Grain Crops.-2021.-Vol. 5.- №1
|Results and perspectives of selection of naked oat varieties in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Results and perspectives of selection of naked oat varieties in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.13:631.527 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0152
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 5–12.
Solodushko V. Р.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14,VolodymyrVernadskyi St.,
Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The results and prospects of selection of naked oat varieties in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine were given. The problems and main directions of creating of new initial material were determined. The high-yielding, large-grain genotypes (Thousand Grain Weight was to 25.3–29.1 g) such as Abel, Rhea, Nuprime, Plater, Adam, Biloruskyi, Pushkinskyi, Hosha, Kriepysh resistant to abiotic factors were used in hybridization, and allowed to create a new hybrid combinations of naked oats.
We established that the cultivars significantly differed from each other in the spikelets and grains number per plant, however not always these features quite affected the plant productivity. Thus, it is proved that the set of features such as number of spikelets in the panicle, number of grains in the spikelet and the grain size determines the plant productivity.
The best initial forms of naked oats by biological and economic features were specified.
The characteristics of the new initial material were highlighted, and the results of breeding work were presented. The naked oat cultivars were selected in the control nursery: Ск 1024/10, Рс 72/09, Сс 732/10, their grain yield (2.59–2.66 t/ha) significantly exceeded the standard variety (by 0, 35–0.42 t/ha) on average for 3 years.
The most productive cultivars by protein content (15.9–16.2 %) were Рс 72/09, СС 1136/09, Сс 732/10 and Сп 234/10.
The average yield (2.58 t/ha) of Rodonit naked oat variety exceeded the Skarb Ukrainy national standard variety by 0.33 t/ha or by 14.7 % according to the three-year competitive variety test. Since 2019, Rodonit has been understate variety testing. The protein content of 16.1 % and the starch of 49.0 % were in the grain, and the number of hulled grains did not exceed 3.0 %. The growing season of Rodonit variety was 91 days which was three days longer than the standard variety.
Key words: oat, variety, hybridization, selection, yield, hybrid combinations.
|Selection of drought-resistant crops for South Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Selection of drought-resistant crops for South Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.82 (477.7) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0153
GrainCrops. 2021. 5 (1). 13–22.
GamayunovaV. V., KhonenkoL. H., FedorchukM. I., KovalenkoO. A.
Mykolaiv National Agrarian University, 9, Heorhii Honhadze St.,
Mykolaiv, 54020, Ukraine
The cultivation expediency of more drought-resistant crops, in particular sorghum, millet, false flax, safflower and others, instead of sunflower in the area of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine is substantiated. This is, first of all, required by climate change both in Ukraine and in the world.
Since 2004, researches of field crops were carried out in the conditions of the Educational and Scientific Practical Center of the Mykolaiv National Agrarian University. Soil phase is the southern chernozem with humus content in the 0–30 cm soil layer which consist of 2.96–3.21 %, with medium and high level of availability of mobile phosphorus and potassium and low – mobile nitrogen. Experiments with soriz (Oksamyt hybrid) were conducted during 2004–2006, millet (Tavriiske, Kostantynivske, Skhidnevarieties) in 2008–2010, grain sorghum (Stepovyi 5 hybrid) in 2014–2016, safflower dye (Lahidnyi variety) in 2017–2019.
The years of research differed significantly in temperature and even more in the amount of precipitation before sowing and during the growing season of crops. However, the weather conditions were typical of the Southern Steppe zone of Ukraine.
It is established that all studied drought-resistant crops respond positively to nutrition optimization – the level of yield and quality of grain or seeds increases. It was found that the soriz productivity depending on the application of fertilizers and sowing dates increased by 37.6–39.2 %, millet –by 33.3–41.6 %, grain sorghum depending on the background of nutrition and growing conditions – by 8.2–33.2 %, dye safflower – by 11.1–64.6 %.
It was determined that the optimization of nutrition of cultivated crops allows to increase their resistance to adverse conditions and productivity in the case of application of low doses of the mineral fertilizers before sowing, pre-sowing treatment of seeds, and growth-regulating chemical application of plants on the main stages of the growing season.
Key words: drought-resistant plants, climatic conditions, nutrition optimization, yield, crop quality, varieties, sowing dates.
|An overview of innovative developments from the scientific provision of plant selection to resistance to diseases and pests||Annotation|
An overview of innovative developments from the scientific provision of plant selection to resistance to diseases and pests
УДК 631.1:001.76 + 632.938 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0154
GrainCrops. 2021. 5 (1). 23–29.
Krut’ M. V.
Institute of Plant Protection of NAAS, 33, Vasylkivska st., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine
The Institute of Plant Protection of NAAS developed methods of plant selection for resistance to major pathogens and assessment methodology the resistance of winter wheat, potatoes, clover and alfalfa to pests to create complex resistant varieties. Donors of potato resistance to cancer, Alternaria, Phomosis and cyst-forming nematodes were identified. Methods for determining the resistance of cereals to high and low temperatures were developed. A collection of the Aegilops biuncialis L. wild wheat samples as sources of new resistance genes to plant diseases and pests was compiled. The soft winter wheat resistance genes to diseases by DNA markers were identified at the Institute of Plant Production named after V. Ya. Yuriev. The V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat formed a set of winter wheat cultivars with group and complex resistance to diseases and pests. The Institute of Oilseed Crops of NAAS established physiological and biochemical mechanisms of resistance of sunflower, soybean, crown flax to pathogens. Collections of sunflower lines based on complex resistance to sunflower broomrape, dry rot, downy mildew and soybean lines based on complex resistance to white rot and Anthracnose were also created. In the National Scientific Center "Institute of Agriculture of NAAS", the fodder lupine resistance to the most important pathogens was investigated. The Institute of Agriculture in the Carpathian Region of NAAS revealed the spring barley, oat, rape, fiber flax varieties and selection numbers resistant to basic diseases; and the Institute of Rice of NAAS – rice cultivars resistant to diseases and pest pathogens. The resistance to main phytophagous insects of the modern genotypes of hemp, fiber flax and crown flax was assessed by the Institute of Agriculture of the North-East of NAAS. The assessment method of breeding value for the initial material of the main vegetables on the basis of disease resistance was developed by the Institute of Vegetables and Melons Growing of NAAS. Scientists of the Institute of Agroecology and Environmental Management of NAAS and V. M. RemesloMyronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS revealed the cucumber and barley resistance to viral diseases.
Key words: crops, pests, pathogens, resistance, resistance gene, resistance source.
|Influence of abiotic factors on seed quality of maize hybrids in the process of its storage||Annotation|
Influence of abiotic factors on seed quality of maize hybrids in the process of its storage
UDC 633.15:631.527.5/.564 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0155
Kyrpa M. Ya., Bazilieva Yu. S., Stasiv O. F.
GrainCrops. 2021. 5 (1). 30–37.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Science, 14, VolodymyrVernadskyi St.,
Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
Institute of Agriculture in the Carpathian region NAAS, 5, Hrushevskyi St., Obroshino village, Pustomyt district, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The research results of influence of various abiotic factors on seed quality of maize hybrids during long storage are given. The most effective of them are: temperature regime, seed moisture content and oxygen access. The storage methods (dry and cold, and controlled atmosphere storage) that have the greatest impact on the seed quality were established.
It was found that the optimal moisture content of seed depends on the storage duration, if for 1–2 years – 10–11 %, 3 years and more – 7–8 %. In order to stabilize the moisture content, it is recommended to store the seeds in airtight containers, limiting the humidity access from the outside. During the long-term seed storage, particularly for the breeding purposes, the temperature range should advisably maintain within 8–10 °C in seed storage place. With that the laboratory germination of seeds increased by 3–5 %, field germination – by 6–8 %, growth rate by number of sprouts– by 5–9 % and by the weight of sprouts – by 2–5 g compared to the 18–20 °C temperature in a typical storage.
Methods of pre-sowing improvement of seed quality were established – it is separation and chemical treatment (seed dressing). Separation is the sifting of the seed mass through sieves with round holes in order to divide from the smallest fraction, the content of which was 15–23 % depending on the seed uniformity of maize hybrids.
It was found that in order to assess objectively the effectiveness of different chemicals and establish their suitability for presowing seed treatment, it is necessary to determine laboratory germination, especially the growth rate by the number of sprouts and weight of 100 sprouts. Premature chemical treatment of seed should be avoided.
Key words: maize hybrids, storage methods, abiotic factors, seed quality, presowing treatment.
|Formation characteristics of watermelon seed productivity under intercropping||Annotation|
Formation characteristics of watermelon seed productivity under intercropping
UDC 631.961:635.615:635.67:635.652 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0156
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 38–44.
Semenchenko O. L.,1 Melnyk O. V.,2 Zavertalyuk V. F.,3 Zavertalyuk O. V.3
1Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Serhii Yefremov Sr., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
2Institute of Vegetable and Melon Growing of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine,
1, Institutska St., Selektsiine settlement, 62478, Ukraine
3Dnipropetrovsk Research Station of Institute of Vegetable and Melon Growing of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1, Opytna St., Oleksandrivka settlement, 52041, Ukraine
Characteristics of watermelon seed formation in intercropping were studied. Different growing methods of watermelon seeds depending on its interaction with intercrops (sugar maize and common bean) and their planting schemes in melon fields were investigated. The developed elements of the watermelon seed growing technology reduced the impact of high temperatures on this melon crop (the number of fruits with sunburn decreased by 7.1 % compared to control).
The results of phenological observations and analysis of yield components, seed productivity and quality of Favoryt watermelon variety in the intercropping with sugar maize and common bean were presented.
It was established that the developed elements of the watermelon growing technology in intercropping under high temperatures and low relative air humidity in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine increased of watermelon yield and the full-value seed formation.
It was found that intercropping of watermelon with sweet corn under proper cultivation gave positive results (watermelon seed yield gain by 12.4 % and 0.7 t/ha ears of sweet maize in milky-wax ripeness were received additionally), and with common bean (watermelon seed yield gain by 8.9 % and additional 75 kg/ha of beans). Methods and planting schemes of watermelon and intercrops were established: sugar maize in the rows of watermelon according to scheme 2.8 x 1 m, common bean in the rows of watermelon according to scheme 1.4 x 0.5 m.
It was found that under intercropping of watermelon with sweet maize the full-value seed yield per one fruit increased up to 88.5 %, and with common bean – to 84.9 %.
Key words: watermelon, sugar maize, common bean, intercropping, seed yield.
|Maize grain yield formation depending on macro- and microfertilizers||Annotation|
Maize grain yield formation depending on macro- and microfertilizers
UDC633. 15: 631. 5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0157
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 45–51.
Dudka M. I., Yakunin O. P., Kovtun O. V., Hladkyi O. V.
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research results of the foliar fertilization influence with different levels of mineral nutrition on the maize grain yield were presented, and the economic efficiency of growing of grain products was clarified. It was found that when increasing the mineral fertilizer dose from N30P30K30 to N45P45K45 and N60P60K60, the height of plants increased by 3 and 7 cm, the leaf surface area of one plant – by 4.8 and 10.9 %, respectively. Due to foliar fertilization, the height of plants increased by 2–5 cm, and the leaf area changed insignificantly. Depending on the background of mineral nutrition, it was accounted 98–99 ears per 100 maize plants, and in the case of foliar fertilization – 98–100 ears.
The maize grain yield on the background of N30P30K30 was 7.56 t/ha, on the background of N45P45K45 and N60P60K60 – 8.65 and 8.68 t/ha, respectively. In the control variant (without spraying) the yield was 7.77 t/ha, and when plants fertilizing with urea (15 kg/ha) – 8.09 t/ha. The grain yield in the variants with maize plant fertilizing with a mixture of urea and micronutrients reached to 8.30–8.78 t/ha.
The prime cost of 1 ton of maize grain when growing on the background of N30P30K30 was 1808 UAH, with increasing the fertilizer dose to N45P45K45 and N60P60K60 – 1781 and 1903 UAH, respectively. In the control variant, it was equal to 1828 UAH, in the variants under maize fertilization with urea (15 kg/ha) or a mixture of urea and micronutrients – 1827–1836 UAH. The conditional profit on the background of N30P30K30 was 21878 UAH/ha, it enlarged to 24264–25265 UAH/ha in the case of fertilizer dose increasing. In the control variant (without spraying) the conditional profit was equal to 22310 UAH/ha, when plants were fertilized with urea (15 kg/ha) – 23257 UAH/ha, with a mixture of urea and micronutrients – 23823–25155 UAH/ha. The highest level of profitability (163.9 %) was on the background of N45P45K45; the impact of foliar fertilization on this indicator was insignificant.
Key words: maize, fertilizers, foliar fertilization, grain yield, economic efficiency.
|Features of accumulation and consumption of soluble carbohydrates by plants of soft winter wheat varieties.||Annotation|
Features of accumulation and consumption of soluble carbohydrates by plants of soft winter wheat varieties.
UDC 633.11«324»:581.134 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0158
Drumova O. M.
Grain Crops. 2021, 5 (1). 52–58.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St.,
Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The results of three-year research (2016–2019) conducted in the fields of the State Enterprise Experimental Farm "Dnipro" of the SЕ Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine with soft winter wheat was presented. The soft winter wheat was placed on black fallow (on background of N30P60K30) and after sunflower (on background of N60P60K60). It was found that winter wheat plants had a not the same ability to accumulate soluble carbohydrates in years with different weather conditions. The analysis of plant samples showed that the largest number of these substances had synthesized in the autumn 2017. It was found that in the plots with black fallow during the period from November 20, 2017 to January 10, 2018, the amount of soluble carbohydrates (total amount of mono- and disaccharides) in the tillering nodes of winter wheat plants of Uzhynok variety decreased from 41.2 % to 34.7 % (by 6.5 %), Nyva Odeska variety – from 43.9 % to 32.7 % (by 11.2 %), Kokhanka variety – from 45.0 % to 42.6 % (only by 2.4 %). From January 10 until the resumption of spring vegetation, the carbohydrates were consumed most intensively by plants of the Uzhynok and Kokhanka varieties.
It was found that despite the lower doses of mineral fertilizers applied to presowing cultivation, winter wheat plants accumulated more soluble carbohydrates in all years after black fallow than after sunflower. On average for three years of research, the highest consumption of sugars during the winter both in leaves and in tillering nodes, regardless of the forecrop, was observed in plants of the Uzhynok variety. It was found that the winter wheat plants of Kokhanka variety consumed soluble carbohydrates more economically than the Uzhynok and Nyva Odeska varieties, and grew more intensively in early spring. The content of sugars in the tillering nodes of Kokhanka variety during resumption of spring vegetation was 28.4 % for black fallow and 25.9 % after non-fallow forecrop.
Key words: winter wheat, variety, soluble carbohydrates, forecrop, background of nutrition.
|Productivity of grain sorghum at application of post-emergence herbicides||Annotation|
Productivity of grain sorghum at application of post-emergence herbicides
UDC 633.174; 631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0159
Alieksieiev Ya. V., Semenov S. S., Lyubchich A. G., Grishchenko R. E., Glieva O. V.
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 59–64.
State Institution Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi st., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
National Scientific Center "Institute of Agiculture of NAAS of Ukraine". 2b, Mashynobudivnykiv St.,
Chabany settlement, Kyiv-Sviatoshyn district, Kуіv region
During the four-year field experiments, the influence of post-emergence herbicides such as Pik, Prima and Grantox on the phytosanitary state of grain sorghum crops and the formation the grain productivity of plants was established. It was found that the applied chemicals did not affect the main stages of ontogenesis by sorghum plants. The use of the active ingredient of Prima and Grantox led to a decrease the linear growth of plants. The height of sorghum plants with increasing the application dose of Prima decreased from 101.7 to 98.5 cm. When increasing the dose of Grantox, the toxic effect of the active ingredient on sorghum plants increased, as a result their height decreased significantly from 103.1 to 98.1 cm.
With regard to the Pik herbicide, with increasing of application doze, the plant height increased from 105.5 to 107.9 cm. Due to the use of the application dose of 20 g/ha, the highest grain yield of sorghum was obtained (4.04 t/ha). It is only 0.22 t/ha less compared to the variants where weeds were removed manually. These results indicate a significant effect of the Pik herbicide on weeds and weak phytotoxicity against sorghum plants.
When using the Prima herbicide, it was observed activation of tillering with a slight decrease in the number of panicles. All studied herbicides were characterized by high efficiency against dicotyledonous weeds: Grantox – 78.0–86.2 %, Prima – 75.4–83.1 %, Pik – 80.6–89.3 %. Despite the different phytotoxic effect on plants, grain productivity of grain sorghum increased due to the application of post-emergence herbicides compared to plots with natural weed infestation: Prima – by 0.66–0.92 t/ha, Grantox – by 0.60–0.97 t/ha, Pik – by 1.02–1.40 t/ha . Based on the research, it was found that the application of Pik herbicide in dose of 15–20 g/ha at the 4–5 leaf stage of sorghum was safest for plants and the most effective for the control of dicotyledonous weeds.
Key words: grain sorghum, growth and development, weeds, herbicide, yield.
|Influence of ice crust on frost resistance and survival of winter wheat in the Steppe of Ukrain||Annotation|
Influence of ice crust on frost resistance and survival of winter wheat in the Steppe of Ukrain
UDC 633.11: 631.8: 624.142 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0160
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 65–71.
Yaroshenko S. S.
State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The features of the effect both separately and together of lapped ice crust and low temperatures on winter wheat plants was highlighted. During the research period (2017–2019), the plants of the Mudrist Odeska variety which were damaged by low temperature and ice crust began to ear by 3–6 days later than undamaged ones. It was found that under unfavorable wintering conditions, in particular in plots without snow, the plant density per area unit and productive tillering, as well as grain productivity of the crop, largely depended on the degree of winter hardiness of plants. After growing of winter wheat which was frozen in laboratory conditions (without lapped ice crust) at a temperature of -15 °C, all plants survived, when the temperature dropped to -18 °C, 16.3 % of plants died. A further drop in temperature to -21 °C caused the loss of 81.7 % of plants. Against the background of artificially created lapped ice crust, the tillering nodes of the winter wheat plant were more damaged and, accordingly, the survival rate of plants decreased compared to variants without lapped ice crust, and at a freezing temperature of -15 °C its indicators were 69.8–92.0 %; at a temperature of -18 °C – 12.6–74.5 % depending on the thickness of the ice crust. When the cryogenic load increased to -21 °C, winter wheat died under the ice crust. During the growing season, in variants of mineral nutrition with a dose of N60P60K60, the death of winter wheat shoots compared with the non-fertilized control variant was less by 4.9–23.1 %. The dynamics of the soluble carbohydrate content in the tillering nodes indicates that at the resumption of spring vegetation the minimum consumption of carbohydrates by plants (30.8% of autumn reserves) was observed in variants with N60P60K60 fertilization. In the plots without snow cover under the lapped ice crust, carbohydrates were intensively consumed by plants, as a result, their amount in the tillering nodes during the winter period decreased on non-fertilized and fertilized variants by 58.5 and 61.2 %, respectively.
Key words: winter wheat, frost resistance, mineral fertilizers, ice crust, productivity,survival.
|Influence of fertilizer systems on spring barley yield under conditions of the Right Bank Forest Steppe||Annotation|
Influence of fertilizer systems on spring barley yield under conditions of the Right Bank Forest Steppe
UDC 633.16 "321":631.8/.559 (477,4) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0161
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 72–77.
Voitova G. P.
Khmelnytskyi State Agricultural Experimental Station of the Institute of Feed and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS, Samchyky village, Starokostiantyniv district, Khmelnytskyi region, 31182, Ukraine
The research results of the influence of fertilizer systems on the productivity of spring barley in the Right-bank Forest Steppe were presented. Traditionally fertilized backgrounds were studied: mineral, organic and organomineral (with half fertilizer rates of previous backgrounds), and the alternative to organic matter was cereal straw and biomass of green manure crops. The best backgrounds and optimal fertilizer systems for high level of grain yield were determined.
The main factors that formed the productive plant density of spring barley were the rates and types of fertilizers. The improving of plant nutrition due to using of organic and mineral fertilizers led to an increase in the productive plant density in the agrocenosis and the competitiveness of plants, the reducing of weed infestation.
Depending on the type of fertilizer, the grain yield of spring barley changed. Based on the research results, it was found that the combination of traditional fertilization with the application of alternative types of organic matter increased the grain yield of barley spring compared to the control variant on mineral background within 1.61–2.04 t/ha, organic – 1.69–2.14 t/ha, organomineral – 1.79–2.19 t/ha. At the same time, the yield indicators had a range: 4.86–5.29 t/ha on the mineral, 4.94–5.39 t/ha – organic and 5.04–5.44 t/ha organomineral background.
The highest yield of spring barley was provided by a combined fertilizer system with half norms both mineral fertilizer and manure against the background of the afteraction of predecessor straw with compensatory dose of N10/t and green manure biomass of white mustard as organic fertilizer, and equaled of 5.44 t/ha (yield gain was 2.19 t/ha compared to control).
The optimal fertilizer systems to increase of spring barley yield in conditions of the Right Bank Forest Steppe are combined mineral, organic and organomineral fertilizer systems, which include the use of traditional fertilizers: the action of mineral fertilizers and the afteraction of manure, as well as alternative fertilizers – the straw of predecessor with a compensatory dose of N10/t in combination with the white mustard biomass.
Keywords: spring barley, predecessor by-products, mineral fertilizers, yield, fertilizer systems, grain quality.
|The influence of tank mixtures of soil-applied herbicides on nitrogen-fixing nodules, weed infestationof crops and chickpea yield||Annotation|
The influence of tank mixtures of soil-applied herbicides on nitrogen-fixing nodules, weed infestationof crops and chickpea yield
UDC 635.657:632.954:632.51 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0162
Grain crops. 2021. 5(1). 78–83.
Gutyanskyi R. A.
Plant Production Institute named after V. Ya. Yuriev of NAAS, 142 Moskovskyi Avenue, Kharkiv, 61060, Ukraine
It was found that the studied tank mixtures of modern soil-applied herbicides in chickpea crops did not cause inhibition of plant growth and development. No negative effect of tank mixtures of soil-applied herbicides on the fresh weight of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the chickpea root at pod filling stage was detected. It was found that when using the tank mixture of Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Advokat, 0.5 l/ha, fresh weight of nitrogen-fixing nodules per chickpea plant (1.36 g) increased the most. In the variant of application of the herbicide mixture of Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha, a significant increase in the fresh weight of one chickpea plant (by 87 %) was noticed.
Precipitation, which fell immediately after the application of tank mixtures of soil-applied herbicides, led to an increase of herbicide efficiency. The phytotoxic effect of the most tank mixtures in chickpea crops was better with respect to dicotyledonous biennial weeds than annual cereals. At the first accounting it was found that the amount of annual cereals and dicotyledonous biennial weeds in chickpea crops was controlled the best by the tank mixture of herbicides Herb 900, 2.0 l/ha + Kapral, 2.0 l/ha (77 and 93 %, respectively), at the second accounting – Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha (87 and 91 %, respectively). The fresh weight of annual cereals weeds at the end of the chickpea growing season decreased the most with applying the tank mixture Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Dual Gold 960 EC, 1.6 l/ha (93 %), and dicotyledonous biennial weeds with applying of Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha (95 %).
The total fresh weight of annual cereal and dicotyledonous biennial weeds in chickpea crops decreased in large measure under the influence of phytotoxic effect of the tank mixtures of herbicides Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha (by 92 %). When applying the combination of herbicides such as Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Premium Gold, 3.0 l/ha, and Tizer, 2.0 l/ha + Panda, 3.5 l/ha in chickpea crops, the largest grain yield gain was obtained 0.15 and 0.12 t/ha, respectively.
Key words:chickpea, soil-applied herbicides, nitrogen-fixing nodules,weeds, yield.
|Effect of fertilization and liming on grain maize productivity in thes hort-term crop rotationons oddy-podzolic soil.||Annotation|
Effect of fertilization and liming on grain maize productivity in thes hort-term crop rotationons oddy-podzolic soil.
UDC 633.15:631.816:631.821.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0163
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 84–91.
Poliovyi V.M., Lukashchuk L.Ya., Yashchenko L.A., Rovna H.F., HukB.V.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissyaof NAAS, 5, Rivnenskastr., Shubkiv, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325,Ukraine
The results of the influence of doses and forms of limestone ameliorants and fertilization on the maize productivity in the Western Polissia were shown. The ameliorants application on the background of mineral fertilizers increased the indicators of the yield structure and plant survival. The highest results were obtained with the use of 1.5 dose dolomite meal by the hydrolytic acidity of: plants density before harvesting 62.4 ths. pcs/ha, plants height of 229 cm, the weight of an ear was 223 g, the grain yield from an ear was 79.7 %.
The limestone ameliorants and fertilizers application also had a positive effect on the yield and protein content in maize grain. According to the obtained data, it was found that the protein content in the grain increased by 1.82–2.89 % in variants with melioration on the background of N120P90K120 compared to the control, and amounted to 9.4–10.5 %. The maximum 10.5 % of the protein content was obtained by the using a 1,0 dose of dolomite meal on the background of mineral fertilization with the addition of sulfur S40 and foliar dressing of the Nutrivant Plus Cereals micronutrient fertilizer (2 kg/ha). The highest yield of 9.04 t/ha was formed by the combined use of 1.5 dose of dolomite meal by the hydrolytic acidity and the recommended rate of mineral fertilizers (N120P90K120). The increase of maize yield compared to control (without fertilizers) was 4.99 t/ha, compared to the background (N120P90K120) – 3.98 t/ha. The grain yield of maize increased by 10.3 % due to the application of sulfur fertilizer (S40) and two-time foliar fertilization with Nutrivant Plus Cereals micronutrient fertilizer (2 kg/ha).
The analysis of economic efficiency showed that the cultivation of grain maize was unprofitable at the N120P90K120 application without soil liming; while when using chemical ameliorants, in particular different doses of dolomite meal, on a similar background fertilizer the maize cultivation was profitable (in the range of 6174–16024 UAH/ha)
Keywords: chemical ameliorants, doses, fertilizers, yield, maize.
|The influence of fertilization on the productivity of winter rape in the Western Forest-Steppe.||Annotation|
The influence of fertilization on the productivity of winter rape in the Western Forest-Steppe.
UDC 631.5: 633.853.494 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1343-097X164
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 92–98
Kurach A. V.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissia NAAS, 5 Rivnenska st., Shubkiv village, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325, Ukraine
The optimal systems of mineral fertilizers for winter rape cultivation on typical low-humus loamy chernozem in the conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe were substantiated by the research results. It was found that the best degree of overwintering (95.2–95.5 %) and plant survivability (97.8–98.1 %) during the spring-summer period was observed under the calculated fertilization systems.
It is established that in the case of three foliar fertilization of winter rape with Avangard R boron + Avangard R rape at different stages of growth and development: in the 4–6 leaf stage ВВСН15 (0.5 + 0.1 l/ha), in the rosette stage ВВСН32 (1.0 + 2.0 l/ha), in the phase of the beginning of budding ВВСН53 (1.0 + 2.0 l/ha) on the background of the recommended dose N30P90K180 + N108 + N42S48, by the normative method N30P110K160 + N126 + N42S48, on removal N30P110K160 + N126 + N42 S48 the yield increased by 0.52 t/ha, 0.53 t/ha, 0.89 t/ha, respectively.
The highest number of pods per plant (294.5–315.5 pcs), the number of seeds in a pod (23.8–24.5 pcs), and the 1000 seed weight (4.24–4.27 g) were determined at the recommended dose N30P90K180 + N42S48, by the normative method N30P110K160 + N126 + N42S48, by removal N30P132K192 + N198 + N42S48 in combination with foliar fertilization Avangard R boron + Avangard R rape – at ВВСН15 (0.5 + 0.1 l/ha), ВВСН32 (1.0 + 2.0 l/ha), ВВСН53 (1.0 + 2.0 l/ha).
The highest yield of winter rape (4.05–4.59 t/ha) was provided by fertilizer systems of N30P90K180 + N108 + N42S48, N30P110K160 + N126 + N42S48, N30P132K192 + N198 + N42S48 with three-time foliar fertilization of Avangard R boron + Avangard R rape.
Key words: winter rape, fertilization system, doses of fertilizers, micronutrient fertilizers, foliar dressing.
|The adaptive properties of the winter wheat varieties for increasing the gross grain harvest||Annotation|
The adaptive properties of the winter wheat varieties for increasing the gross grain harvest
UDC 633.11: 631.547
Chuhrii H. A.
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 99–105.
Donetsk State Agricultural Research Station of NAAS of Ukraine
1 Gagarin ave., Gryshyne village, Pokrovsk district, Donetsk region, 85330, Ukraine
It is proved that one of the main reasons for the winter wheat yield decrease is damage of plants in the autumn-winter season by low temperatures in the absence of snow cover and the harmful effects of ground ice crust, which is formed due an alternation between long-term thaws and frosts.
It was found that according to adaptability indicators the best for cultivation in the Steppe zone are Smuglianka, Lymarivna, Oriika, Mudrist odeska, Askaniiska varieties of winter wheat. All of them are characterized by the sufficient winter hardiness, frost and drought resistance. Over the years of research, the average yield of these varieties was: Smuglianka – 5.31 t/ha, Lymarivna – 6.04 t/ha, Oriika – 6.08 t/ha, Wisdom of Odessa – 5.84 t/ha, Askaniia – 6.90 t/ha.
Studies was established that for cultivation in arid conditions of the Steppe zone considering the adaptive and plastic properties of winter wheat, the best varieties were such as: Bohynia, Oleksiivka, Donetska 48, Smuglianka, Epokha Odeska, Kiriia, Zolotokolosa, Blahodarka Odeska, Boghdana, List 25, Rozkishna.
It is determined that an important element of agricultural technology improvement for winter wheat cultivation in the eastern part of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine is the genetic potential consideration of modern varieties, namely adaptive properties to increasing of yield by 11–50 % and raise of gross grain harvest. In particular, plastic varieties of winter wheat are characterized by the formation of consistently high yields in different weather conditions.
Preference should be given to winter wheat varieties of Ukrainian selection, in addition to different maturity groups. The cultivation areas of early and medium-late varieties should be 10–15 %, and medium-early and medium-ripe – 30–45 %.
Key words: variety, yield, weather conditions, productivity, winter hardiness, varietal characteristics.
|Improvement of biological agricultural methods of growing peas in stationary crop rotation||Annotation|
Improvement of biological agricultural methods of growing peas in stationary crop rotation
UDC 631.5:633.35 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0166
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 106–114.
Popov S. I., Hlubokyi O.M.
Plantproductіon ІnstіtutenamedafterV. Ya. YuryevofNAAS, 142, MoskovskyAve., Kharkov, 61060, Ukraine
Our research aimed to determine the effect of Mikofriend and Mikohelp biologics and Humifriend biofertilizer on the yield and quality grain of Metsenat pea variety depending on the background of nutrition in the Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The expediency of seed treatment with biologics both separately and in combination with spraying of vegetative plants in the budding stage by Humifriend in doses of 0.4 and 0.5 l/ha under favourable growing conditions was established. It was found that regardless of the background of nutrition, treatment of seeds with combination of biologics and Maxim XL disinfectant (1.0 l/t) was ineffective, especially with insufficient level of soil moisture.
On average for three years (2018–2020) against the background without fertilizers, a significant increase in the yield of pea grain (0.27–0.30 t/ha) was obtained in the variants with combination of seed treatment with Mikohelp and application of Humifriend in doses of 0.4 and 0.5 l/ha. The main application of N30P30K30 fertilizers in variants with biologics treatment of seed caused an increase in pea yield by 0.57–0.65 t/ha. At the same time, the increase in grain yield due to the use of the Humifriend (0.4 and 0.5 l/ha) was 0.22–0.28 and 0.16–0.22 t/ha, respectively. The increase in pea yield in the studied variants led to a decrease in grain protein content, this indicator on a fertilized background was 0.33–0.71 %. Over years of research, pre-sowing seed treatment with biologics and application of Humifriend in doses of 0.4 and 0.5 l/ha on a background without fertilizers led to an increase in protein harvest by 0.450–0.475 t/ha, which is by 5.8–13.4 % more than the control (without spraying). Against the background of the main application of N30P30K30, these indicators were significantly higher. The maximum protein harvest was obtained in the variants with seed treatment by Mikofriend and application of Humifriend in doses of 0.4 and 0.5 l/ha – 0.631 and 0.637 t/ha, respectively, which is 8.0–8.9 % more compared to control. The increase in gross protein harvest per area unit depended more on the level of pea yield than on the protein content of the grain.
Key words: peas, nutrition background, seed treatment, crop spraying, biologics, biofertilizer, yield, grain quality, protein harvest.
|Change of agrophysical properties of ordinary chernozem under the tillage in crop rotation and on recultivated land in the steppe zone of ukraine||Annotation|
Change of agrophysical properties of ordinary chernozem under the tillage in crop rotation and on recultivated land in the steppe zone of ukraine
UDC 633.854.78 : 631.51 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0167
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 115–124.
TsyliurykО. І., ChornaV. І., GavryushenkoО. О., DesiatnykL. М.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Serhii Yefremov St., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49009,ukrainе
It is found that 0–30 cm arable layer density was in the range from 1.09 to 1.32 g/cm3 regardless of the tillage system at the beginning of spring field work. The compaction of 0–30 cm soil layer (by 0.02–0.14 g/cm3) was at the shallow mulching due to the loosening depth reduction to 12–14, 14–16 cm. There is an inversely proportion between soil porosity and density, i.e. the higher density, the lower pore volume in the soil. We can increase the porosity (up to 54.3 %) and improve the soil aeration (30.3–32.4 %) due to the primary tillage (especially plowing and chisel loosening) and crop residues, which leads to soil decompaction and the significant pore formation.
At the end of field crop vegetation, there was a natural compaction of the soil due to natural and technogenic factors. As a result, the pore volume decreased by an average of 2.7–5.7 % under moldboard plowing and differentiated tillage system and by 1.5–3, 5 % – shallow nonmoldboard loosening. In the spring and during the growing season, the compaction of porous soil under the moldboard plowing and differentiated tillage system has always been more intensive compared to shallow nonmoldboard tillage.
It is established that on the recultivated lands the total porosity and aeration porosity indicators in the model with zonal soil at long-term use of fertile layer gradually increased (52.5 → 59.2 → 60.3 %), however with the completion of intensive use of perennial agrocenosises they decreased to 56.4 %. For the model with loess-like loams, the patterns were similar. The increase of total porosity and aeration porosity in model with clays compared with the initially formed technosoils was observed.
Key words: field crops, tillage system, density, porosity, chisel tillage, disking, bulk fertile layer.
|Adaptive system of primary tillage for white mustard (sinapis alba)||Annotation|
Adaptive system of primary tillage for white mustard (sinapis alba)
UDC 631.31.633 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0168
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 125–131.
Kyryliuk V. P., Krychkivskyi V. N., Kovalchuk N. V.
Khmelnytskyi State Agricultural Experimental Station of the Institute of Feed and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS, 1, Samchyky St., Samchyky village, Starokostiantyniv district, Khmelnytskyi region, 31182, Ukraine
The research results of influence of the continuous application of the various systems of primary tillage and fertilization on the productivity of mustard white (sinapis alba) were presented.
It was found that the highest yield of white mustard seeds (1.89 t/ha) on the background of N60P60K60 fertilizers was formed under moldboard plowing. Against the background of organic and mineral fertilization (predecessor residues and application of N30P30K30), the highest seed yield (1.90 t/ha) was provided by the moldboard plowing. The use of traditional fertilizer of N60P60K60 for white mustard compared to the combination of crop residues and N30P30K30 fertilizers was economically unprofitable.
It is established that against the background of organic and mineral fertilization compared to mineral, the thinning of white mustard crops under minimal nonmoldboard cultivation reached almost 40–50 %. In general, the density of mustard plants on the background of organic and mineral fertilization was 1.5–1.55 mln plants/ha, and on the mineral – 1.65–1.7 mln plants/ha, i.e. on average it was lower by 10 %.
Analysis of the economic efficiency of growing white mustard showed that the subsurface tillage on the background of organic and mineral fertilization (predecessor residues and the application of N30P30K30) can be considered as the most promising and adapted to current weather conditions. The profitability of white mustard seed production was 263 %; almost such indicators of profitability were noted under chisel tillage – 259 %. It was found that the introduction of any subsurface tillage for white mustard on the background of organic and mineral fertilization is more profitable.
Key words: white mustard, yield, tillage, fertilizers, soil.
|Yield and economic assessment of grain maize cultivation at different levels of contamination of agroecotopes with pollutants.||Annotation|
Yield and economic assessment of grain maize cultivation at different levels of contamination of agroecotopes with pollutants.
УДК 633.15:338.3.003.13:351.777.6 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/016
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 132–137.
Dovbash N. I., Klimenko I. I., Davydyuk H. V., Shkarivska L. I. Kushсhuk M. A.
National Science Center«Institute of Agriculture of NAAS», 2b, Mashynobudivnykiv St., Chabany settlement, Kyiv-Sviatoshynskyi district, Kyiv region, 08162, Ukraine
In Ukraine, as in the rest of the world, the part of lands contaminated with pollutants, in particular, heavy metals, is growing. However, on these lands it is possible to grow crops that provide safe, economically viable products.
The study of the maize agrocenosis state in the conditions of soil contamination with lead, cadmium, zinc testified that the crops have the high resistance to the increase of metal content in the soil environment. Maize as a grain crop has a high viability and buffer barrier to pollutants. It is able to partially accumulate and fix the metals by the root system, bringing to the commodity part of the crop only a small proportion of them, not exceeding the maximum allowable concentration, and reduce the risk of further expansion of areas contaminated with these ecotoxicants.
The variants are provided by the experiment allowed to obtain a grain yield of 7.36–9.32 t/ha (average level of variation 10.24 %). In plots with 5–100-fold excess of the background of heavy metals, the grain yield tended to a reducing by1.16–1.96 t/ha (LSD05 = 1.88) compared to the control, i.e. the loss of maize yield was 12–21 %.
It was found that soil contamination with pollutants led to a decrease in yield and profit compared to the natural background (control). The maximum income (14 575 UAH/ha) was obtained in the variant with a natural background, which is associated with a high yield of maize grain. The analysis of research results showed that the profitability of maize grain production at the yield of 7.36–9.32 t/ha varied according to the level of ecotope contamination with pollutants and amounted to 31–63 %. The profitability is indicator that makes it possible to comprehensively assess all factors. The cultivation of maize in areas with soil contamination with heavy metals exceeding by 5 and 10 times the natural background provided a level of profitability of 39 and 44 %, respectively, and was economically feasible. This allowed to effectively use the agriculture lands with constantly renewed soil contamination for profit from the cultivation of agricultural products while preventing the expansion of the contamination area.
Key words: corn, heavy metals, yield, profit, economic efficiency, profitability.
|Resistance of modern maize hybrids to smut diseases in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Resistance of modern maize hybrids to smut diseases in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.15:632.4 (251.1-17:477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0170
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 138-144.
Pedash T. M., Sudak V. M., Gyrka T. V., Yavdoshchenko M. P.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The research results of the resistance determination of the maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) of different maturity groups to the affection by boil (Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Unger) and kernel (Sphacelotheca reiliana (Ruhn) Clint) smuts in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine were provided. During 2016–2018, the experiments were conducted in the fields of the State Enterprise “Experimental Farm “Dnipro” of the State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS. The assessment scale of maize hybrids resistance to smut was given. Over the years of research, 52 samples were analyzed.
It was found that the common boil smut was widely distributed in 2016, when the hybrids disease average was 2.7 %; only on plants of DN Burshtyn medium-ripe hybrid the infection was not detected. 2017 was unfavorable for the spread of the disease: only 23 % of maize hybrids of medium-ripe and medium-late ripening groups had smut tumor, the average disease degree was 0.4 %. In 2018, half of the studied samples showed no boil smut symptoms, the average degree of disease was 0.9 %, and DN Galateia middle-early hybrid had a maximum degree of disease – 6.7 %.
The analysis of the received data testifies that for years of researches there were most resistant to affection by boil smut such hybrids as: DB Lada, DN Rubin, Dniprovskyi 181 SV, DN Adzhamka, DN Burshtyn, DN Veles, DN Astra, DN Sarmat, DN Bulat, DN Palanok and DN Dnipro, and they belonged to different maturity groups. According to the hybrids resistance scale to boil smut, all studied samples were highly resistant and resistant. The tumor was the most often found on the ears, less often on the stems and other parts of the plant.
Regarding kernel smut, the survey results indicated a tendency to increase of the disease spread level in the Northern Steppe. In 2016 a 40 % of hybrid samples was affected by kernel smut with an average affection of 0.9 %; in 2017 these indicators were 71.0 and 3.7 %, and in 2018 – 86.0 and 5.9 %, respectively. Over the years of research, it was determined that the DN Astra middle-early hybrid is the most resistant to kernel smut compared to plants of DN Palanok, DN Vesta, DN Demetra, DN Bulat and Pochaivskyi 190 MV hybrids, which were affected annually. According to the hybrids resistance scale to kernel smut, it was found that in 2016 all samples were in the highly resistant group, and the disease degree did not exceed 10 %. In 2017, more than 10 % of plants of DN Adzhamka, DN Vesta, DN Hetera and DN Nazar hybrids were affected, so they were classified as resistant forms, other samples – as highly resistant. In 2018, only the DN Palanok hybrid was estimated as medium-resistant, 6 hybrids (DB Lada, Pochaiivskyi 190 MV, Nur, Korund, DN Galateia, DN Dnipro) belonged to the resistant group, the rest – to the highly resistant group. Regarding the affected hybrid plants, kernel smut was mainly detected on the ears and partly on the panicles (sometimes simultaneously).
It was found that 2016 was favorable for the maize hybrids affection by boil smut, and 2018 – by kernel smut. It was found that the degree of plants affection by smut diseases did not depend on the maturity group of the hybrids. All tested samples are highly resistant and resistant to both types of smut.
Key words: hybrids, maize, affection, kernel smut, boil smut.
|Species composition of harmful organisms in rape winter depending on tillage and protection system||Annotation|
Species composition of harmful organisms in rape winter depending on tillage and protection system
UDC 633.1; 632.9 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0171
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 145–152.
Snizhok O. V., Yuvchyk N. O.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissia NAAS, Rivnenska st. Shubkiv village, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325, Ukraine
Based on the results of research conducted in Western Polissia, it was found that tillage is important for controlling the number of pests in winter rape crops, especially the number of weeds. It was found in the experiment variants without herbicide spraying of rape plants that the most weeds were on the background of surface tillage – 407.9 pcs/m2, which is 1.8 times more than under the moldboard plowing (228.1 pcs./m2). Thus, the technical efficiency of herbicides against the background of moldboard plowing was 93.7 %.
It is established that tillage has a lesser effect on the development and spread of diseases and pests, as the best results showed chemical protection. When spraying winter rape plants in the flower bud stage, the technical effectiveness of Borei insecticide (0.14 l/ha) against Pentatomids (Eurydema oleracea L., Eurydema ventralis Kol.), Mirids (Lygus pratensis L.) and Flea Beetles (Phyllotreta vitata F., Phyllotreta nemorum L.) consisted 100 %, Pollen Beetles (Meligethes aeneus F.) – 95.1–95.9 %, Cabbage Seed Weevils (Ceuthorrhynchus assimilis Payk.) – 92.5–94.6 %. The technical efficiency of Mospilan insectici-de (0.15 kg/ha) at the spraying of plants in the flowering stage against Pollen Beetles was equal to 91.7– 95.7 %, Cabbage Seed Weevils – 92.4– 94.6 %.
According to the research results, it was found that the largest technical efficiency of Colossal Pro fungicide (0.5 l/ha) against Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria brassicae) was revealed 14 days after fungicide spraying of winter rape plants and was 84–88 %.
Due to tillage, it was possible to obtain an yield increase of winter rapes in the range of 0.09–0.22 t/ha. However, due to the implementation of an integrated system of crop protection on different backgrounds of tillage, seed yield increased by 0.64–0.85 t/ha. Depending on tillage and plant protection, the winter rape yield ranged from 2.20 to 3.27 t/ha.
Key words: tillage, species composition, weeds, diseases, pests, herbicides, fungicides, insec-ticides.
|Serum lipoprotein concentration and its association with fattening and meat qualities for young pigs of large white breed||Annotation|
Serum lipoprotein concentration and its association with fattening and meat qualities for young pigs of large white breed
UDC 636.4.082.43 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0172
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 153-160
V. I. Khalak
SE Institute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49009, Ukrainе
The research results of the total lipoproteins concentration in the blood serum of young pigs of Large White breed, their fattening and meat qualities were provided, as well as the cost-effectiveness of research results was calculated. The researches were conducted in “Druzhba - Kaznacheivka” agricultural limited liability company of Dnipropetrovsk region, in the Research Center for Biosafety and Environmental Control of Agricultural Resources of Agro-Industrial Complex of Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, “Jazz” Meatpacking Plant and Livestock Laboratory of the State Enterprise Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine. The work was performed according to the research program of NAAS of Ukraine No.30 "Innovative technologies of breeding, industrial and organic production of pig breeding products" ("Pig breeding"), state registration number 0116U001247).
The object of the study was young pigs of Large White breed. Evaluation of animals for fattening and meat qualities was carried out considering the following indicators: average daily live weight gain during the control period of fattening, g; age of 100 kg live weight reaching, days; fat thickness at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae, mm; length of chilled carcass, cm; loin eye area, cm2; posterior third weight of chilled half carcass, kg (Assessment method of boars and sows…, 2005). A comprehensive assessment of young pigs for fattening and meat qualities was calculated according to the B. Tyler’s index (Vashchenko, 2019), biometric indicators - according to the Lakin’s methods (1990). Economic efficiency of research results was calculated according to the generally accepted practice (Method of definition of economic…, 1983).
It was found that the total lipoproteins concentration in the blood serum of young pigs in the experimental group corresponds to the physiological norm of clinically healthy animals and is equal to 611.36 ± 43.872 mg%. The animals of this production group and breed complied with the elite class according to the age of 100 kg live weight reaching (days), the fat thickness at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae (mm) and the chilled carcass length (cm). Significant correlations were established between the indicators such as total lipoprotein concentration (mg%) and the chilled carcass length (r = - 0.622, tr = 4.20), fat thickness at the level of 6–7 thoracic vertebrae (mm) (r = -0.652, tr = 4.55), average daily gain in live weight during the control fattening period (g) (r = +0.492, tr = 2.99). The cost of additional products obtained from young pigs with B. Tyler’s index of 160.14–174.04 points is equal to +1245.64 UAH/head.
Key words: young pigs, fattening and meat qualities, complex assessment, index, variability, correlation, economic efficiency.
|Influence of leading hereditary factors on the deve-lopment of linear traits of first-calf cows of the Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy breed||Annotation|
Influence of leading hereditary factors on the deve-lopment of linear traits of first-calf cows of the Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy breed
UDC 636.2.034.06.082.4 (477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0173
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 161–166.
Khmelnichy L. M., Khmelnichy S. L., Karpenko B. N.
Sumy National Agrarian University, 160, Herasym Kondratiiev St., Sumy, 40021, Ukraine
The research results about intensity of influence by leading hereditary factors (conditional pedigree of Holstein stud bull, pedigree value of the father, genotype of the father, line of father and mother) on the development of linear traits of first-calf cows of Ukrainian Black and White Dairy breed in the conditions of the herd of a Private Enterprise "Burynske" of Pidlisnivka branch of Sumy district.
The assessment of the conformation type of first-calf cows at 2–4 months after calving according to the linear classification method was carried out by two systems: 1) linear description of 18 conformation traits according to 9-point scale; and 2) 100-point scale for classification by four complexes of breeding traits which characterized: dairy type, trunk development, state of legs and morphological qualities of udder.
The influence of genotypic factors on the linear features of the conformation was studied by one-way analysis of variance based on the ratio of factorial variance to total. According to the research results, the influence coefficients in the total phenotypic variability for individual linear traits are high and reliable. It was found that the group traits of the conformation are determined by the pedigree value of the father by 24.7–34.4 %, and the final type assessment is determined by 49.5 %. Accordingly, the intensity of influence on the linear group traits of the father's genotype (23.3–31.9 and 47.4 %) and the father's line (24.1–34.5 and 47.7 %) was established at the same level.
Based on the research results, the monitoring expediency of controlled herds by the conformation, and the identification and use of development patterns of the linear type traits of the animals, depending on the genotypic factors in the breeding process of the commercial herd formation were substantiated.
Key words: Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy breed, conformation, power of influence, breeding value, genotype, line.
|Peculiarities of realization of productive qualities of Brown Swiss cows in condition of large industrial livestock complex||Annotation|
Peculiarities of realization of productive qualities of Brown Swiss cows in condition of large industrial livestock complex
УДК 636.237.1.082.14.[4777/251.1] https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0174
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 167–179.
Pishchan I. S., Pishchan S. G., Lytvyschenko L. O., Honchar A. O., Silichenko K. A.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, S. Yefremov St., Dnipro, 49600, Ukraine
It was found that the live weight of Brown Swiss cows increased from the first lactation (394.5 kg) to the third-fourth, and reached at average of 654.9 kg. At the same time, the indicators of cow productivity and the milk quality dynamically increased, their ratio was an individual reaction of the lactating organism depending on the metabolic processes.
The researches were performed on healthy livestock of Brown Swiss breed at the dairy production complex "Yekaterynoslavskyi". The feeding of lactating cows was carried out from the feed table with mixed rations, in which the concentrated feed accounted on average of 43–46 % of metabolic energy. And during first days of lactation the 400 to 620 g of feed per 1 kg of milk was added. During the standard lactation, the of milk fat and protein production on average of herd is quite high and averaged 641.8 kg for the ratio of these components at 1.08.
It is proved that stimulation the lactation function by feed not always correlated to high metabolic processes of whole herd. Thus, for 41.7 % of the first-lactation heifers, the milk fat content was 1.05 times less than the milk protein content, and the ratio of these components does not exceeded 0.95, while 58.3 % of the same herd had a ratio within the standard – 1.19. In cows of the second lactation (66.2 % of the herd) and the third – fourth lactation (65.7 %) – the ratio of fat and protein in milk was 1.01 and 0.99, respectively, which indicated an abnormality of metabolic processes due to the development of subclinical acidosis.
It was found that the average daily milk yield of the first-lactation heifers of Brown Swiss breed at the pathological state of metabolic processes was higher by 8.7 % (P<0.01) than normal, for animals of the second lactation – by 10.3 % (P<0.05), and for cows of the third – fourth lactation– by 8.8 % only. The total milk yield at the standard lactation of these cows exceeded norm within the standard deviation.
Key words: Brown Swiss cattle, live weight, lactation, milk yield, mass fraction of fat and protein in milk.
|Indicators of repro-ductive qualities of sows of different breeding values||Annotation|
Indicators of repro-ductive qualities of sows of different breeding values
UDK 636.4:082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0175
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 180–187.
Khalak V.I. 1, Chernyavsky S.E.1, Gutyj B.V.2, Bordun O.M.3, Stadnytska O.I.4
1State Institution Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi st., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
2 Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after S.Z. Gzhytskyi, 50, Pekarska st., Lviv, 79010, Ukraine,
3Institute of Agriculture of the Northern East NAAS, 1, Zelena St., Sad settlement, Sumy region, 42343, Ukraine
4Institute of Agriculture in the Carpathian region, 5, Hrushevskoho, st. , Obroshino village, Pustomyty district, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
The article presents the results of research on the reproductive qualities of sows of Large White breed, as well as the assessment of animals of this production group on some integrated indicators. Based on experimental data, criteria for selection of highly productive animals were developed and the economic efficiency of research results was calculated.
It is established that sows of the controlled herd are characterized by high indicators of reproductive qualities. Their prolificacy was 11.1 heads, milk yield – 51.9 kg, nest weight at the time of weaning at 60 days of age – 176.4 kg. These indicators correspond to the elite class and class I in accordance with the current Instructions for valuation of pigs. According to the M. D. Berezovskyi's index and the comprehensive indicator of reproductive qualities of the sow, the sows of class M+ were characterized by the maximum indicators of prolificacy and nest weight at weaning in 60 days of age. The difference in these indicators compared with same sows of classes M0 and M– equaled 4.2–4.1 head, and 58.8–61.0 kg, respectively, and was statistically significant. The correlation coefficient between absolute and integrated indicators of reproductive qualities of sows ranges from -0.307 to +0.967. The number of reliable correlations between the features of reproductive qualities of sows and evaluation indexes were equal to 90.00 %, which indicated the effectiveness of their use in breeding work in the field of pig breeding. The criterion for selection of highly productive sows according to the M. D. Berezovskyi's index is the indicator 40.18–50.58, the comprehensive indicator of reproductive qualities of the sow – 132.90–184.11 points. The maximum increase in additional products was obtained from sows of the elite class (+11.42 %), M+ according to the M. D. Berezovskyi’s index (+16.40 %) and the comprehensive indicator of reproductive qualities (+16.77 %). The cost of additional products from animals of these groups ranged from +272.09 to +399.75 UAH/head.
Key words: sow, reproductive qualities, integrated assessment, variability, correlation, economic efficiency.
|Influence of mineral nutrition on the productivity of breeding stock pigs||Annotation|
Influence of mineral nutrition on the productivity of breeding stock pigs
UDC 636.4.085.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0176
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 188–193.
Maystrenko A. N., Dimchia G. G., Petrenko V. I.
SI Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi St., Dnipro, 49009, Ukraine
The study was carried out in the conditions of "Agro-Elita" LLC Dnipropetrovsk region on the livestock of Large White pigs. The objects of the study were breeding boars and sows.
It was presented the experimental data on the reproductive qualities of sows. The growth and development of offspring up to 45 days of age were following: in the experimental group the stillborn piglets was less by 3.87 % compared to control; born with weight less than 1 kg – less by 15 heads or 4.73 %; born with weight of 1 kg and more – more by 56 heads or 19.18 %. On average the 1.8 heads of viable piglets were additionally obtained in each litter, and the nest weight at birth of the experimental group exceeded by 3.4 kg or 26, 35 % (P <0.001) the control group. An obvious indicator was an increase of milk productivity, namely: in the control group the average daily milk ejection by one sow for the entire lactation period was 6.00 kg, and in the experimental group – 7.88 kg, which was by 1.88 kg or 31.33 % more. The difference during lactation period (45 days) per nest is also in favor of the experimental group. For the entire period of sucking, one piglet consumed mother's milk in the experimental group as compared with the control one by 10.19 % more. The daily gains in live weight of piglets for 45 days of the suckling period were: in the experimental group – 372 g, in the control group – 290 g, and the difference in the physical weight of piglets also in favor of the experimental group – by 3.80 kg or 26.38 % more (P <0.001 ).
The adjustment of mineral elements in rations of breeding stock pigs by means of the author's balancing feed additives maximally approximated them to physiological needs. This led to an increase in metabolic processes in animals and subsequently had a positive effect on their productivity, growth and development of offspring.
Key words: breeding boar, sow, piglets, rations, feed additives, minerals,reproductive capacity.
|Іnitial marketing analysis of competitor's websites||Annotation|
Іnitial marketing analysis of competitor's websites
UDC 339.138 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0177
Grain Crops. 2021. 5 (1). 194–200
NosenkoYu. М. 1 , Sinelnyk L. M. 2
The National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 9, Mykhailo Omelyanovych-Pavlenko St., Kyiv, 01010, Ukraine
NSC "Institute of Agriculture NAAN",2b Machine builders St., Chabany uts, Kyievo-Sviatoshynskyi district,
Kiev region, 08162, Ukraine
The role of the corporate website in Internet marketing is analyzed. The sections of web analysis of sites are allocated: analysis of user data and technical parameters; analysis of content and user requests; analysis of conversion and return on investment; variable tests. There are four components of comparative analysis of websites: product / group of products for market promotion; identification of competitors for this product; analysis of competitors' websites according to the list of criteria; formation of product promotion strategy. Buckwheat was selected as a model product for the initial marketing analysis, and competitor websites were identified for the analysis. Methods and criteria for analyzing competitors' websites, including with the help of software, are studied. A checklist has been created for the initial analysis of websites according to two groups of criteria. The websites of potential competitors were analyzed in compliance with the checklist, and the most competitive websites according to SEO criteria and usability criteria (usability) were identified. Criteria that are underutilized by competitors and can be used to improve the market positioning of the corporate website are identified.
Following to the website evaluation results according to SEO criteria, the 2 most competitive websites were identified: APKUA, Agro-Ukraine. The 3 competitors' websites according to the usability criteria aggregate were determinated: Antaria, Agroexpert-Trade and CERNEL GLOBAL HOLDING. In general, there was a pattern that websites with high usability had the worse indicators in terms of SEO parameters and conversely.
The websites whose experience can be used in the website usability configuration: Antaria, Agroexpert-Trade, CERNEL GLOBAL HOLDING, and at the configuration of SEO parameters: APKUA, Agro-Ukraine were determinated. It was highlighted the usability tools that are rarely used by competitors' websites and should be used to corporate site configuration such as: messengers, promotions, online consultations, YouTube channel organization; and more detailed description of the company's advantages over similar products of competitors.
Keywords: marketing analysis, corporate website, competitors, criteria, SEO analysis, usability.
Сongratulations on the anniversaries
|If you work with inspiration – success is guaranteed||Annotation|
If you work with inspiration – success is guaranteed
Annotation is being prepared