of provender and agriculture Podillia NAAS,
1, Samchiki Str., Samchiki village, Starokostyantinov district, Khmelnitsky region, 31182, Ukraine
The results of 2016–2018 study on the effect of mineral fertilizers, green manure, seed treatment with biological products, and spraying with Biocomplex-BTU preparation on productivity indicators and disease damage of varieties of spring barley Avgiy and Voevoda.
It was established that biological products were most effective against the background without fertilizer application. Presowing bacterization of seeds contributes to an increase in productivity by 2.1–13.1 %, depending on the variety and fertilizer. For the actions of mineral fertilizers both separately and in combination with green manure, the yield increased by 26.8–37.9%.
When processing seeds of Avgiy variety with Agrobacterin, depending on the background of fertilizer and processing of crops Biocomplex-BTU, an increase in grain yield of 2.1–5.0% is ensured; Polymyxobacterin –in 4.5–8.7%; Biocomplex-BTU – 4.8–12.6%. When processing seeds of Voevoda variety, these indicators were, respectively, 2.8–5.4%, 4.3–9.5% and 5.9–13.1%.
There is a weakening in the percentage effectiveness of the studied drugs with an improvement in the overall agricultural background. Thus, it was found that the percentage of increase in yield from seed treatment in the Voevoda variety significantly decreased against the background of fertilizer to 2.8–7.2%, against 4.6–13.1% in plots without fertilizers, and in the variety Avgiy, respectively, to 2.1–6.6%, against 4.7–12.6%. In addition, from spraying the crops Biocomplex-BTU received another 2.7–7.3% increase in the variety Avgiy and 1.6–6.2% – in the variety Voevoda.
Inoculation of seeds and treatment of crops with biologics increase the number of productive stems and grains in the ear. The number of stems per 1 m2 of varieties Avgiy and Voevoda varied, respectively, from 415 and 451 pcs. according to the variant without seed and fertilizer treatment, up to 516 and 562 pcs. ‑ when applying N60P60K60 with green manure and with the treatment of seeds and crops with Biocomplex-BTU. Inoculation of barley seeds with microbial preparations also significantly increased the number of grains in the ear. Spraying crops Biocomplex-BTU also increased these indicators.
Inoculation of seeds with biological products reduced the level of damage to root rot, and the treatment of crops with Biocomplex-BTU – mesh helminthosporium.
Keywords: barley, productivity, biological products, mineral fertilizers, green manure, barley diseases.
|Almaieva T.M. Biologized technology of soybean growing under conditions of risky agriculture of the Right-bank Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Almaieva T.M. Biologized technology of soybean growing under conditions of risky agriculture of the Right-bank Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.34.631.461; 631.8.5: 632.954
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 87–95.
Hryhorieva O.M.,Cheriachukin M. I., Almaieva T.M.
Agrarian Institute of the Steppe by the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 2, Tsentralna Str.,
s. Sozonivka, Kropyvnytskyi district, Kirovohrad region, 27602, Ukraine
The efficiency of the combined use of microbial preparations, growth regulators and seed protectant by soybean cultivation with use of various fertilization systems, tillage weed protection was investigated.
It has been established that the presowing seed inoculation of the early ripening soybean sort Medea with the nitrogen-fixing microbial preparation Rizogumin, both separately and in combination with the plant growth regulators Biolan and Biosil, ensures the formation of active symbiosis, high seed productivity, helps to improve product quality, increase profitability and reduce production costs when both methods of tillage.
The use of deep tillage in the technology of soybean cultivation contributed to an increase in grain yield by 16.1% in comparison with fine one. Through the use of biological products, an additional 0.14–0.20 t/ha was obtained.
Against the natural background, both in ploughing and in planar tillage, higher yields were obtained as a result of the combined use of the microbial preparation for pre-sowing seed preparation Rizogumin and growth regulator Biolan for spraying crops – 2.51 and 2.22 t/ha, as well as the control amounted to 13.6 and 15.6%, respectively.The use of the mechanized method of crop care in soybean cultivation technology of chamomile cultivated soybean contributed to lower yields compared to resource-saving and intensive technologies by 0.94 and 1.10 t/ha or 75.8 and 87.7%. The use of microbial preparations and fungicides increased productivity by 7.1–7.7% and 1.6–2.7%, accordingly.
The highest yield of soybean grain when using the resource-saving plant protection system against weeds in soybean growth technology (application of soil herbicide) was obtained with the combined use of the fungicide Lamardor and the microbial preparation Rizobofit (2.35 t/g), intensive Maxim XL + Rizogumin 2.49 t/ha, which made it possible to obtain additionally 0.32 t/ha (15.8%) and 0.33 t/ha (15.3%).Due to the use of resource-saving and intensive growth technologies against the background of seed treatment with microbial preparations and protectors, the cost of the resulting products has dropped by a factor of five 1.6 and 1.7 in comparison with the herbicide-free system for protecting soybean crops from weeds.The development of soybean cultivation technology will make it possible to more widely use the potential of this crop in the conditions of the Right-bank Steppe of Ukraine, which, in turn, helps to increase productivity.The use of microbial preparations will reduce the application of mineral fertilizers, which is an important reserve of savings.
Key words: soybean, microbial preparations, growth technology, tillage, pesticides,crop, crop quality, economic efficiency.
|Peculiarities of formation of feed productivity of annual cultures in early-spring (prevernal) agrophytocenoses||Annotation|
Peculiarities of formation of feed productivity of annual cultures in early-spring (prevernal) agrophytocenoses
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 96–102.
DudkaM. I., Yakunin O. P.
State Institution Institute of Cereal Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyra VernadskohoStr., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The results of studies on the formation of productivity in two- and three-component agrophytocenoses with the participation of junegrass (Koeleria sp.) spring, legumes and cabbage component of oil-bearing radish in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine are presented. The rates of growth and increment of above ground part of the plants – components depending on their specivic composition are determined. At the beginning of vegetation, the highest intensity of growth processes was in barley plants. On the 25th day after seedling emergence, the height of its plants in early-spring mixtures was 30–31 cm. This indicator in other junegrass spring crops – spring triticale and oats was lower by 7–9 and 4–5 cm, respectively. The height of plants of legumes components – peas and vetch at this time was equal to 25–26 and 16–17 cm respectively, the oil-bearing radish – 12–13 cm. At the beginning of vegetation, the largest linear growth in spring barley, spring triticale and pea plants, and the smallest linear growth in spring vetch and oil-bearing radish was observed. Subsequently (for 35 days after seedling emergence) the triticale spring and oats plants were no longer inferior to or higher than barley in index of height, and peas and oil radish were higher than the spring vetch by 6–10 cm. Between 25 and 35 days of vegetation after seedling emergence, the intensity of growth processes was highest in the spring triticale, oats and in plants of the cabbage component – oil-bearing radish. The introduction to composition of two-component crops of spring triticale and oats with the spring vetch of new component – oil-bearing radish provided an increase in the total leaf area of agrophytocenosis by 7,2 and 5,1 %, respectively. The introduction to composition of triticale and vetch mixture the oil-bearing radish provided an obtaining of green fodder for 4 days earlier. Replacement of speciмшс composition in two- and three-component agrophytocenoses with participation of spring triticale, as well as oats and spring vetch allows to extend the period of their use in the green conveyor system by 7–9 days. It is established, that the introduction of triticale-vetch mixture of oil-bearing radish increased the yield of green mass by 1,49–1,98 t/ha, the collection of absolutely dry matter – by 0,08–0,10 t/ha. Use of cabbage component in compatible agrophytocenoses with the participation of oats can increase the yield of green mass by 1,77–2,98 t/ha and the collection of absolutely dry matter by 0,06–0,14 t/ha compared to vetch-oats mixture. At growing of two- and three-component mixtures of common oats with spring vetch and oil-bearing radish, the highest (4584–5175 UAH/ha) of conventional revenue was obtained and 61,4–73,7 % of the level of profitability was achieved at the lowest product cost at the energy factor of 6,34–6,88.
Keywords: agrophytocenosis, specivic composition, plant growth rate, yield, energy and economic efficiency.
|Optimization of fertilizer systems for winter wheat cultivation in conditions of the Right-bank Forest Steppe||Annotation|
Optimization of fertilizer systems for winter wheat cultivation in conditions of the Right-bank Forest Steppe
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 103–107.
Khmelnitskiy state agricultural experimental station Institute of feed and agriculture of Podillya of NAAS,
Samchyky village, Starokostiantyniv district, Khmelnytsky region, 31182, Ukraine
The results of the influence of fertilizer systems on the structure of the crop and the yield of winter wheat in terms of the Right Bank Forest Steppe are presented. The best backgrounds and optimum fertilizer systems have been identified, by increasing the productivity of the ear of plants that provide high yields and product quality.
It was found that the lowest yield of winter wheat grain was formed against the background of natural soil fertility – 4.02 t/ha. The aftereffects of alternative fertilizers on this background contributed to the increase in crop yields with grain leaving the straw organic fertilizer of 0.15 t/ha and plowing of the green manure biomass – 0.33 t/ha, their combination – 0.48 t/ha.
Much higher grain yields (44 to 49%) were obtained from the use of mineral fertilizers and the effects of manure, which improved almost all indicators of the structure and quality of the crop. Due to the N116P10K100, yield increase was 1.77 t/ha,from the impact of manure (40 t/ha) – 1.86 t/ha, the combination of their half norms – 1.95 t/ha.
The combination of traditional fertilizer backgrounds with alternative types of organic has increased the yield of grain on the mineral background in the range of 1.95–2.34 t/ha, organic – 2.06–2.52 t/ha, organic -mineral 2.21–2, 64 t/ha.
Optimal fertilizer systems to maximize winter wheat yield in conditions of the Right Bank Forest Steppe are combined mineral, organic and organic-mineral fertilizer systems, which include the use of traditional fertilizers: the action of mineral fertilizers and the aftereffect of manure, as well as alternative fertilizers – the straw of the precursor with a compensating dose of N10/t in combination with the mustard biomass.
Keywords: winter wheat,by-products of the predecessor, fertilizers, yield, grain quality,fertilizer systems.
|The productivity of winter rape depending on fertilization and liming under the conditions of Western Polissya||Annotation|
The productivity of winter rape depending on fertilization and liming under the conditions of Western Polissya
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 108–115.
Poliovyi V. M., Lukashchuk L. Ya., Rovna H. F., Huk B. V.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissyaof NAAS,5, Rivnenskastr., Shubkiv, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325,Ukraine
There are established doses and forms of limestone ameliorants, fertilizers that are optimal for West Polissya based on experimental data from field and analytical studies and provide the fertility of podzo-lized sandy soiland ensure obtaining a stable winter rapeseed harvest. There was studied the influence of fertilization (N120P90K120), sulfur fertilizers, foliar fertilizers in various doses and types of limestone ameliorants on the formation of the morphological structure of plants and productivity of winter rapeseed.
The highest yield of 2.94 t/ha was provided by the application of 1.5 doses (NG) of dolomite flour on the background of the recommended dose of mineral fertilizers (N120P90K120). The yield increase to control (without fertilizers) was 2.09 t/ha, and to the background (N120P90K120) – 1.60 t/ha.
The application of sulfur fertilizers (S40) and two fold foliar fertilization by Nutrivant Plus oil microfertilizer (2 kg/ha) provided a yield increase by 15,6%.
The peculiarities of soil processes under the influence of chemical reclamation and fertilization system in crop rotation, which ensure the preservation of soil fertility and increase the productivity of winter oilseed rape, are analyzed.
Keywords: winter rapeseed,chemical ameliorants, doses, fertilizers, yield.
|Growth and development of plants of different varieties of winter wheat during spring vegetation in the Northern Steppe||Annotation|
Growth and development of plants of different varieties of winter wheat during spring vegetation in the Northern Steppe
Grain Crops, 2020. 4 (1). 116–121.
Drumova O. M., Gasanova I. I.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
On the basis of the results of three-year experimental research, the peculiarities of growth and development of plants of different varieties of winter wheat during the spring vegetationon bare fallow and after sunflower in the Northern Steppe were revealed. The rate of application of mineral fertilizers under presowing cultivation on black fallow was N30P60K30, after sunflower – N60P60K60. Three varieties of winter wheat was sown: Nyva Odeska, Uzhynok (Selection and Genetics Institute), Kokhanka (SE Institute of Grain Сrops).
It was found, that in different phases of development, the average height, the number of stems, the number of leaves on one plant and a number of other indices on black fallow, as a rule, prevailed similar data after sunflower. In addition, on the black fallow during the spring vegetation of winter wheat, the higher standing density of plants was formed compared to the sowings after then on-follow fore crop.
At the time of resumption of spring vegetation, the leaf surface area of plants on black fallow, depending on the variety, ranged from 9.9 to 12.3 thousand m2/ha, in the shooting stage – 25.7–28.9, and in the heading stage – 22.4–26.7 thousand m2/ha. After sunflower, the values of these indices in varieties were lower in accordance with the phases of development by 5.4–8.4 thousand m2/ha, 10.0–15.7 and 5.1–11.0 thousand m2/ha.
Absolute dry weight of plants of winter wheat with at the rate for 1 m2 at the time of resumption of spring vegetation was 137.6–155.2 g/m2, depending on the variety, in the shooting stage absolute dry weight increased to 278.9–302.1 g/m2, and in the heading stage the values of this index reached 765.5–854.6 g/m2. After then on-follow fore crop, according to the phases of development, the plant weight varied in the range of 42.0–58.6 g/m2, 169.5–206.8 and 599.5–653.5 g/m2.
At the same time, in consequence of increased drought-resistance and heat-resistance, plasticity to the fore crop and agricultural background, the investigated varieties also showed quite good potential for plant growth and development in sowings сultivated after sunflower, which was an important factor in obtaining stable indices of yielding capacity. Greater height during the spring vegetation was formed mainly at growing of winter wheat plants of variety Nyva Odeska. On the black fallow, the higher values of other indices of biometry were observed in the variety Uzhynok.
Keywords: winter wheat, variety, fore crop, plant, phase of development, biometric indices.
|Photosynthetic productivity of crops of sorghum grain depending on the fertilizer system||Annotation|
Photosynthetic productivity of crops of sorghum grain depending on the fertilizer system
UDC 633.134:581.32 (477.41)
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 122–129.
National Scientific Center "Institute of Agiculture of NAAS of Ukraine". 2b, Mashynobudivnykivstr., town. Chabany,Kуіv region.
The results of research for 2016–2018 are conducted in the area of the northern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine to study the productivity of grain sorghum hybrid Armida. Field research, mathematical and sta-tistical analysis. The maximum leaf area of sowing of grain sorghum in the ejection phase of flowering – flowering (53,1 thousand m2/ha) is provided by the fertilizer system N45P60K60 in the main fertilizer and N15 in the feed on the background of seed treatment with BTU preparation; the highest accumulation of dry matter (26,9 t/ha) was obtained by making N60P60K60 mainly against the background of seed treat-ment.
The highest indices of formation of photosynthetic potential of sorghum crops (2,96 million m2/ha×days), РРР (5,4–5,76 g/m2 per day) are observed in its cultivation by the model of technology with application of mineral fertilizers in the main application of the dose N60P60K60 as well as the transfer of a portion of nitrogen (N15) to the feed on the background of seed treatment with BTU.
The effectiveness of mineral fertilizers and treatment of seeds with the preparation of BTU on the growth of leaf surface, the accumulation of dry matter, the РР and РРР and their relationship for the formation of high yields (9,04–9,63 t/ha) in the northern forest-steppe zone of Ukraine were established.
Key words:yield, leaf surface, mineral fertilizers, grain sorghum, dry matter, pure photosynthesis performance.
|Influence of presowing seed treatment and foliar fertilizing of corn crops on individual productivity of plants and grain yield||Annotation|
Influence of presowing seed treatment and foliar fertilizing of corn crops on individual productivity of plants and grain yield
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 130–138.
MoldovanZh. A., SobchukS. I.
Khmelnitsky State Agricultural Experimental Station of Institute of Feed Rezearch and Agriculture Podillya of NAAS, Samchyky village, Starokostyantynivsky district, Khmelnytsky region, 31182, Ukraine
The results of studies of the effectiveness of depose seed treatment stimulator for the treatment of seeds of Vympel-K, combined with a comprehensive micronutrient Oracle seeds and microfertilizers compensator Oracle Cooperman zinc and foliar feeding of plant growth stimulator Vympel 2 in combination with micronutrients-compensators Oracle Cooperman zinc and sulphur Oracle asset on formation of indicators of individual plant productivity and grain yield of maize when grown in the ashed Western forest-Steppe. Positive influence of seed treatment and spraying of maize crops in phases 3–5 and 7–9 on the formation of the number of productive cobs per 100 plants, the weight of grain from one cob and one plant, % of grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds was established.
It is set as a result of the counts conducted by us, that mass of grain from 1 head on the investigated variants grew, comparatively with control, on 5,8–17,8 g (5,4–16,5 %) at the hybrid of DN Meotida and on 6,2–35,0 g (5,6–31,7 %) at the hybrid of DB Khotin, indexes of exit of grain from 1 head grew, accordingly, on 1,6–4,6 % and a 1,9–4,2 %. Mass 1000 grains at the hybrid of DN Meotida grew on 11,2–23,8 g (5,5–11,6 %) at the hybrid of DB Khotin – on 13,5–32,3 g (6,9–16,4 %) comparatively with untilled areas. Individual the productivity of plants grew at the hybrid of DN Meotida on 11,5–49,3 g (10,6–45,6%), hybrid of DB Khotin – on 8,5–65,5 g (7,7–56,9 %).
In middle for three years of researches the productivity of grain of corn, depending on the methods of presowing treatment of seed and sowing in the early phases of development (3–5 and 7–9 sheets), hesitated at the early ripening hybrid of DN Meotida from 7,12 т/ha to 8,23 т/ha, medium early hybrid of DB Khotin – from 8,01 т/ha to 9,66 т/ha. The increase of the productivity of grain of the investigated hybrids, comparatively with control, laid down: in early ripening DN Meotida 0,20–1,11 т/ha (2,8–15,6 %) and medium early DB Khotin 0,21–1,65 т/ha (2,6–20,6 %).
Thus, among the investigated methods of presowing treatment of seed and outside the roots signup the most increase of the productivity of grain of corn (1,11 т/ha or 15,6 % at the hybrid of DN Meotida and 1,65 т/ha or 20,6 % at the hybrid of DB Khotin), comparatively with control, provides combination of presowing treatment of seed a stimulator for treatment of seed and complex microfertilizers with further treatment of sowing by the growthfactor of plants and fertilizers-scraies – in phases 3–5 sheets and 7–9 sheets.
The least effective is a variant, where допосівна treatment of seed is envisaged only by a stimulator for treatment of seed in combination with a complex microfertilizer and fertilizer-scray, where the increase of the productivity of grain of corn presented for the early ripening hybrid of DN Meotida 0,20 т/ha (2,8 %) for the medium early hybrid of DB Khotin – 0,21 т/ha (2,6 %) comparatively from to control.
Key words:corn, hybrid, growthfactors, fertilizers-scraies, treatment of seed, signup, individual productivity, productivity.
|Impact of potassium humate on crop yield and quality of winter wheat grain||Annotation|
Impact of potassium humate on crop yield and quality of winter wheat grain
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 139–145.
Shuvar A. M., Rudavska N. M., Begen L. L., Dorota G. M.
Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian Region NAAS, 5, Hrushevskoho str., vill. Obroshyne, Pustomyty distric, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The results of research of elements of technology of winter wheat cultivation in the conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine on gray forest surface-gleyed soil type with average supply of basic nutrients are given.The efficiency of potassium humate application by foliar feeding of plants at different stages of organogenesis (III – tillering (0.8 l/ha), V – tube yield (0.8 l/ha), IX – flowering) (0.8 l/ha) ), XI – milk ripeness (0.8 l/ha) was carried out on different backgrounds of mineral nutrition: background of nutrition 1 (control) – N120 (30 + 60 + 30) P90K90 and background of nutrition 2 – N90 (30 + 40 + 20) P90K90with retail application of the appropriate dose of nitrogen in the IV and VIII stages of organogenesis. Arctic winter wheat variety was sown in the optimal time (III decade of September) in a five-field crop rotation of the plant growing department of the Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region of NAAS.
It was determined that in the case of double application of potassium humate at a dose of 0.8 l/ha at different stages of growth and development of winter wheat plants on the background of nutrition N120 (30 + + 60 + 30) P90K90 grain yield increased by 0.27 t/ha (4, 3%), and three times – by 0.34 t/ha (5.4%).
According to a similar scheme of application of potassium humate for foliar application on the lower background of mineral nutrition N90 (30 + 40 + 20) P90K90, the increase in grain yield was in the range of 0.25–0.29 t/ha (4.0–4.6%). These productivity indicators were formed by improving the elements of the crop structure. The introduction of potassium humate had a positive effect on the number of productive stems per unit area (increase was 7–9 pcs/m2 on the background of nutrition N120 (30 + 60 + 30) P90K90 and 6–8 pcs/m2– N90 (30 + 40 + 20) P90K90, the number of grains in the ear increased by 0.1–0.3 pieces, the weight of 1000 grains – by 0.3–0.6 g, the percentage of vitreous grains – by 1.2–1.5% on the background of nutrition N120 (30 + 60 + 30) P90K90 and by 0.8–1.3% against the background of power supply N90 (30 + 40 + 20) P90K90.
Application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N120 (30 + 60 + 30) P90K90 and potassium humate (0.8 l/ha) in the phase of tillering – tube exit (IV stage of organogenesis), flowering (IX) and milk ripeness (XI) at 0,8 l/ha caused an increase in the content of crude protein by 0.4–0.5%, crude gluten by 0.8–1.4%, but its elasticity did not change and amounted to 50 units. VDK device, which generally corresponds to the II class of grain quality.
With three applications of potassium humate on background 2 (N90 (30 + 40 + 20) P90K90) the protein content increased by 0.3%, crude gluten – by 3.2%, which also allows to obtain grain of class II quality. That is, the intensification of the application of microfertilizers and growth stimulants of potassium humate on the background 2 did not allow to obtain indicators of wheat grain quality at the level of background 1.
The use of potassium humate foliar increased the level of profitability of growing winter wheat by 5.2–6.9% on both backgrounds of mineral nutrition.
Key words: winter wheat, potassium humate, protein content, yield, mineral nutrition.
|Peculiarities of growth and development of winter barley plants during the autumn vegetation stage depending on growing conditions in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Peculiarities of growth and development of winter barley plants during the autumn vegetation stage depending on growing conditions in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.16 “324” (251.1) (1-17) (477)
Grain Crops, 2020. 4 (1). 146–151.
Zavalypich N. O., Pryadko Yu. M.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The results of research on the study of the peculiarities of growth and development of uneven-aged plants of winter barley during the autumn vegetation stage with different seed sowing rates in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine are presented. According to the results of the research, the degree of development of winter barley plants in the autumn period was determined depending on the time seeding. The plants for seeding on September 20, with a minimum seed sowing rate (4.5 fertile seeds/ha), had more intensive growth and development. Shifting the times seeding from earlier to later led to a decrease in biometric parameters, namely: height, weight of plants, number of stems and crown roots on the plant.
The purpose of the research was to study the peculiarities of growth and development of winter barley plants in the autumn vegetation stage, when the winter plants resistance to adverse winter conditions was formed, especially at its growing after not enough learnt predecessor of sunflower in aspect of relationship of the given index with times seeding and sowing rates of seeds.
The intensity of the growth processes of winter barley during the autumn vegetatіon stage significantly depended on the hydrothermal conditions that occurred during the period of "sowing-termination of autumn vegetation stage".
At the time of the termination of autumn vegetation, winter barley plants varied significantly in biometric indices for different times seeding.
By means of research was established that winter barley plants at early times seeding had more intensive layering capacity in early sowing than those of later times seeding. On average, during the years of research, the coefficient of stooling in plants during the early times seeding (September 20), depending on the seed sowing rates varied within 3.2–3.7 stems per plant, at September 30, – 2.2–2.7 stems, at October 10 the plants for all the seeding rate formed by 1 shoot. Plants for sowing on October 20 at the time of termination of autumn vegetation stage were in the phase of 1–2 leaves. Thus, the shifting of times seeding from earlier to later led to the decrease in the coefficient of stooling.
It was found that the coefficient of stooling of winter barley plants was largely depending on the seed sowing rates. The maximum values of this indicator for a certain time seeding were noted in plotss with a lower seed sowing rate, whereas with the increase of seed sowing rate, the coefficient of stooling was minimal. Winter barley plants in the early time seeding (September 20) formed more shoots and responded more to increased seed sowing rate than the plants in the later time seeding.
At the time of the termination of autumn vegetation stage on average for 2016–2018, the highest height of winter barley plants, depending on the seeding time was noted for sowing on September 20, which was 15.8–16.9 cm, while for later sowing (October 20) it decreased to 7.8–8.5 cm.
Increasing the seeding rate from 4.5 to 6.0 million pieces of fertile seeds/ha led to an increase in plant height.
The accumulation of vegetative mass of barley plants during the earlier times seeding was more active. As the growth and development of these plants took place at higher average daily temperatures, whereas the plants of later times seeding developed already at conditions of lower average daily temperatures.
Thus, it was determined that during the years of research, the largest mass of 100 absolutely dry plants was observed for sowing on September 20 at a seeding rate of 4.5 million pieces/ha and was 18.7 g; it was slightly smaller for sowing on September 30 – 12.1, and for sowing on October 10 and October 20 it was 5.7 and 1.8 g, respectively. Increasing seeding rates led to the decrease in plant mass.
Conclusion. Thus, the results of the research obtained in the field experiments in 2016–2018 indicate that greater field germination ratio and plant population density of winter barley in the period of full seedings was observed for sowing on September 30 and depending on seeding rates varied within 84,6–82.9 % and 497–381 pieces plants respectively. Growth and development of winter barley plants took place more intensively in plants during early sowing (September 20), with the seed rate of 4.5 million pieces/ha. Shifting the sowing time from earlier to later led to the decrease in plant height and weight, as well as the formation of fewer number of stems and crown roots.
Keywords: winter barley, growth and development, sowing dates, sowing ratesseeds, autumn growing season, biometric indicators.
|Weeding of maize agrocenoses under the influence of tillage and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Weeding of maize agrocenoses under the influence of tillage and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 152–159.
Tsyliuryk O. I.1, Desyatnyk L. M. 2, Berezovskiy S. V.2
1 Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25, Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
2 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
An important limiting factor in corn cultivation technology is weed infestation, so the effectiveness of measures aimed at increasing grain yields is significantly reduced. Even with the widespread introduction of modern high-performance herbicides, weeds remain harmful targets, reducing corn yields by more than a third.In recent decades, in the steppe agriculture due to crises and declining levels of agricultural culture, the potential contamination of the arable layer of chernozems with vegetative reproductive organs (150–300 thousand shoots/ha) and seeds (0.5–1.0 billion pieces / ha) has increased. While the soil (cultural condition of the soil) is generally considered to be clean, in the arable layer of which there are less than 1 thousand /ha of perennial roots and 10 million pieces/ha of similar seeds of perennial weeds. Due to excessive potential soil contamination in row crops during the growing season, up to 1.5–2.0 thousand seedlings of perennial and 15–30 sprouts or shoots of perennial root-sprouting weeds can appear per 1 m2.
Recently, in the technology of growing corn, shallow (mulching) non-board soil tillage has become relevant, which eliminates the possibility of turning the arable layer. The limited amount of information on the effectiveness of mulching non-board soil tillage in the technology of growing corn, as well as the ambiguous attitude of scientists to different methods of tillage, encourages further research in this direction to ensure optimal conditions for plant growth and development and maximum grain yield at minimum production costs. and high profitability of production.
The purpose of the study is to establish the patterns of species composition of the main weeds and their quantitative dynamics, to determine the impact of different methods of basic tillage on weediness of corn crops, as well as to determine the level of yield and grain quality depending on the methods of basic tillage and fertilization.
The evolutionary adaptation of weeds has been shown to be characterized by extremely powerful regenerative energy, which can easily overcome technological barriers aimed at destroying unwanted vegetation. Weed biodiversity cannot be completely neutralized, it is now only possible to maintain minimal damage below the economic threshold. The species composition of weeds in maize crops depends on their adaptability and the structure of sown areas in crop rotation.
The species composition of weeds is formed depending on their adaptability and structure of sown areas of crops. Weed dominance in the agrobiocenosis is based on herbicide resistance, a wide range of seed germination, morphological plasticity and the presence of neotenic traits.
It was found that the introduction of mulching non-board soil tillage (chisel, flat tillage) in the technology of growing corn leads to an increase in weediness of its crops by 1.4–1.8 times, which in turn requires additional regulations for the use of soil and post-emergence herbicides. Plowing and chiseling have been shown to have a minimal advantage over maize yields both on unfertilized background and with the application of N30P30K30, due to slightly better plant nutrition conditions and less weediness. With an increase in the proportion of nitrogen (N60P30K30) in the fertilization of corn, more effective is the shallow non-board soil tillage of the chips, due to which it is possible to obtain the same relative to plowing and chiseling grain yield by leveling the above factors. The methods of basic tillage with low total weediness of crops (9.0–12.6 pieces/m2) do not significantly affect the quality of corn grain. When applying mineral fertilizers (especially nitrogen) there is a tendency to increase the protein content in the grain and decrease - carbohydrates, in particular starch.
Key words: corn, tillage, weeding, fertilizers, mineral fertilizers, yield.
|Dynamics of productive soil moisture and spring barley yield depending on tillage and fertilizers||Annotation|
Dynamics of productive soil moisture and spring barley yield depending on tillage and fertilizers
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 160–166.
Shevchenko M. S., Desyatnyk L. M., BokunO. I.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
The results of studying the influence of different methods of basic tillage (plowing by 20–22 cm,subsurface tillage by 14–16 cm; No-till) and fertilizers (vegetable residues of the predecessor without fertilizers; plant residues and mineral fertilizers N45P45K45) on the water regime of soil (black earth heavy loam) and the productivity of spring barley in the northern Steppe during 2016–2018are presented.Productive soil moisture reserves in the soil were determined in the spring before sowing, in phase of barley ears and before grain harvesting.
The level of productive moisture reserves during the sowing of barley in the soil layer 0–150 cm depending on the basic tillage hesitated within 173–185 mm. But already in this period there was a tendency to decrease the amount of accumulated moisture with a decrease in the depth of basic tillage. When applying plowing and subsurface tillage maximum moisture reserves reached 158–165 mm, and in the case of direct sowing – 143 mm.
From sowing to the phase of ears with plants of ungrounded barley crops 47.6–54.4% of the before sowing moisture reserves were used, in the case of mineral fertilizers application – 58.9–61.7%. The highest moisture costs are observed in the direct sowing variant, the difference between other tillage variants is insignificant – within 2–3 %.
From phase of ears to full ripeness of grain barley crops grown on plowing spent 19.8% (in control) and 15.7 % (in fertilizers option) of initial moisture supply; on subsurface tillage – 21.4 and 15.6 %, and by No-till technology – 19.9 and 15.6% respectively.
The weather conditions were most unfavorable in 2016, when the yield of spring barley varied within 1.81–2.45 t/he, in 2017 and 2018 it was 2.03–3.36 t/he. But in different weather conditions reducing the depth of cultivation caused a decrease in grain yield.
On average over the three years ofstudiesin options of plowing in the control without fertilizers 2.5 t/h of grain were obtained, on the background of subsurface tillage– by 8 % and in the case of direct sowing – by 23.2% less. When using N45P45K45 fertilizers, the reduction of grain yield compared to plowing was 13.6% and 26.5%, respectively.
Fertilizers had a positive influence on grain yield formation of spring barley. In the field of plowing in the fertilized experience option, yield increase was 20.8%, on the background of subsurface tillage – 13.5%, in the experience option with direct sowing – 15.6%.
As the depth of tillage decreased, the water consumption coefficient increased, which confirms the less efficient use of moisture when using No-till technology: in the unfertilized option the efficiency of wa- ter consumption in the direct sowing version was 21% (123.9 mm/t) smaller compared to plowing (102.3 mm/t), when soil was fertilizing this difference increases to 28% (110 and 86.9 mm/t, respectively). Indicators of water consumption of barley plants in the variant with subsurface tillage differ from similar data on plowing only by 5–13 %.
Therefore, to increase the level of spring barleygrain harvest and more efficient use of soil moisture, mineral fertilizers should be applied, which will allow to obtain an additional 13–21 % of thegrain crop.The efficiency of water consumption and the level of grain yield of spring barley decreased with the decrease in the depth of the basic tillage.The most effective basic tillage was plowing by 20–22 cm. The alternative to plowing can be subsurface tillage by 14–16 cmbecause it was more economical from the energy point of view. Direct sowing in untreated soil was the least effectiveregarding the grain yield formation.
Key words: spring barley, basic tillage, fertilizers, yields, reserves of productive moisture, wet-consumption.
|The influence of fertilizer systems on the formation of fertility of gray forest soil in short-rotational crop rotation under spring barley||Annotation|
The influence of fertilizer systems on the formation of fertility of gray forest soil in short-rotational crop rotation under spring barley
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 167–173.
Kachmar O. Yo., Vavrynovych O. V., Dubytska A. O., Dubytsky O. L., Shcherba M. M.
Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian region of NAAS, 5, Grushevsky Str., Obrocshyno village,
Pustomytovsky district, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
It is established that the highest fertility level of gray forest surface-covered soil is formed in grain-fodder and short-rotation crop rotations under barley spring in the variants of intensive fertilizer system - application per hectare of crop rotation area 10 tons of manure and N45,0- 5,5,5-52,5 directly under culture - N60P60K60.
Our studies conducted in short rotation crop rotations under barley spring revealed that, on average, for three years of studies during the period of seedlings of the crop on uncoated variants, the field moisture content in the 0–20 cm layer of soil was 16,5–17,1 %, productive – 29,7–31,2 mm, in the 20–40 cm layer respectively 17,7–18,4 % and 35,8–36,9 mm.
In the mowing phase, the field moisture in the arable (0–20 cm) layer increased to 16,8–18,1 % in the unfertilized variants and to 18,0–19,1 % when applied directly under N60P60K60 culture. At the end of the growing season, during the onset of waxy ripeness of spring barley, due to the long period with low rainfall (June-July), the field moisture content of the soil decreased and amounted to 13,4–14,9 % at the control, using full doses of mineral fertilizers – 14,8–15,7 %.
Stocks of productive moisture varied according to the phases of vegetation of the crop in direct dependence on the indicators of field humidity and at the onset of wax ripeness in the arable layer of soil were: 27,0–28,3 mm and 29,1–30,3 mm, respectively, according to fertilizer variants.
The study of the patterns of changes in the dynamics of the content and directions of nutrient transformation in short rotational rotations under barley spring showed that the best level of provision of mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium during the entire period of vegetation of culture provided an intensive organo-mineral system of fertilization of N60P60K60. At the time of germination in both forage and fruiting rotations, the content of light hydrolysis nitrogen compounds was 123,1–124,5 mg/kg of soil, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, respectively, 127,5–128,4 and 112,8–114,7 mg/kg soil in the arable (0–20 cm) horizon.
In the alternative fertilizer system at the level of mineral nutrition N30P30K30, the indices in both crop rotations were lower and amounted to 112,4–113,0, 113,4–115,5 and 109,0–110,6 mg/kg of soil, respectively.
By the end of the spring barley vegetation, the number of mobile forms of the basic nutrients was diminished due to the use of their culture for growth and bioproduction. In the full ripeness phase, in the two variations, the contents were at 98,7–100,5, 111,7–112,6, and 96,1–97,5 mg/kg of soil for intensive and 90,8–91,9, 100,4–101,6 and 93,1–94,3 mg/kg of soil under alternative fertilizer systems, respectively, of light hydrolysis nitrogen and mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium.
The results of our studies showed that during the growing of spring barley, higher values of mobile humic substances were formed in grain-forage crop rotation on variants of an intensive fertilizer system. Thus, when introduced directly into the N60P60K60 culture at the time of sprouting, the content of labile humus was 457,23, water-soluble – 18,27 mg/100 g of soil. Half doses of mineral fertilizers (N30P30K30) on the background of by-products – winter wheat straw in an alternative fertilizer system formed these indicators at the level of 408,17 and 15,86 mg/100 g of soil. In fruiting rotation on these variants of fertilizers unstable humic substances acquired values: 394,27 and 17,89 and 339,24 and 15,01 mg/100 g of soil.
Effective indicator of the action of a complex of dynamic and functional components of soil fertility is the crop yield and the quality of the products obtained. On average, over three years of research, the highest yields of spring barley grain were obtained on variants where mineral fertilizers were applied at a dose of N60P60K60 against the backdrop of 40 tons of manure. Under these conditions, its values varied from 3,59 t/ha in the forage crop rotation with the winter wheat precursor to 3,68 t/ha in the fruit-bearing crop with the potato precursor. Reducing the fertilizer dose by half on straw-pomegranate backgrounds reduced the yield by 0,66–0,62 t/ha. On the variants without fertilizers, the lowest yield of spring barley of 2,03–2,15 t/ha was formed in the studied crop rotations.
Key words: soil tillage systems, fertilizers, soil fertility, humus regime, labile humus, water-soluble humus.
|Resistance of winter wheat varieties to head smut agents in the northern steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Resistance of winter wheat varieties to head smut agents in the northern steppe of Ukraine
UDC 632.938:11 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0122
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 174–178
M. P. Yavdoshchenko, M. M. Solodushko, T. M. Pedash
State Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Science, 14, Vоlodymyr Vernadsky str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The results of studies on the stability of winter wheat varieties of domestic and foreign breeding aga-inst pathogens of hard soot on an artificial infectious background are presented.
|Economic efficiency of agri-cultural crops growing depending on soil processing methods and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Economic efficiency of agri-cultural crops growing depending on soil processing methods and fertilizers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). С. 209–214.
Medvedev E. B.
Lugansk Institute of Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 14, Oktyabrska Str., Village of Metalist, Slavyanoserbsk district, Lugansk region, 93733, Ukraine
The economic efficiency of growing crops in crop rotation link has been established: winter wheat after corn MVR (milk-wax ripeness) - peas - winter wheat, depending on the methods main tillage and fertilizers in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine. We studied methods based on plowing and loosening without dump on the background of cornplowing using mineral fertilizers (recommended in the region: N45P35K15 for peas,N60P60K30 for winter wheat; calculated on the planned crop:N50P30K20and N90P80К70, respectively). It has been that loosening soil without dump, in comparison with plowing, leads to a saving in production costs. On average, in crop rotation link, material cost savings amounted to: labor – 0,50 man-hours, fuel – 8,9 liters and operating costs – 177,38 UAH, or 33,6, 36,8 and 24,9%, respectively. This led to a decrease in production costs and an increase in level of profitability. The average increase in level of profitability, compared to plowing, over the years of research іn the crop rotation link was: the variant with out fertilizers – 6,7, with the recommended norms – 6,3 and with the norms on the planned crop – 5,9 р. р.
Due to unfavorable weather conditions, the effectiveness of the mineral fertilizers introduced was reduced. The level of profitability was decreasing (on average, in the crop rotation link for 2010–2012): the variants with recommended doses of fertilizers – by 51,8 when plowing and by 52,3 р. р. when loosening without dump, the variants with norms on the planned harvest – respectively by 69,4 and 70,2 р. р. compared with options without fertilizers.
Key words: tillage, mineral fertilizers, economic efficiency, winter wheat, peas.