Grain Crops.-2018.-Vol. 2.- №2
|Display and variability of the sign mass of seeds per a plant in the soybeans hybrids and varieties of the different groups of ripeness||Annotation|
Display and variability of the sign mass of seeds per a plant in the soybeans hybrids and varieties of the different groups of ripeness
UDC 631.527: 633.34: 631.6 (477.72) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0026
Lavrynenko Yu. O. 1, Marchenko T. Yu. 1, Borovyk V. O. 1, Michalenko I. V. 2, Ivaniv M. O. 2, Klubuk V. V. 1 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 201–211.
1 Institute of Irrigated Agriculture NAAS, Naddnipryanske village, Kherson, 73483, Ukraine
2 Kherson State Agrarian University, 23Strytenskaya str., Kherson, 73000, Ukraine
A comprehensive study of the productivity elements and their relations with economically valuable traits could be used to improve the sort models for the specific agroclimatic zones and to determine the priority selection parameters for the component attributes of productivity.
The study of the characteristics of the manifestation and variability of the constituent elements of productivity in soybean varieties is the main reason for a selection theory developing taking into account the specifics of the weather and technological conditions of the zone for which they are created. One of the main features in the structure of the plant, which determines the productivity of the sort, is the mass of seeds per a plant.
The purpose of the research was to determine the manifestation of the feature “seed weight from a plant” in the, parental forms and hybrids. Also to establish the level of variability behind the soybean va-rieties in the F1–F4 hybrid combinations. The tasks were also to determine the effectiveness of selections for productivity in terms of the “seed weight from a plant” indicator from the hybrid populations of the F2–F5.
The studies were conducted on the experimental base of the Institute of the Irrigated Agriculture NAAS during the 2007–2015. Studied varieties of competitive varietals testing, collection samples, differed according to the ripeness and origin groups, F1 hybrids and F2–F5 hybrid populations were also studied.
25–44 hybrids and populations were studied annually. The hybrid (F2–F4) and breeding nurseries, the 2,25 m² areas were sown with a SKS-6-10 seeder with a cassette sowing unit. Every 9number stan-dards were posted. The 6,0 m2 control nursery area was three-time sown.Selections on the basis of the “seed weight from a plant” were carried out in the F2–F5 populations. The varieties with the best economically valuable traits and properties and lines of the various groups of ripeness were included to the hybridization hotbed.
The analysis of the manifestation and variability of the sign “seed mass from a plant” in varieties of competitive variety trials showed that there is a very significant amplitude of variability in this indicator. The range of variability of varieties was higher in the mid-season and the late-ripening group.
The maximum values of the grain mass from a plant are observed in the middle-ripening and the late-ripening groups in 2008 – 22,88 and 27,20 g/plant. Somewhat soybean varieties were inferior for the manifestation of the trait in 2009. In the group of late ripening varieties there were the highest average indices – 9,82–12,99 g/plant. The middle-ripening and early ripening group of varieties was significantly inferior on this trait, especially in the dry 2007, which led to a decrease in the range of variability between min and max, g.
The coefficient of genotype variation (Vg) depended less on the ripeness group. However, the weather conditions of the year were more significant factor, despite the vegetative irrigation. This indicates the negative effect of heat and low humidity on the genotypic variability of the trait and its manifestation in varieties.
Thus, it has been established that in soy characteristic “seed mass from a plant” has significant genotypic variability and has significant differences in varieties of different groups of ripeness, which may be a prerequisite for predicting the effective selection for this factorial trait.
The high level of genotypic variation of the feature “seed mass from a plant” indicates the possibility of carrying out effective selection from hybrid populations. However, it is desirable to establish a connection with this characteristic with other biometric and utilitarian indicators.
The calculated correlation coefficients showed a high correlation (r≥0,80) of the seed mass from the plant with the signs: the number of productive nodes on the branches, the number of productive nodes on the plant, the number of beans on the plant, the number of grains from the plant, the mass of beans from theplant. A high correlation of this trait with seed yield was also established, which made it possible to predict the prospects of selections for increasing seed yield using factorial “seed weight from a plant”.
From the F2–F5 hybrid populations in terms of the “seed mass from a plant”, selections were made (more than 50 elite plants). The results of individual selection tested in a breeding nursery showed that in the most hybrid populations have a high percentage of the high-performing genotypes which can be obtained by selections in the third and fourth generation populations.
From the selections carried out in the F3 populations, the proportion of families exceeding the standard for seed yield was in the range of 28,0–37,5 %. In the second generation of hybrids, the efficiency of selection was 1,5–2 times lower, which is explained by the presence of the high heterozygosity in the F2 and the possible manifestation of competitive heterosis, which is not manifested in the next generation (in the selection nursery).
The high selection efficiency for a seed yield in terms of the “seed weight from a plant” was also in the F4 and the F5 populations. However, a selection in the later generations leads to a significant increase in the term of creating varieties, as well as the possible negative impact of natural negative selection, aimed at survival of the “wild-type” genotypes with low yields and high adaptability to survival.
It has been established that soy’s trait “seed weight from a plant” has the significant genotypic variability and has significant differences in varieties of the different groups of ripeness, which can predict the effect of the selection for this factorial trait.
The highest yield of high-yielding genotypes, reached by the “seed mass from a plant” indicator was obtained from the F3 populations, therefore, intensive selection for soybean productivity under irrigation conditions by the indicator “seed mass from a plant” should be started from the third generation.
To create the new high-yielding soybean varieties with a 3,5–5,5 t/ha yield under irrigation, it is promising to use in crossings of variety samples contrastive by groups of ripeness and genetic pedigree: Diona/Faeton, South 30/3147 (3) 91, South 30 /Phaeton), South 30/Vityaz 50, Kiev 91/Apollo, South 40/Apollon, USHI-6/Vityaz50, USHI-6/Phaeton, Evans/Apollo, (Evans x Traff)/Hodgson.
Key words: variety, soybean, hybrid, population, yield, irrigation.
|The sugar content in the juice of the stalks of sugar sorghum, depending on seed productivity||Annotation|
The sugar content in the juice of the stalks of sugar sorghum, depending on seed productivity
UDК 631.174: 631.527 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0027
Yalansky О. V. 1, Sereda V. I. 1, Nosov M. G. 1 Tagantsova M. M. 2 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 212–217.
1 SЕ Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 Vladimir Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
2 Ukrainian Institute for Plant Varieti Examination, 15 Heneral Rodimtsev Str., Kyiv, 03041, Ukraine
The groups of early fall (55), midlate (58) and late-frosty (55) samples of sugar sorgh in accordance with the growing season were allocated. It is established that high-sugar varieties are late-ripening samples with a high yield of green mass and the lowest yield of the whisk with the grain. That is, they are characterized by a low percentage of panicle yield with grain in the yield of green mass. There is a pattern, the smaller the grain, the greater the sugar content in the juice of the stems. To confirm this pattern, a search experience was laid in 2017 at the Sinelnikovsky breeding and experimental station.
Search experience included the study of the content of sugars in the juice of the stalks of variety samples with and without grain, that is, fertile and sterile forms. Studies were conducted in the nursery of competitive sugar sorghum and breeding sterile lines.
As a result of the research, different content of sugars in the juice of the stems of sorghum samples was observed.
As a result of studies of sugar sorghum, it was found that the content of sugars in the juice of the stems of sterile variety samples is 19.2 % higher than in the same variety samples with a grain of 14.3 %. The sugar content in the juice of the stems of sterile variety samples with grain ranged from 8.8 % [F1 (430sugar x 12T309)] to 18.4 % (Pineapple). The sugar content in the juice of the stems of sterile varieties without grain varied from 12.2 % [F1 (Efremov white 2s x 12T209 sugar)] to 21.8 % F1 (093094a grain х Silo Kato)
It was also established that the average yield of green mass of mid-season variety samples is – 16.8 t/ha higher than that of early ripening – 16.5 t/ha, but less late-ripening – 19.3 t/ha. The inverse pattern is observed in grain yield. It was established that the percentage of panicle yield with grain in the yield of green mass of middle-aged variety samples is 22% higher than in late-ripe – 17 %, but less early-ripening 28 %. There is a pattern, the smaller the grain, the greater the sugar content in the juice of the stems.
Keywords: sorghum, hybridization, selection, crossing, nursery, maintenance of sugar, power engineering biospecialist.
|The content of anthocyanins in stalks of different maize genotypes||Annotation|
The content of anthocyanins in stalks of different maize genotypes
UDC 581.192:633.15 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0028
Psolova A. O., Derkaсh K. V., Bielikov Ye. I., Satarova T. M. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2).218–225.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
A large group of water-soluble pigments in the kingdom of plants are anthocyanins belonging to the class of flavonoids and providing a color from orange-red to black-violet. The presence of food products rich in antioxidants, including anthocyanins, reduces the risk of vascular diseases, the emergence of tumors, it has an anti-mutagenic effect. Anthocyanins are registered in the European Union as a food and dietary sup-plement in the section Е100-Е199 (dyes) under the number Е163.
Due to the fact that antioxidants are often used as food additives in a balanced diet of animals and humans, the estimation of the content of anthocyanins in crops, especially in maize, is very relevant.
The material for the study were the following maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes: the population Bilosnizhka which is a sweet corn with green stalk, flint maize inbred lines AiD121, IKS226, BS4626-6 / 1, BS37-10 and AI178-325 with a green stalk and a population of dent maize Chornosteblova with a dark purple stalk.
The content of anthocyanins was determined by the modified differential spectrophotometry method by Lu. E. Rodriguez-Saona, R.E. Wrolstad and M. M. Giusti, R. E. Wrolstad Determination of the content of anthocyanins was carried out during the flowering period, and the eighth internode of the stalk was used for the analysis.
The content of anthocyanins in the stalk of the studied maize genotypes varies in the range of 168,64 – 38362,23 mg/kg, that is, 0,02–3,83 % of the absolutely dry weight of the stalk. According to the total content of anthocyanins in the stalk, the studied samples were divided into genotypes with low (168,64 mg/kg – population Bilosnizhka), medium (338,89, 404,15, 425,93, 463,45 and 996,13 mg/kg, respectively in inbred lines AiD121, IKS226, BS4626-6/1, BS37-10 and АI178-3253) and super-high content of anthocyanins (38362,23 mg/kg – the population Chornosteblova). Іn the studied genotypes with a green stalk color, the total content of anthocyanins varied in the wide range from 168,64 mg/kg to 996,13 mg/kg, that is, it differed 5,91 times. Тhe enhanced dark violet coloration of the stalk of plants of the Chornosteblova population is associated with a significant increase in the total content of anthocyanins in comparison with the green-stalk genotypes (38,5 to 227,5 times) due to the contribution of all species and forms of anthocyanins, from the forms of delphinidin (12,55 %) to forms of peonidin (27,31 %).
Thus, studies have shown that the total content of anthocyanins in maize stalk of the Chornosteblova population with a dark violet color is 3,83 % of the dry weight of the stalk and it is more or less uniformly represented by all kinds of anthocyanins. The obtained results testify to the prospect of using maize stalks of the Chornosteblova population as a source of antioxidants in the production of the biological additive E163 –"anthocyanins".
Key words: zea mays L.,antioxidants, anthocyanins,stalks, genotype.
|Energy-saving drying of corn seed and its technic and economic efficiency||Annotation|
Energy-saving drying of corn seed and its technic and economic efficiency
UDC 633.15:631.53.026 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0029
Kyrpa M. Ya. 1, Kulyk V. O. 1, Yova O. V. 2 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 226–231.
1 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2 LTD «Agrosfera», 64 Zarichna Str., Oleksandrivka vilage, Dniprovs'kyj district, Dnipropetrovs'ka region, 52041, Ukraine
In the process of post-harvest processing of corn seeds, drying of wet swaths is the most responsible and energy-consuming process. Quality and value of the product – seed and its competitiveness on the market of seeds depend on it. Today, the problem of energy saving is becoming increasingly relevant due to the significant increase in energy prices, which cost about 90 % of all drying costs. The purpose of the work is based on the determination of the technical and economic efficiency of drying corn swaths using such types of fuel as corn cobs, diesel and gaseous. The main costs of the drying process, which include the cost of fuel, electricity and wages, are established. According to the duration and volume of drying, labor costs amounted to 40.3 thousand UAH in case of use of corncobs and 28.7 thousand UAH – traditional types of fuel. Electricity costs varied depending on the type of fuel system of the dryer. So, when using a heat generator for burning biomass, the cost of electricity was higher by UAH 6528-9798 for the entire drying period compared with fuel systems for diesel and gaseous fuels.The cost of consumed fuel for the entire drying period was: diesel – 509.3 thousand UAH; gaseous – 269,3 thousand UAH; cobs of swaths – 37,7 thousand UAH. It is established that due to the use of the pockets of cobs, the cost of drying is reduced by 60–80 % relative to other traditional types of fuel, while the negative effect on the technological process of drying is not observed – its duration, dynamics and uniformity of drying of swaths. After drying in the energy-saving complex, the seed and yield properties of the seeds were at the control level or exceeded it.
Key words: corn cobs, chamber dryer, energy saving drying, fuel types, technical and economic indicators.
|Features of realization the productivity potential of oat varieties in Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Features of realization the productivity potential of oat varieties in Northern Steppe of Ukraine
A. D. Gyrka 1, O. O. Viniukov 2, T. V. Gyrka 1, T. V. Shevchenko 3, Ye. M. Neklesa 1
1 SE institute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2 Donetsk State Agricultural Science Station of NAAS, 1 Gagarina Str., Grishinоvillage, Pokrovsk district, Donetsk region, 85330, Ukraine
3 National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 9 MykhailoОmelianovych-Pavlenko Str., Kyiv, 02000, Ukraine
The results of the analysis of available variety assortment and grain yields of different varieties of oats in the environmental crop variety testing, depending on the changing hydrothermal conditions are presented. Marked the varieties, which characterized by stable realization of genetic potential of grain yield in a wide range of variation the average air temperatures and conditions of water provision.
Weather conditions during the investigation were different, which made it possible to fully assess its impact on grain productivity potential of spring small cereals. The productivity of oats was determined by the peculiarities of the variety, as well as the effectiveness of the complex action of air temperatures and humidity conditions. In Ukraine there is observing an annual steady increase in the number of registered varieties of oats for 12,9 %. In general, over the past 15 years, the number of oat varieties in Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine has more than doubled. Among the studied varieties of oats, the optimum growth, development and combination of elements of the crop yield structure, which ensure the formation of the highest level of grain productivity (3,10–3,27 t/ha), were noted in the varieties of chaffy forms: Busol, Iren, Spurt and Sterno, as well as hullless: Skarb Ukrainy (2,74 t/ha) and Samuel’ (2,53 t/ha).
Key words: oat, variety, climate, grain, crop yield. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 232–236.
|Influence of predecessors, mineral fertilizers and sowing methods on yield and quality of winter wheat grain in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of predecessors, mineral fertilizers and sowing methods on yield and quality of winter wheat grain in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.11.«324»:631.5/.8/.559:57.014(477.7) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0031
Cherenkov A. V. 1, Gasanova I. I. 1, Kostyrya I. V. 2, Ostapenko M. A. 2, Bilozor I. V. 2 Grain Crops.2018. 2(2). 237–244.
1SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14 VolodymyrVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
2Genichesk Research Station of the SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Science, Novooleksiivka village,Genichesk district, Kherson region, 75560, Ukraine
On the ground of the results of three – years of experimental research conducted at the Genichesk Research Station of the SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Science of Ukraine, features of the influence of predecessors, mineral fertilizers and sowing methods on the yield and quality of the grain of winter wheat growing under rainfed conditions of the southern Steppe of Ukraine were identified.
It is proved, that the most influential factor in such conditions is the predecessor – the level of grain yield on bare fallow compared to non-fallow predecessors (grain sorghum and sunflower) was higher than by traditional sowing, respectively, by 1,54–1,68 and 1,58–1,90 t/ha,in direct sowing – by 1,51–1,74 and 1,54–1,95 t/ha.
The highest crop increase in relation to control caused the fertilization of crops, first of all, after non-fallow predecessors, where the influence of the mineral fertilizers in variants with maximum nitrogen application was more significant and for traditional sowing was 58,1 % after grain sorghum and 51,9 % – after sunflowers, and for direct sowing – respectively 51,1 and 42,9 %. The results on the bare fallow were smaller and corresponded to 38,4 and 37,8 %.
The methods of sowing on a par with other investigated factors had the lesser influence on the yield of winter wheat grain. Direct sowing compared to the traditional sowing had certain advantages, in particular, in variants with the highest yield, the increase of grain yield was 0,23 t/ha in bare fallow, 0,07 t/ha – after grain sorghum, and 0,08 t/ha after sunflower.
The application of mineral fertilizers at different stages of the development of winter wheat plants contributed to a significant improvement in the quality of grain both in bare fallow and after non-fallowpredecessors (grain sorghum and sunflower). A clear regularity is revealed between increasing the content of protein and gluten in the grain, the number of flour sedimentation when the dose of nitrogen fertilizer was increased. The best grain quality indices were in variants with bare fallow (against the background of N45P45K15) and after non-fallow predecessors (against the background of N90P45K15) subject to the further application of N30 on frozen and melted ground (carbamide-ammonium nitrate – 32) + N30 in the tillering stage before the stem extension (carbamide-ammonium nitrate – 32). At the same time, the content of protein and gluten in grain was characterized by the highest values: 14,3 and 29,1 % in the variant of traditional sowing after bare fallow, 14,2 and 28,8 % at direct sowing, after grain sorghum –13,0 and 25,0 % and 12,7 and 24,8 %, after sunflower – 13,7 and 26,2 % and 13,4 and 25,5 % respectively.
Key words: winter wheat,mineral fertilizers, predecessors, bare fallow, grain sorghum, sunflower, direct sowing, yield, grain quality.
|The influence of mineral fertilization and biopreparations on the formation of grain productivity of winter wheat in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
The influence of mineral fertilization and biopreparations on the formation of grain productivity of winter wheat in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
Yaroshenko S. S. Grain Crops. 2018.2 (2). 245–251.
SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
In light of current environmental concerns, changing weather patterns, diminishing world wheat reserves, and an ever increasing global population to feed, one would assume that winter wheat production in the Steppe zone would be widely embraced.
This paper reviews a research and development program initiated with the objective of expanding production of winter wheat in the Steppe zone.
The features of action and interaction of biological products and mineral fertilizers and their influence on the structure of the crop and grain productivity of winter wheat are highlighted. It is established that under the influence of experimental complex multifunctional biological products (CBP1, CBP2) the regulation of plant development parameters is close to the optimal state. During the research period (2011–2015), a high level of grain productivity of winter wheat with an average yield of 4.87 t/ha was obtained. On the background of fertilizers (N35+N30)P15K15 the maximum increase in yield is 8.6 % of control (4,27 t/ha) was obtained in variant CBP2. With increasing the nutritional background (N35+N30)P30K30 above the preparation contributed to the growth of the crop by 9.6 % compared to the control.
A further increase in the nutrient regime (N35+N30)P60K60 guaranteed an increase in grain productivity of winter wheat, but crop growth under the action of biological products gradually decreased.
At the same time, on the fertilized background, the yield was 3.76 t/ha of winter wheat has formed the seed treatment preparation, 10702, where the average yield for these biological products exceeded the control by 0.14 t/ha. In the ranking of a biological preparation to influence the yield of winter wheat on a constant, (N30+N35)P15K15 took first place with the integrated preparation CBP2 resulting in 4.64 t/ha, then CBP1 resulting in 4.58 t/ha, 10702 – 4,56 t/ha, SB – 4,47 t/ha, biopolyucide – 4,47 t/ha and the variant 01-1 – 4,46 t/ha. The minimum result was obtained with the variant of seed treatment of KL, here the grain productivity of winter crops was equal to the control – 4.27 t/ha. The same trend was observed on other constants of fertilizer. Thus, the best results were obtained where CBP2, CBP1 and 10702 variants were used.
Studies have shown the prospects with the application of this technology of growing winter wheat complex multifunctional biological products on different backgrounds of mineral nutrition. The use of biological products contributed to the mobilization and optimization of the nutrition of winter wheat plants, improved their growth processes, and resulted in the formation of high grain productivity.
Key words: winter wheat, mineral fertilizers, biological products, yield, grain.
|Productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) depending on the norms of mineral fertilizers and foliar feeding with microfertilizers||Annotation|
Productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) depending on the norms of mineral fertilizers and foliar feeding with microfertilizers
UDC 633.114:631.8 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0033
Zayets' S. О.,Kovalenko O.A. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 252–260.
Institute of Irrigated Agriculture NAAS, Naddnipryanske village, Kherson, 73483, Ukraine
The aim of the study was to determine the optimum nitrogen fertilizer norm and the effect of foliar application of stimulating micro fertilizers on the yield structure indexes, yields and economic efficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation after soybean (Glycine max L.) on the irrigated lands of the South of Ukraine.
The studies were conducted at the fields of the Institute of Irrigated Agriculture of the NAAS in 2015/16, 2016/17 and 2017/18 with accordance to the scheme presented in the Table 1. It was a two-factor study, where factor A – nitrogen nutrition background, factor B – stimulating micro fertilizer: nanovit micro and nanomix. The soil of the experimental field is dark-chestnut, medium loamy, slightly solonetzous one with the humus content of 2.3 %, the bulk density of 1.37 g/cm², the wilting point of 9.1 %, the field capacity of 20.3 %. In the years of study in pre-sowing period, the arable layer contained: nitrates 7.9–15.1 mg, P2O5 – 53.8–82.4, K2O – 281–323 mg per 1 kg of the soil.Under presowing cultivation, depending on the experimental variant, ammonium nitrate was applied in doses of N30 and N60, and in the early spring, the crops were fertilized with N30 and N60. Stimulating micro fertilizers nanovit micro (2 l/ha) and nanomix (2 l/ha) were used as a foliar fertilization in the tillering stage.
Foliar fertilization with micro fertilizers nanovit micro and nanomix has a positive effect on the formation of productive stalks. Their application increases the number of productive stalks per the unit of area, respectively, by 14–22 and 15–31 stalks per m2, which is 566–645 and 575–645 stalks per m2. Other indexes of the yield structure are also improved: the number of kernels per ear reaches 29–31 (nanovit micro) and 28–31 (nanomix), the weight of grain per ear – 1.22–1.29 and 1.19–1.29 g, and the weight of 1000 seeds – 42.3–42.5 and 42.0–42.9 g against 29 kernels, 1.20–1.23 g and 41.9–42.2 g on the variants with no micro fertilizers applied.
The best combination of the yield structure is provided by the application of micro fertilizers with stimulating activity on the nitrogen nutritive background of N120 (N60 in pre-sowing period + N60 in the early spring). On the background of N120, the foliar fertilization of the winter wheat plants with micro fertilizer nanovit micro and nanomix increases the number of productive stalks by 15 stalks per m2, the kernels content per ear by 2, the weight of grain per ear on 0.07 g, and the weight of 1000 seeds by 0.1–0.6 g in comparison to the variant without them.
The foliar fertilization of winter with micro fertilizers nanovit micro and nanomix provides almost the same increases in grain yields – the difference in the yields was within the error of the experiment. At the application of ammonium nitrate in the norms of N60 (N30 before sowing + N30 in the early spring) and N90 (N30 before sowing + N60 in the early spring) and application of nanovit micro and nanomix, the yield increases were 0.28 and 0.28 t/ha, and 0.27 and 0.31 t/ha, or 4.3 and 3.9 and 4.1 and 4.3 %, and on the background of N120 (N60 before sowing + N60 in the early spring) they were much more high – 0.69 and 0.61 t/ha, or 9.1 and 8.0 %.This fact points out that in order to obtain the maximum grain yield in the irrigated conditions, winter wheat, even after the early soybean varieties, requires the application of an increased nitrogen fertilizers norm (N120).
Therefore, in the irrigated conditions after the previous crop of soybean (Glycine max L.) the maximum grain yield of 8.28 and 8.19 t/ha of winter wheat of the Maria variety could be ensured by the application of ammonium nitrate of N120 (N60 before sowing + N60 in the early spring) with consequent foliar fertilization with micro fertilizer nanovit micro or nanomix. This application provides the best economic efficiency indexes – conditionally pure profit is 23211 and 22807 UAH/ha at the cost price of grain – 2272.23 and 2289.96 UAH/t, and profitability level – 126 and 124 %, respectively.
Keywords: winter wheat, fertilizer, micro fertilization, harvest structure, productivity, economic efficiency.
|Photoperiodic sensitivity and vernalization requirement of winter wheat varieties (Trticum aestivum L.) of myronivka breeding||Annotation|
Photoperiodic sensitivity and vernalization requirement of winter wheat varieties (Trticum aestivum L.) of myronivka breeding
UDC 633.11.324:631.524 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0034
Pirych A. V., Bulavka N. V., Yurchenko T. V. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2).261–266.
The V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat Of NAAS, Tsentralne village, Myronivka discrict, Kyiv region, 08853, Ukrainе
For the optimal survival of winter wheat plants during wintering, it is necessary to combine certain duration of vernalization need and level of photoperiodic sensitivity. Strong shortening of the vernalization requirement duration of the requirement in conjunction with the insensitivity to the photoperiod reduces the adaptive properties of the variety and causes the winter hardiness reducing lower than the average level. On the contrary, the combination of long-term vernalization requirement with strong photoperiodic sensitivity provides high adaptability to unfavorable environmental conditions, but prevents the rapid development of plants in the spring, and therefore does not allow to achieve the level of yield of modern varieties of intensive type. Thus, the level of productivity and adaptability of winter wheat varieties is closely related to the traits under our research.
Determination of photoperiodic sensitivity and duration of vernalization period in 12 newly developed bread winter wheat varieties was conducted during the spring-summer period 2016–2017. For the study of photoperiodic sensitivity artificial vernalization of sprouted seeds was carried out for 60 days after which on April 18–19 the seedlings were planted (40 pcs in each of the experimental variants) into vegetative pot placed on the open area and cultivated under natural and artificially shortened (12 hours) duration daylight saving time. During vegetation periodic irrigation of the plants was carried out. The reduction of the photoperiod was carried out by closing the plants with box covered of dark plastic sheeting. The heading date of each plant was labeled. Spring sowing (April 14–18) of sprouted seeds with preliminary vernalization at temperature of +1 °С for various periods (30, 40, 50, 60 days) was carried out to determine the vernalization requirement of the winter wheat varieties. The duration of vernalization was considered as adequate when more than 50 % of plants of the variety occurred. Also, the heading date of each plant of the studied varieties was noted.
Most of the Myronivka breeding varieties studied had weak or medium photoperiodic sensitivity, their vernalization requirement is 40–45 days that is favorable for realizing their adaptive and productive potential for cultivation in the zone of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The peculiarities of the development of plants must be taken into account when determining the sowing date. The varieties with too short vernalization requirement and weak sensitivity to photoperiod (for example, Balada Myronivska) should be sown at later date. The varieties MIP Kniazhna, Trudivnytsia Myronivska with long-term vernalization requirement and strong sensitivity to shortening daylight have the best opportunities for realizing their potential on early sowing dates.
Key words: bread winter wheat, photoperiodic sensitivity, vernalization requirement duration, winter hardiness, yielding capacity.
|Features of formation the grain productivity of pea varieties in conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Features of formation the grain productivity of pea varieties in conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine
|Productivity of varieties of winter wheat in conditions of Black Sea region||Annotation|
Productivity of varieties of winter wheat in conditions of Black Sea region
UDC 631.524.85:633.111.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0036
Andreychenko L. V., Kachanova T. V. Grain Crops. 2018.2 (2). 274–280.
State Institution Nikolaev Agricultural Experimental Station of the Institute of Irrigated Agriculture NAAS, 17 Central Str., Landfill village, Vitovsky district, Mykolaiv region, 57217, Ukraine
The results of ecological test of 20 varieties of winter wheat in conditions of Black Sea region of Ukraine during 2016–2018 are presented. Soil of an experimental plot is chernozem southern weakly eroded clay loamy on loess’s, content of humus (for Тurin) is a 2,4 %, acidity – near to neutral (рН off 6,8), it is noted by high contents potassium, average – phosphorus and it is not enough provided by nitrogen. Climate of Black Sea region – continental, is characterized sharp and repeated by fluctuations annual and month temperature of air, greater spare of heat and aridity. Agrotechnics in experiment was generally accepted for southern Steppe of Ukraine. The object of research served as recognized in the south of Ukraine varieties of wheat winter Hersonskaya 99,Kohana, Blago, Mariia, Burhunka, Anatoliia, Hersonskaya besostaya, Ovidiy, Ledya, Rosynka, Harantiya odesskaya, Zhuravka odesskaya, Lira odesskaya, Mudroct odesskaya, Niva odesskaya, Tradisciya odesskaya, Shchedrost odesskaya, Melodiya odesskaya, Gurt, Zysk.
Meteorological conditions during period of winter wheat cultivation varied in years. Autumnal drought was observed in 2016 and 2018, it caused problem of obtaining a timely and even stands winter wheat; in 2017 there was a joint action of spring and summer droughts; in 2016, 2017, drought was recorded during period of grain formation. Temperature of air in all months of vegetation, without exception, was higher than average perennial indicators. The amount of precipitation during growing season of winter wheat was: 2016 – 331 mm, 2017 – 274 mm, 2018 – 348 mm in average long-term norm of 334 mm. However, precipitation was unevenly distributed, most of them in winter, in critical phases of growth and development of winter (April – May) they were not enough.
The most optimal precipitation distribution in a relatively favorable temperature regime was in 2018, which had a positive effect on wheat yield – on average, by experiment, it was 4.43 t/ha. The most unfavorable conditions for hydrothermal regime were established in 2017 – minimum grain yield was obtained (2.67 t/ha). By amount of precipitation and air temperature during growing season of culture in 2016 occupied an intermediate position. It is established that in the context of the Northern Black Sea winter wheat yields depend on hydrothermal conditions, the vegetation and the biological characteristics of the studied varieties. The most favorable for culture was 2018, when productivity grain has formed 4.20–4.70 t/ha depending on varieties.
For Black Sea region necessary to use the varieties of Steppe ecotype, drought resistant and high-temperature resistant, which most in coordination on growing condition. Average for 2016–2018, the highest grain yield was provided by varieties of wheat winter Mudroct odesskaya, Niva odesskaya, Tradisciya odesskaya, Shchedrost odesskaya, Gurt (3.90–4.03 t/ha). For varieties Mudroct odesskaya and Tradisciya odesskaya was typical least variability productivities on years. The significant adaptive potential of productivity with positive reaction of accumulation protein in grain noted variety Mudroct odesskaya. The above named varieties can be used hereinafter grain production of region as most productive.
Keywords: wheat winter, variety, yield, high-intensity varieties, potential productivity, quality of grain.
|Influence of predecessors and mineral nutrition on crop yield and grain quality of winter wheat||Annotation|
Influence of predecessors and mineral nutrition on crop yield and grain quality of winter wheat
UDC 633.11 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0037
Usova N. N. 1, Solodushko M. M. 2, Romanenko O. L. 2 . Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 281–286.
1 Institute of Oil crops of Ukraine, 1 Institutskaya str., Zaporozhye district, Zaporozhye region, 70417, Ukraine
2 SEinstitute of grain cropsof national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str.,Dnipro, 49027,ukrainе
3 Zaporizhzhya Branch of SЕ «Soils Protection Institute of Ukraine», 94 Doslidna stansia str., Zaporizhzhya, 69031, Ukraine
One of the important factors in controlling the nutrition of plants, and therefore, increasing yields and improving the quality of winter wheat grain are precursors and fertilizers. Only by providing a sufficient amount of nutrients in a plant during a vegetation can yield a weighty harvest with good technological properties of the grain. Therefore, when developing wheat cultivation technologies, it is necessary to pay special attention to the fertilizer system of cultivated plants.
Field experiments were carried out in 2015–2017 in the crop rotation of the grain crop agronomy laboratory at the Institute of Oilseeds of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Sowed such varieties of soft winter wheat as Antonovka and Gurt. Sivuba was held on September 25. The predecessors are black pairs, mustard, sunflower, winter wheat. Mineral fertilizers were introduced according to the experimental scheme: without fertilizers; N40Р40К40– background (for pre-sowing cultivation); background + N30 on frozen ground; background + N60 on frozen ground; background + N90 on permafrost soil. Plant protection measures – taking into account the economic threshold of harm.
Based on the data of the study, it was found that the Antonovka (5.77 t/ha) and Gurt (5.67 t/ha) varieties were produced in black pairs on the background of precipitated introduction of N40P40K40 with subsequent nitrogen fertilization (N90) in the early spring on frozen ground In general, wheat varieties of winter replacing predecessors reacted in the direction of the best to the worst – by reducing yields.
Thus, according to the precursor, the black pairs in the variant without fertilizers yielded theAntonovka variety was 4.74 t/ha, whereas after the mustard in similar conditions it decreased by 0.88 t/ha (18.6 %), sunflower – by 2,29 t/ha (48.3 %), winter wheat – 2.67 t/ha (56.3 %). Reduced yields of the varieties of the Group when cultivated after the listed predecessors in comparison with black steam was 17.8, 49.0 and 58.2 %, respectively. The same trend was also observed in other variants of the experiment. That is, when growing winter wheat after non-precursors, its productivity significantly changed depending on the predecessor.
It should be noted that for the conditions of the southern Steppe of Ukraine, the blackest couples are the most reliable precursor for winter. In the conditions of 2015–2017, the best non-precursor precursor, among the researchers, was winter wheat for mustard, the worst – winter wheat.
The results of harvesting winter wheat cultivation on the background of introducing various norms of mineral nutrition indicate that its grain productivity to a large extent depends on the amount of introduced nitrogen in the form of nutrition in the early spring on frozen ground.
As it turned out in the course of the study, due to thenitrogen fertilizer of winter wheat crops, the content of protein and gluten increased, which positively affected its size. In addition, the weight of grains was largely influenced by predecessors. Thus, the weight of 1000 seeds of the Antonovka variety depending on the dose of mineral nutrition and its predecessors was: for the cultivation of winter wheat in a black steam – 37.1–43.3 g, after mustard – 36.2–42.6, sunflower – 37.6–41.1, winter wheat – 37.1–40.0 g. In the Variety Group, according to its predecessors, it was 37.9–43.6 g, 37.7–43.9; 35.6–40.8; 37.3–41.6 g.
Consequently, according to the results of the conducted research in the conditions of the southern Steppe of Ukraine, the best predecessors were found and optimal mineral nutrition systems were installed, due to which high grain yield and quality of winter wheat can be obtained.
Key words: winter wheat, yield, precursors, mineral fertilizers, grain quality, protein, gluten, weight of 1000 grains.
|Growing of annual agrophytocenoses as reserve for increase of vegetative protein in the northern part of the Ukrainian Steppe||Annotation|
Growing of annual agrophytocenoses as reserve for increase of vegetative protein in the northern part of the Ukrainian Steppe
UDK 636.086 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0038
Dudka M. I. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 287–293.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The results of the 25-year research on reducing the deficiency of protein in the green fodder during the growing of annual crops of fodder production obtained at the Erastivska Research Station of the State Institution Institute of Cereal Crops under conditions of insufficient moistening of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine are presented.
Winter crops. The agrophytocenoses of the winter rye and typhon with their strip placement on the area formed the yield of green mass of 20–21 t/ha, the collection of absolutely dry matter – 3,4–3,5 t/ha, and the output of feed units and digestible protein – 2,70–2,75 and 0,30–0,32 t/ha respectively. Vetch-triticale agrophytocenoses formed the highest yield of green mass (23,27 t/ha) and the collection of absolutely dry matter (4,94 t/ha) at sowing rate of the winter triticale and hairy wetch 3,0 and 1,5 million/ha respectively. Vetch-wheat mixtures provided the highest yield of green mass (25,80 t/ha) and the collection of absolutely dry matter (5,63 t/ha) for sowing with a seed rate of 2,5 and 2,0 million/ha respectively, with cereal and bean components.
Early spring crops. Newly created two- and three-component mixtures with the participation of the spring triticale, oats, spring wetch and radish oil can increase the productivity of agrophytocenoses by the yield of green mass (by20,9–60,5 %) and the collection of absolutely dry matter (11,6–51,6 %) compared to the traditional barley-pea mixture.
Late spring crops. Under the condition of once-cut use of sowing for obtaining the highest yield of green mass(42,38 t/ha) and the collection of absolutely dry matter (7,95 t/ha) in late spring, compatible agrophytocenoses with amaranth volatile it is more appropriate to sow the maize as a component. In the case of two-cut use of crops, the highest yield of green mass in the amount of two hay cutting (48,73 and 51,10 t/ha) and the collection of dry matter(9,16 and 10,12 t/ha) differed the companion sowings of sweat sorghum and sorghum-sudan-grass hybrid with Amaranth paniculate at alternation two small rows of cereal culture with one small row of amaranth.
Post-hay cutting crops. With the intensive use of arable lands, to obtain the largest total yield of green mass (71,98 t/ha) and dry mass (13,56 t/ha) and collection of nutrients (feed units – 11,33, digestible protein – 1,14 t/ha) during the period of vegetation of winter rye and post-hay cutting mixture of maize with Sudan grass in arid conditions of the second half of the summer, it is more expedient to one-time application of mineral fertilizers with a dose of N120P90K60 for basic soil tillage.
Key words: annual crops, companion agrophytocenoses, yield of green mass, protein content, crop productivity, three harvests per year.
|Economic and bioenergy efficiency of cultivating sweet sorghum and corn at different levels of mineral nutrition||Annotation|
Economic and bioenergy efficiency of cultivating sweet sorghum and corn at different levels of mineral nutrition
UDC 631.82; 633.62; 633.15;631.962 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0039
Grabovskyi M.b. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 294–300.
Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, 8/1 Soborna, Bila Tserkva, Kyivskiy region,09100, Ukraine
The article presents the results of economic and energy estimation of the efficiency of cultivating sweet sorghum and corn in single-species and compatible crops at different levels of mineral nutrition. The research was conducted in 2013–2016 on the experimental field of Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University. The technology of cultivating energy crops for biogas production is not sufficiently studied as for energy consumption and possible received energy. In order to make a more reliable energy assessment of biogas systems from crops, specific local and regional conditions need to be explored. Therefore, there is a need for up-to-date data on crop yields and biogas output from them.
According to the results, the higher the level of mineral nutrition, the higher the net profit indexes. They increase on 15.1–48.7 % compared to unfertilized variants. The maximum net profit in the experiment was 9965.8 Grn/ha, which was obtained for the joint cultivation of sweet sorghum and corn when using N120P120K120. This is more than in the one-species crops on 401.2 and 5226.9 Grn/ha.
fertilizers – 226.4%. On similar variants in single-species corn crops and compatible crops, this index was 112.8 and 237.1% respectively. Applying of fertilizers, by all means of sowing, leads to a decrease in the profitability level on 26.1–73.9% compared to unfertilized variants.
Depending on the level of mineral nutrition, in the variants of compatible crops, the estimated yield of biogas was 6.6–11.0 thsnd m3/ha, and for single-species crops of sweet sorghum 5.0–8.3 thsnd m3/ha, corn – 4,6–8,8 thsnd m3/ha. The compatible crops showed an increase biogas output on 32.1–33.4% and 25.6–42.1%. When using the fertilizers, the increase in the biogas output was 2.1–3.4, 2.6–4.2 and 2.9–4.5 thsnd m3/ha, compared with the variants without their applying, respectively for single-species and compatible growing of sweet sorghum and corn.
Energy expenditure was maximal when using mineral fertilizers, in all methods of sowing. For single- species sweet sorghum and corn crops, energy costs were 12.5–22.4 and 10.4–21.2 GJ/ha, while in compatible crops they were 12.9–23.1 GJ/ha. There was a tendency to increase energy consumption in variants with mineral fertilizers on 48.8–79.0%, compared with non-fertilized areas.
The output of energy from biogas (from one hectare of compatible crops of sweet sorghum and corn) in all fertilizer variants exceeded this index obtained in single-species crops. Thus, for compatible crops of hybrids Dovista and Monica 350 MW, the energy output per unit area was 143.2–240.2 GJ/ha, and in single-species crops 108.4–181.6 and 100.8–191.3 GJ/ha respectivly.
The maximum coefficient of energy efficiency was when growing compatible crops of sweet sorghum and corn –10.4–11.1. When applying mineral fertilizers, energy efficiency coefficient reduced on 1.6–6.5% for all methods of sowing compared with unfertilized variants.
Thus, the use of mineral fertilizers in single-species and compatible crops of sweet sorghum and corn contributed to the increase of conditionally net profit, but compared to the unfertilized background, the level of profitability decreased. The coefficient of energy efficiency decreased on 1.6–6.5% when applying mineral fertilizers. The highest indexes of economic and energy efficiency and the output of biogas (9.5–11.0 thousand m3/ha) were obtained for the compatible crops of sweet sorghum and corn on the background of mineral fertilizers.
Key words: sweet sorghum, corn, economic efficiency, compatible crops, fertilizers, biogas, energy output.
|Growth, development and the formation of sunflower productivity under the influence of growth regulators and fertilizers||Annotation|
Growth, development and the formation of sunflower productivity under the influence of growth regulators and fertilizers
UDC 633.854.78:631.559:631.8 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0040
Gyrka A. D., Tkalich I. D., Bochevar O. V., Sydorenko Yu. Ya., Ilienko O. V. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 301–308.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The features of growth, development, accumulation of dry matter and formation of structure elements of the sunflower yield of hybrid Yason depending on separate and complex application of growth regulators (Deimos and AKM), mineral-organic complex of amino acids, glycerin, macro- and microelements (Vitastar) on different backgrounds of mineral nutrition in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine were investigated.
Experimental researches were carried out in the experimental field of the laboratory of agrobiological resources of spring cereal and leguminous crops of the Erastivka experimental station of the SI The Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS of Ukraine (SI IGC NAAN) of the Piatyhatky district of the Dnipropetrovsk region during 2016–2018 in grain-fallow-row-croprotation after spring barley as a predecessor. Agricultural technology in experiments was common for the zone. A complex of preparations was applied by treatment of sunflower seeds before sowing and introduction into the soil before the pre-sowing cultivation. Aqueous spray material of the investigational preparations were prepared on the day of
application. For pre-sowing seed treatment, the recommended dose of preparations per 1 ton of seed was dissolved in 8 liters of water (semi-dry treatment method). Arrangement of variants was systematic, with three replications. The sown area of sunflower plots was 56 m2.
The trial establishment, carrying out an experimental studies, records and observations, and sampling were carried out in accordance with the methodology of field experiment and the generally accepted methodical recommendations of the SI IGC NAAN.
Weather conditions during the 2016–2018 for humidity and air temperature were moderately favorable for the germination of the seeds, growth and development of sunflower plants.
The efficiency of growing sunflower of hybrid Yason in variants, which provided as separate and combined use of mineral fertilizers (N15P15K15 andN30P30K30) of the mineral complex of amino acids, glycerin, macroelements, as well as biogenic macro- and microelements for introduction into the soil (Vitastar, 2 and 3 kg/ha) seed treatment by plant growth regulator with fungicidal and antioxidant properties (Deimos) and semi-synthetic film-forming growth regulator of antioxidant effect (AKM). Other elements of agrotechnics were generally accepted for the zone of the Steppe.
In the experiment, the sunflower hybrid Yason in 2016 sowed 5.05, in 2017 – 11.05, and in 2018 – 7.05. The results of the records and observations indicated that the fertilizers and preparations Vitastar, Deimos and AKM, used in accordance with the experimental scheme, did not affect the onset time and the duration of the main phenological phases of growth and development of sunflower plants.
As a result of conducted records and observations, it was discovered unessential defeat of plants by the diseases (fusariosis, sunflower broomrape, downey mildew, phomosis septoria, cercosporosis, white and gray rots) and isolated damage by the pests (weevils, blaps, aphids), which degree and kind of manifestation depends on the weather conditions in years of investigations, did not change within the variants of experiment and did not exceed the level of ETH.
It has been proved that the use in the technology of growing sunflower hybrid Yason AKM, Deimos and Vitastar without fertilizers and at fertilization with doses of N15P15K15 and N30P30K30 positively affects the growth and development of plants and the formation of structure elements of the crop yield.
It was established that the highest crop yield of sunflower seeds was obtained in variants, which provided the pre-sowing seed treatment with preparation AKM – 2,59–3,15 t/ha. It was revealed that the pre-sowing seed treatment of sunflower seeds with AKM and Deimos preparations was more effective on the background of mineral fertilization with dose of N30P30K30 and the use of the preparation Vitastar (2–3 kg/ha).
Key words: sunflower, growth regulators, microfertilizers, mineral fertilizers, crop yield.
|Methodology for determination of soil moisture: classical errors and objective physical parameters||Annotation|
Methodology for determination of soil moisture: classical errors and objective physical parameters
UDC 631.5:432.2 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0041
Shevchenko M. S. 1,Desyatnyk L. M. 1, Shvets N. V. 1, Shevchenko S. M. 2 Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 309–313.
1 SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
2Dnipro National Agricultural-Economical University, 25 Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
Based on the long-term study of the water regime and water availability in crop rotations and agro-systems, the factor dynamics of moisture in agrocenoses has been determined and corrections have been made to the methodology for determining the soil moisture reserves. In the process of research in mul-tifactorial field experiments, the complexity of the wet consumption of certain components of agrocenoses was revealed. Due to the use of comparison and exclusion methods, the mechanisms for distributing water between cultural and harmful objects are disclosed, using the methods of comparison and exclusion, the mechanisms of water distribution between cultural and harmful objects are disclosed.It is established that the most influential factors of the regulation of productive use of moisture in agrocenoses are crop rotations, weeds, pests and diseases, soil cultivation, etc.In this case, additional mobilization of volumes of moisture content of cultivated plants can reach 20–120 mm. It is proved that the existing method of determination of moisture content of soil and moisture content reduces the objectivity of these indicators and does not correspond to the current perceptions of the percentage (%) content of the constituent part in the whole object.The fundamental change in the mechanism of calculation is that the moisture content is determined from the moist soil sample, and not from the dry one, as was done by this time. At the same time, the coefficient of water-physical ratio is introduced into the moisture determination formula.
Key words: soil, humidity, formula, methodology, factors, moisture content, moisture reserves, coefficients, culture.
|The impact of soil cultivation methods and fertilizers on the soil fertility performance and crop yields under the conditions of the northern part of the Donetsk Highland||Annotation|
The impact of soil cultivation methods and fertilizers on the soil fertility performance and crop yields under the conditions of the northern part of the Donetsk Highland
UDC 631.153.7 (477,61) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0042
Medvedev E. B. Grain Crops. 2018.2 (2). С. 314–323.
Lugansk Institute of Agro-Industrial Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine,
14 Oktyabrska Str., Metalistvillage, Slavyanoserbskdistrict, Lugansk region, 93733, Ukraine
The article deals with the findings of a research on the impact of the methods of primary soil cultivation and fertilizers on the soil's agro-physical properties (texture, bulk density, reserves of productive moisture), microbiological activity and crop yields at the field crop rotation stage (winter wheat – peas – winter wheat) under the conditions of the northern part of the Donetsk Highland during 2010–2012.
It was established that the moldboard-free cultivation, in comparison with the moldboard plowing, against the background of tillage for row crop rotation, predetermines the best preservation of the water-resistant texture of the black soil. A significant increase in the number of water-resistant aggregates (more than 0.25 mm in size) was observed in the variants with the moldboard-free cultivation at the crop rotation stage during 2011 and 2012 under all crops in spring and before harvesting, mainly in the soil layers of
Monitoring yields of the field crops did not reveal any advantages of the moldboard plowing as compared with the moldboard-free cultivation. The mineral fertilizers introduced significantly influenced the productivity of all crops of the crop rotation stage: winter wheat/milk-ripeness maize throughout all years of the research, peas and winter wheat after peas in 2011. Over the years of the research, the average increase in grain yields due to the use of doses of compound fertilizers recommended for Lugansk region conditions (N45P35K15 for peas, N60P60K30 for the winter wheat) amounted to: winter wheat/milk-ripeness maize – 0.91 t/ha, peas – 0.17 t/ha, winter wheat/peas – 0.10 t/ha, or 54.8 %, 12.2 % and 4.4 % respectively. Due to the fertilizer introduction in the N90P80K70 dose for the planned winter wheat yield (the dose was calculated taking into account the removal of nutrients with the crop and the increase in the soil fertility), the increment amounted to: after the milk-ripeness maize – 0.96 t/ha or 57.8 %, and after peas – 0.22 t/ha or 9.6 %.
At the same time, the use of the fertilizers indicated in the experiment by the broadcast method for the primary soil cultivation under the conditions of insufficient moisturizing caused a decrease in the levels of profitability of the crops grown. On average over the years of the research, as per the crop rotation stage variants with the recommended doses of fertilizers, the profitability levels decreased: as per the variants with the moldboard plowing – by 97.7 %, as per the variants with the moldboard-free cultivation – by 103.2 %, as per the variants with targets for the planned crop yields – by 122.5 % and 129.6 % respectively in comparison with the variants without fertilizers.
The use of moldboard-free cultivation implements makes it possible to reduce the energy consumption for growing crops and increase the profitability levels. On average over the years of the research, the savings per 1 ha at the crop rotation stage were as follows: labor costs – 0.50 man-hours, fuel consumption – 8.9 l, operating costs – UAH 177.38, total energy costs – 509.58 MJ or 33.6 %, 36.8 %, 24.9 %, and 33.0 %, respectively. The profitability levels were higher as follows: as per the variants without the use of fertilizers – by 14.4 %, as per the variants with the recommended doses of fertilizers – by 8.9 %, and as per the variants with the doses for the planned crop yield – by 7.3 %.
Keywords: soil cultivation, water-resistant texture, density, productive moisture, microbiological activity, mineral fertilizers, crop yield.
|Efficiency of fertilizers using in crop rotation depending on the methods of basic soil cultivation||Annotation|
Efficiency of fertilizers using in crop rotation depending on the methods of basic soil cultivation
L. M. Desiatnyk 1, M. S. Shevchenko 1, N. V. Shvets 1, S. M. Shevchenko 2. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 324–329.
1 SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
2 Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Serhiya Yefremova Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The analysis of experimental results in a stationary field experiment on the study of the efficiency of mineral fertilizers on the background of minimization of soil cultivation and the use of by-products of organic products is presented. It was found that higher yields ensured winter wheat and corn for grain, while peas and barley grew considerably inferior to productivity. Minimization of the main cultivation of soil by replacing plows in shallow loosening with disk implements and direct sowing was accompanied by a decrease in the physical recoupment of mineral fertilizers due to localization in the upper layer of black earth.
On the basis of multivariate analysis of experimental data, a model of algorithms for ecological, economic and economic indicators was developed. It has been established that significant increase in the efficiency of mineral fertilizers can be achieved through the cultivation of high-yielding crops and the dilution of the arable soil layer. With a significant variety of economic indicators in the agrotechnological scheme of stationary experiments on all the backgrounds of soil cultivation and crop rotation, the indicators of profitability of production from the use of fertilizers grew most stably.
On the basis of the experimental data obtained, the principles of optimization of the mineral fertilizer dispersion model in the soil are developed, which can be effectively regulated by the movement of soil mass during soil cultivation. The model of maximum efficiency of mineral fertilizers is based on a uniform distribution of nutrients in the arable soil layer.The narrowing of the localization of the main elements of nutrition is accompanied by a decrease in the yield of crops of grain-growing crop rotation due to the formation of a smaller mass of the root system. Along with this, the negative effects of soil compaction when minimizing cultivation are manifested in the mechanical deformation of branching of the roots. Therefore, the advantage should be given to differentiated soil cultivation.
Key words: fertilizers, crop rotation, soil cultivation, efficiency, recoupment, productivity, direct sowing.
|Estimation of separate indices of soil fertility of natural and agrogenic ecosystems of the Steppe zone||Annotation|
Estimation of separate indices of soil fertility of natural and agrogenic ecosystems of the Steppe zone
UDC 631.452:581.526.62(251.1)(477) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0044
Podobed O. U., Chaban V. I. Grain Crops. 2018. 2 (2). 330–336.
SE institute of grain crops of national academy of agrarian sciences, 14 Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, ukrainе
The soil, as an environmental component, performs important biosphere functions. In agriculture, the soil is the main means of production, and the sustainability of the industry depends on its quality status. Estimation of soil fertility is carried out by quantitative indicators of their properties. The content of humus and nutrients in the soil remains one of the criteria for assessing agro-ecological conditions for growing crops.
The high level of economic development of the steppe zone and the existing type of land use does not contribute to the sustainability of agroecosystems. The spread of degradation factors leads to depletion of soils and changes in their properties. Comparison of the soil properties with the natural state of the arable land gives an opportunity to establish the direction of their anthropogenic transformation. The standard of a natural object may be lealand. Therefore, the study of the qualitative state of soils, depending on the intensity of use, remains relevant. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the degree of changes in the humus state and the microelements fund of сhernozemordinary common for different types of retention.
The research was carried out at the Erastovskay research station of the Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine. There were selected options: perennial arable crops are grown according to zonal technologies, the lealand (about 70 years) with grass-grape phytocoenosis. Soil –сhernozemordinary low-humus heavy-bodied. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0–10; 10–20; 20–30; 30–40 cm with further preparation for analysis (DSTU ISO 11464-2001). The samples of soil were deter-mined by the content of humus and microelements according to Ukrainian methods certified.
The agroactive effect on the soil violates its functioning as an ecologically balanced system. In the first place, this affects the content of organic matter. The content of humus relative to the standard (lealand) decreased by 38 %, and reserves – by 36 %. The agro-chemical indices of the natural fertility of сhernoze-mordinary for a reflux state were renewed. The processes of accumulation of humus more intensively pass in the roots of the horizon of the soil (0–40 cm). The content of humus in an arable layer (0–20 cm) is estimated to be very high (6.67 %), and in the agricultural production sector, it is high (4.17 %). A significant increase in humus content was ensured due to the considerable income of plant remains and their soil humification.
Ensuring soil microelements is one of the criteria for assessing fertility. There are insignificant differences in the content of total microelements forms. In the agrogenic soil, there was a tendency to increase by 12–16 % of the gross content of Ni and Cd in comparison with the lealand, which could be the result of an anthropogenic impact.
The agrogenic effect on the soil is accompanied by a decrease or tendency to reduce the content of labile forms of the majority of the microelements, due to their withdrawal by harvest, ion flow, etc. A tendency to increase in the sod layer (0–10 cm) in the content of acid-soluble forms of Zn in 1,73 times, Mn in 1,51 times, and in 1,20 times in comparison with the old soils. In the next layer (10–20 cm) the difference in their number is insignificant or absent at all. However, in the horizons 20–30 and 30–40 cm, the content of
Zn and Co in the soil of agrocenosis surpassed biocenosis. The greatest increase is typical for Zn (18–31 %). On the background of the general regularity of the gradual decrease in the content of the microelements according to the profile, under the conditions of lealand, there was a sharp differentiation of horizons in the content of potentially accessible forms Zn and Co, while in the arable land, their number was close.
Comparison of the content of mobile forms of the microelements (extraction of AAB pH 4,8) on both sites in most cases did not reveal any significant differences between them in the upper horizons of сhernozem. The exception is Zn, the content of which (0–10 cm) in the soil of the production site is 1.6 times smaller than in the natural analog. Less pronounced dependence (in 1,38–1,41 times) was also manifested for the content of Cu and Co. The tendency of their increase in the ground of reforestation compared with the old ones can be explained by the fact that the number of moving elements of elements decreases when the natural cycle cycles and the annual alienation of elements with the crop are violated, which is not compensated by their receipt of fertilizers. Flows of agro-substances under certain conditions increase the shortage of moving metal forms.
In general, the ecological state of landscapes on the content of trace elements and heavy metals, meets the sanitary and hygienic norms and does not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations. The absence of significant differences in their accumulation in the soil is due primarily to the chemistry of the elements, high buffer capacity of chernozems and, to a lesser extent, the type of land use and use.
Keywords:сhernozem ordinary, lealand, humus state, microelements, ecosystems.
|Сollection of various connected cultural plants for the National Center for Plant Genetic Recources of Ukraine||Annotation|
Сollection of various connected cultural plants for the National Center for Plant Genetic Recources of Ukraine
UDC 581.522.4, 581.522.68 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0045
O. M. Bilyk , L. M. Holovash , V. Ya. Kocherga ., D. M. Kocherga , L. Yа. Kharchenko. Grain Crops. 2018.2 (2). 337–341.
Ustymivka Experimental Stationof Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuriev NAAS,
15 Akademik Vavylov Str., Ustymivka village, Hlobyno district , Poltava region, 39074, Ukraine
Identification of growth sites and sample collection for the conservation of wildlife diversity, maintaining the safety of the functioning of natural ecosystems and attracting highly adaptable forms of plant genetic resources to the National Bank for the development of basic and applied science, education, and agricultural production in Ukraine.
The structure of the expedition included 5 scientists of the Ustimov experimental station. The expeditionary meeting was held on August 9, 2018. The total length of the route was 320 km. The search work was carried out in accordance with the methodology of research institutions of Ukraine and abroad: the Institute of Plant Cultivation. V. Ya. Yuriev, FAO, Bioversity International and others.
11 sites were surveyed and 37 samples of 26 botanical species were collected. All collected specimens belong to wildlife. For comparison. During the expedition in 2016 the territories of Semeniv and Khorol districts of the Poltava region, having overcome the distance of 240 km, were collected 254 samples of 75 botanical taxa. The diversity of samples collected in 2018 is represented by the following groups of crops: leguminous plants – 1 sample, vegetable – 1, feed – 24, technical – 4, medicinal plants – 3, decorati-ve – 4 samples.
During the expedition there was recorded a single cell of growth of such a purely steppe, cereal, like a scalloped wheatgrass ¬ within the limits of. Lelyukhivka of the Novosanzhar district (on a hill, probably a mound mound, 49.355713, 34.285968). Particular attention should be drawn to a detailed survey of the two sites (the format of the expedition this did not allow to do). The first is the thrown dumps of the Mining and Processing Plant within the villages of Solonitsa, Solonets, Bazaluky and Eristovka of the Kremenchug district (site number 1, Solonets village, 49.112901, 33.651539). The second site is the old town of Kobelyachka within the village of. Butenki Kobelyatsky district (site number 3, 49.260000, 34.136121). Biodiversity is represented by a typical vegetation of drowning wet meadows.
According to the route of expeditionary search, particular attention was paid to the species diversity of the vegetation of the mounds. To date, the vast majority of burial mounds are plowed, and the rest are built up.
Modern vegetation is significantly different from natural and is a consequence of intensive economic activity. Dominant factions were agro-cultural vegetation and field weeds, ruderal vegetation, and artificial tree plantations. Conclusions The collected samples were transferred to the resource departments of the establishments-executors of NTP "Genetic Fund of Plants" specializing in the corresponding cultures for indepth study on economic and biological characteristics and properties, the further inclusion of the best of them in the National gene bank of plants of Ukraine and use in breeding, scientific and other programs by the institutions of Ukraine.
Key words: NationalCenter for Plant Genetic Recources of Ukraine, expeditionary collection, collection, wild relatives, specimens.