Grain Crops.-2020.-Vol. 4. - № 2
|Soybean collection of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe of the NAАS and its breeding value in the conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Soybean collection of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe of the NAАS and its breeding value in the conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine
UDС 635.655.633.853.52 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0129
Medvedeva L. R., KrentsivYa.I., Mostipan T. V., Kalinina L. I.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 221–229.
Institute of Steppe Agriculture of the NAAS, 2, Central str., Sozonivka, Kirovograd region, Kirovograd area, 27602, Ukraine
The collection soybean nursery at the Institute of Steppe Agriculture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine includes 144 varieties of domestic and foreign selection. The variety of the studied samples allows to allocate to a greater extent economically; valuable signs and to pick up parental forms for selection of soybeans on various directions of use.
The results of research in the collection nursery for 10 years (2010–2019) are given. In the course of research the collection varieties of soybeans of different ecological and geographical origin were used.
Collectible varieties by yield, protein and fat content in seeds were analyzed. The importance of varieties resistant to cotyledonousbacteriosis in increasing soybean yield has been substantiated. Soybean varieties of different ecological and geographical origin have been evaluated for resistance to cotyledon bacteriosis. Phytopathological assessment was performed on a natural infectious background. 15 soybean varieties resistant to cotyledonousbacteriosis were identified: Era 2, Medeya, Stepovychka 4, Diona, Agat, Sribna Ruta, Podolsk 2000, Yatran, Khabarovska 01, Evans, Liniia № 100, R8606I-5R05, Yutro, and VNIIOZ 11. Highlighted highly resistant varieties are promising as a source resistance to cotyledonousbacteriosis during selection for immunity to this pathogen.
Highly resistant soybean varieties of Ukrainian selection deserve the most attention as donors of resistance to cotyledonousbacteriosis, 9 of which have been identified.
At the present stage of selection, with the transition to European standards, it is very important to create varieties with high quality seeds.
Therefore, the laboratory is conducting research to identify high-protein and high-fat varieties. Analyzing the results of chemical analysis of soybean varieties of different maturity groups, we can say that the protein content in the seeds varied between 32.2–45.8 %. The highest indicator was observed in the varieties Zernoukisna (45.8 %), Ustya (45.5 %), Sonyachna (44.7 %), Artemida (44.2 %), Pripyat (44.0 %).
The fat content in the seeds of varieties of the collection nursery ranged from 18.2 to 26.8 %. The highest rate of fat content in seeds was observed in varieties – Emerald (26.8 %), Annushka (26.4 %), Sophia (26.8 %), Colorful (26.4 %), Ophelia (26.5 %), Podilska 416 (26.4 %), Vasylkivska (26.8 %), L. 101 (26.8 %), Bukuriya (26.3 %).
Examples of high-yielding, high-protein and fat-containing, highly resistant to cotyledonousbacteriosis, as well as varieties adapted to adverse environmental conditions are given.
Keywords: soy, bean, variety, collection, yield, protein, fat, resistance, seeds.
|Аdaptive properties and selection value of the collection genotypes of winter wheat by the features of ear productivity||Annotation|
Аdaptive properties and selection value of the collection genotypes of winter wheat by the features of ear productivity
UDS 631.527.8:633.111.1 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0130
Hoptsii V.O., Kryvoruchenko R.V.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 230–242.
Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V.V. Dokuchaiev,Dokuchaievske settlement,
Kharkiv region, Kharkiv oblast, 62483, Ukraine
In the conditions of the global climate change, it is important to find the donors of the adaptive properties among the existing initial material of wheat, because only on the basis of the targeted selection of the parental components for crossbreeding it can be expected to obtain the selection material with the specified parameters of adaptability. The purpose of this research was to assess the collection samples of soft winter wheat by the features of ear productivity and to establish the adaptive peculiarities by these features.
The results of a three-year (2014–2016) study of the level of implementation and variability of the ear productivity features – ear length, ear weight, number of ear spikelets, number of ear grains and grain weight from the ear have been presented in the article, and also the indices of homeostaticity (Hom) and selection value (Sc) of the studied wheat genotypes by these features have been calculated. The object of the research was 45 varieties and 9 selection lines of different genetic and ecological and geographical origin.
As the result of the conducted researches, the existence of a significant difference between the collection genotypes of wheat has been established both by the level of the ear productivity development features and their variability during the years of the research. The maximum development level of the ear productivity features had 6 species (Hordovyta, Stanichnaya, Legenda, Pereyaslavka, Oksana, Liryka). By the vast majority of the features, the average level exceeded 7 varieties and 2 selection lines (Rosinka Tarasovskaya, Banga, Venera, Volnitsa, Masha, Krasota, Ebi, Kiu-07, 89-I/2).
The homeostaticity index characterizes the ability of the genotype to minimize the negative influence of the environmental factors. It has been established that the collection samples of soft winter wheat had different levels of homeostaticity features of ear productivity. Some collection varieties of wheat had a high level of homeostaticity by certain features of ear productivity, but a low or medium development level of the features themselves. Some genotypes were characterized by high values of both homeostaticity and features development level.
The greatest value is represented by the genotypes in which high homeostaticity and selection value is combined with a high level of productivity features development – Zdobna, Dobirna, Zapashna, Dbailyva, Fermerka, Krasota, Masha, Stanichnaya, Oda, Legenda, Kyu99, 89-I/2, etc. These genotypes can be used as the donors of a high level of ear productivity with their high homeostaticity.
Thus, as the result of the conducted researches, we have established different nature of the manifestation and variability of the ear productivity features of the collection genotypes of soft winter wheat of different genetic origin. The conducted assessment of the homeostaticity and selection value of the productivity features allowed identifying a number of the varieties and selection lines of wheat that can be used in the combination selection as the donors of high ear productivity in the complex of adaptability have been carried out.
Key words: soft winter wheat, genotype, ear productivity, homeostatic, adaptability, selection value.
|Innovational system of quality control of seeding material in corn seed growing||Annotation|
Innovational system of quality control of seeding material in corn seed growing
Kyrpa M.Ya., StasivO.F., Lukyanenko T.M.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 243–250.
1 State institution Institute of grain crops NAAS, 14, Vladimir VarnadskyStr., Dnepr, 49027, Ukraine.
2 Agricultural institute of Carpathian region, NAAS,5, GrushevskyStr. v. Obroshino, Lviv region, 81115, Ukraine
Results of quality investigations of corn hybrids seeds that are formed at the growing phases, post-harvest processing and storage are expounded. Quality control system which is based on the acting (standardized) and additional indexes and also methods of their definition is worked out. Seeds viability on the cold germination method, energy and growth force, uniformity and damage are additional indexes, they have high correlation level with sowing qualities and plenteous hybrids properties.
Cold germination method includes variable temperatures 8 – 10 and 18 – 20 degrees Celsius that reproduces conditions of “sowing – seedling” corn period in the field. The uniformity is determined by the method of separating seeding material and determination of some fractions content on seeds size 9, 8, 7, 6 mm in it. The damage is defined by looking-over seedlings through a magnifying glass and their separating into 3 groups: seeds which are not damaged, with macro- and micro- damage of germ and endosperm, also seeds with damage in the kind of plucked veil are separately distinguished. The largest level of additional indexes correlation determined by new methods is within r= 0,583 – 0.781 and refers to the field seeds germination, individual plant productivity of corn hybrids.
On the base of acting and additional indexes conditioned seeds are offered to be evaluated in accordance with 3 indexes of sowing suitability. If seeds of the first and the second (high and medium) indexes are used marketable seeds of corn hybrids productivity can be increased on 15–18%. The highest index seeds viability on the method of cold germination must be 85–100%, quantity of strong plantlets – no less 81%, uniformity – 91% and more, content of seeds with macro damage – till 5% and micro damage – till 29%.The system of quality control is recommended to be used in the process of seeds preparation and on the phase of their certification.
Key words: corn, hybrids, seeds, system of quality, indexes and methods.
|Influence of humates on growth, development and formation of sunflower yield||Annotation|
Influence of humates on growth, development and formation of sunflower yield
A. D. Gyrka, I. D. Tkalich,Yu. Ya. Sydorenko, O. V. Bochevar, T. V. Gyrka
State Institution The Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS Ukraine
Experimental researches were carried out in the experimental field of the laboratory of agro-biological resources of spring cereal and leguminous crops of the Erastivka experimental station of the SI The Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS of Ukraine (SI IGC NAAN) of the Piatyhatky district of the Dni-propetrovsk region during 2016–2018 in grain-fallow-row-crop rotation after spring barley as a predecessor. Agricultural technology in experiments was common for the zone. The trial establishment, carrying out an experimental studies, records and observations, and sampling were carried out in accordance with the methodology of field experiment and the generally accepted methodical recommendations of the SI IGC NAAN. Weather conditions during the 2016–2018 for humidity and air temperature were moderately favorable for the germination of the seeds, growth and development of sunflower plants.
It was established that, depending on the variant of preparation use, compared to the control, the height of sunflower plants increased by 5.0–12.9 cm, the diameter of the capitulum – by 2.8–4.1 cm, the we-ight of seeds from the capitulum – by 2.3–4 , 1 g, weight of 1000 seeds – 6.3–8.7 g. The best results of indicators of growth intensity, development and formation the elements of yield structure of sunflower hybrid Jason are received in a variant with foliar feeding of crops in a phase of 3–4 pairs of leaves by preparation Humivit Profi, 0.3 l/ha, which provided an increase in sunflower seed yield relative to the control of 0.39 t/ha. Twice foliar fertilization of sunflower crops: in the phase of 3–4 pairs of leaves – Humivit Extra and in the bud stage – Humivit Amino with application rate 0.2 l/ha of each increased the yield of sunflower seeds relative to the control by 0.23 t/ha. At pre-sowing treatment of sunflower seeds with Humivit Profi, 0.3 l/ha, sunflower yield was 2.23 t/ha, which exceeded the control by 0.16 t/ha.
Key words:sunflower, humic preparations, plant growth and development, elements of crop yield structure, crop yield.
|Optimization of nitrogen top dressing of the winter wheat at growing on the bare fallow||Annotation|
Optimization of nitrogen top dressing of the winter wheat at growing on the bare fallow
Gasanova I. I., Yerashova M. V., Pedash T. M.
Grain Crops, 2020. 4 (2).257–262.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The influence of nitrogen top dressing on the yielding capacity and grain quality of modern varieties of soft winter wheat in the Northern Steppe were discovered. The field trial was placed on the bare fallow. The rate of application of mineral fertilizers under presowing cultivation was N30P60K30. Three varieties of winter wheat was sown: Kokhanka (SI The Institute of Grain Crops), Pylypivka and Misiia Odeska (Selection and Genetic Institute).
The sowing time of the winter wheat is September 20, the sowing rate is 5 million germinable seeds per 1 ha. The following nitrogenous fertilizers were used for the top dressings: ammonium nitrate and carbamide. Ammonium nitrate was applied at the end of the spring tillering stage by means of a seeder locally (30 and 60 kg/ha of active substance) end carbamide (30 kg/ha of active substance) and a tank mixture of carbamide (30 kg/ha of active substance) and fungicide Falcon (600 ml/ha) – in the earing phase foliar. It is established that top dressing of the winter wheat crops at the end of the tillering stage locally with ammonium nitrate contributed to an increase in yield of varieties by 0,34–0,64 t/ha, moreover the maximum yield gains were for the application of fertilizers in the rate of 60 kg/ha of nitrogen.
A significant increase in yielding capacity was provided by the treatment of crops in the earing stage with the tank mixture of carbamide and fungicide. Nitrogen top dressings, as a rule, had a positive effect on both the physical indicators of the winter wheat grain (grain weight per hectoliter and vitreousness) and biochemical indicators (protein content, gluten content, sedimentation rate). It is found, that the varieties Kokhanka and Pylypivka in all variants of the experiment formed the grain weight per hectoliter over 800 g/l. In these varieties the content of protein and gluten were higher. In the strong grain quality varieties Misiia Odeska and Pylypivka in comparison with the variety Kokhanka (valuable) were noted higher values of sedimentation.
According to the set of indicators, food grain of the second class was obtained in Kokhanka variety in the variant where the tank mixture of carbamide with fungicide was used for crop treatment, and in Pylypivka variety – for top dressings of crops at the end of tillering stage locally (N30–60) or N30 foliar.
Keywords:winterwheat, variety, bare fallow, nitrogen fertilization, yielding capacity, protein, gluten.
|Іnfluence of multicomponent growth regulators on winter resistance forming and productivity of winter wheat||Annotation|
Іnfluence of multicomponent growth regulators on winter resistance forming and productivity of winter wheat
YarchukI. I., MelnнkT. V., MorhunO. V.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 263–271.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The growth of gross grain may be obtained only with growth of agrotechnical methods. Therefore there is a need for further investigation of the complex influence of the main technical means on plant growth and development. It is necessary to define an influence of multicomponent drugs on the wheat win-
ter resistance and productivity.
To solve this task, field investigations were held for conditions of northern Steppe aiming to define regularities of growth and development, winter resistance forming, and productivity of the hard winter wheat depending on growth regulating drugs, different levels of mineral nutrition, and different predecessors.
The investigation (2013–2017) was held on the training field “Samarskiy” of Dneprovskiy National Agrarian-economical University (Dnipropetrovsk oblast) on common chernozem soil with low contains of humus medium loam. The square of the field 30 sq. m., three times frequency, allocation is systematic. In general, the weather conditions for years of the investigation were specific for the Steppe zone.
It was defined that depending on the presence of the main factors of life sustenance, the influence of studied drugs (which contain different organic and non-organic elements) varies a lot but there are some regularities.
At the worst conditions (after a stubble predecessor and with low level of nutrition) the drugs have shown minimal influence on wintering of the hard winter wheat. So, the maximum increase of nutrition the drugs can give (drugs “Mars ELBi” and “AKM”) only at 2.6 % higher than at the control, which is not so significant. Minor increase or even decrease of wintering caused by usage of the studied drugs was noticed also at the best background (fallow land, N30Р60K40). The best cryoprotection was obtained with the drug “Vympel”, which increased the plant survival at 8.6 % comparing with the control.
The same regularities of the influence of complex drugs depending on the background are found at the productivity forming as well. At follow land in conditions of sufficient nutrition the effect of the most studied drugs hasn’t increased or was insignificant.
Chlormequat-chloride 750, as opposed to multicomponent drugs, has shown consistent and positive effect in conditions of high background.
Among studied drugs the best sustainability in increasing grain productivity of the hard winter wheat has shown drug “Mars ELBi” used in spring after the vegetation renewal (daily-average temperature +10 оС) with norm 750 ml per ha.
Key words: hard winter wheat, growth regulator, winter resistance, productivity, grain quality, cost efficiency.
|Peculiarities of formation the grain productivity of spring barley depending on terms and norms of foliar fertilization||Annotation|
Peculiarities of formation the grain productivity of spring barley depending on terms and norms of foliar fertilization
UDC 633.16«321»:631.559/.8 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0135
Gyrka A. D., Tkalich I. D., Sydorenko Yu. Ya., Bochevar O. V.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 272–280.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
One of the ways to improve the nutritional conditions of plants and therefore increase the productivity of agrocenoses of spring cereals, is the use of mineral fertilizers, both in their main application and in the spring fertilization of vegetative plants. And that is why the purpose of study was to improve agro-technical measures for growing spring barley, which would be based on the use of biological potential of the crop and the use of resource-saving technologies in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine.
The study was conducted at the Erastivka Experimental Station of SI Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS during 2017–2019, according to generally known methods. Soil of experimental field – ordinary chernozem, low-humic, loamy. The humus content in arable soil layer (0–30 cm) – 4,0–4,5 %, total nitro-gen – 0,23–0,26 %, phosphorus – 0,11–0,16 %, potassium – 2,0–2,5 %, pH of water extract – 6,5–7,0.
Field experiments were laid in six-field crop rotation after predecessor winter wheat. In experiments seeded spring barley of variety Stalker with seeding rate 4,5 million of grains/ha. Soil preparation, sowing, care of crops and harvesting were carried out strictly according to the zonal recommendations. Variants in a field experiment designed systematically, with three replications. Accounting plots area – 25 m2.
Arid conditions of Ukraine’s Steppe zone is quite complex. Two-thirds of land in Ukraine referred to zone of risky agriculture, but even here you can use 30–50 % and more of varieties capacity, in consideration of importance the local gene pool in creating highly adapted varieties based on local varieties and using the developed agrotechnical growing measures, that promotes plants to be resistant to dry conditions of Steppe zone of Ukraine.
Weather conditions during the investigation were different, which made it possible to fully assess its impact on grain productivity potential of spring small cereals.
Phenological observations, analysis of yield structure elements and grain productivity of spring barley of variety Stalker when grown without fertilizers and fertilizing with N30P30K30 as well as the use of different terms and doses of foliar fertilization of plants with ammonium nitrate and humic preparation humisol plus in conditions of Steppe zone of Ukraine are presented.
It was found that the growth, development and formation of productivity elements of spring barley plants were significantly influenced by the timing and dosing of fertilization. Earlier fertilization of plants with ammonium nitrate and humisol plus, carried out on seedlings and in the tillering phase, contributed to better plant growth and development, formation of productive tillering and yield structure elements, compared with fertilization in the phase of stem elongation as in the variant of fertilized background (N30P30K30), as in the variant without the using of mineral fertilizers.
Key words: spring barley, mineral fertilizers, foliar fertilization of plants, elements of head structure, grain yield.
|Influence of vermicompost aftereffect on the efficiency of spring barley cultivation in arid conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of vermicompost aftereffect on the efficiency of spring barley cultivation in arid conditions of the Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 633.16 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0136
Vinyukov O. O., Dudkina A. P., Shevchenko T. V.
Grain Crops, 2020, 4 (2). 281–288.
Donetsk State Agricultural Science Station NAAS, st. ZashchitnikovUkrainy, 1, Pokrovsk, Donetsk region,
Barley is a crop, requires the availability of available nutrients in the soil, especially at the beginning of the growing season. The aim of the research was to determine the effectiveness of the aftereffect of using vermicompost when growing spring barley on different backgrounds in the Donetsk region.
The studies were carried out according to the methodology of the field experiment of B. A. Dospehova. Research methods: field, supplemented by analytical studies, measurements, calculations and observations.
The studies were conducted in 2017–2019 by laboratory-field method in field crop rotation in the experimental sections of the Donetsk SSES NAAS. The repetition in the experiments is 3-fold. The location of the plots is systematic.
The soil is alkaline-chernozemic carbonate, having an average supply of mineral nitrogen and mobile phosphorus, low – potassium. The humus content of 4,2 % indicates a high potential soil fertility, but to realize the potential of the culture, additional application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers is necessary.
The technology for growing crops is generally accepted for the farms of the region, with the ex-
ception of the factors studied. Variety of barley spring Avers.
The experience scheme provides for: control (without fertilizers); background – saturation of crop rotation with vermicompost granular 2 t/ha; background + N30P30K30; background + N60P60K60; N30P30K30.
The use of organic fertilizers under the predecessor in crop rotation provided improve nutriti-on conditions for plants, which positively affected the growth and development of spring barley plants. So, on the variants with the use of mineral fertilizers, the highest indices of the number of productive stems and the structure of the crop were noted in the background. The variant where N60P60K60 was added in the background produced the largest mass of 1000 grains – 49,8 g, which is 4,6 % higher than the control.
Analysis of the study indicates the positive effect of the aftereffect of organic fertilizer (vermicompost) on the yield of spring barley.
The maximum yield of spring barley was obtained against the background of aftereffect of vermicompost 2 t/ha and the application of mineral fertilizers N60P60K60 – 5,05 t/ha, but due to high production costs, the profitability level is 114,9 %. The application of organic fertilizers under the background provides a yield of 3,67 t/ha and the highest level of profitability of 140,6 %.
The optimal technological option provides for the introduction of mineral fertilizers in the norm N30P30K30 amid predecessor saturation with vermicompost. This allows increasing the yield up to 4,90 t/ha (by 1,46 t/ha or 42,4 % to the control) and obtaining a profitability level of 136,1 %.
The use only of mineral fertilizer N30P30K30 in severely arid weather conditions of the steppe zone allows increasing the yield by 0,70 t/ha compared to the control but, due to the high cost of production, leads to a low production profitability of 99,6 %.
Key words: spring barley, background, vermicompost, mineral fertilizers, yield, economic effici-ency.
|The impact of fertilizers on the productivity of white mustard||Annotation|
The impact of fertilizers on the productivity of white mustard
UDC 631.5:633.85 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0137
Hubenko L.V., LyubchichO.Y.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 289–295.
National Science Center "Institute of Agriculture of NAAS", 2b, Mechanical Engineering str., smt. Shepherds, borough Kyiv-Svyatoshynskyi region Kyivska, 08162, Ukraine
Recently, scientists and producers have been paying increasing attention to niche crops that are able to significantly diversify the monocultural oil field of dominance in the crop rotation of sunflower, soybean and rapeseed. In today's climate, one of these crops is mustard, which at the same time, with the ability to form stable yields of seeds and raw materials of good quality, is distinguished by its relative unpretentiousness to external factors. Purpose. Improvement of elements of technology of cultivation and determination of their influence on productivity of mustard white. Methods. The studies involved the use of standardized methods: field – to determine the yield, biometric records and measurements, laboratory – to determine the agrophysical properties of the soil, the content of the basic nutrients in it, to determine the structure of the crop; calculated – evaluation of the economic efficiency of the elements of white mustard growing technology studied; statistical – analysis of variance.The article presents the results of studies to study the effect of different doses of fertilizers, micro fertilizers on seed yields and oil the content in white mustard seeds. Optimal parameters of elements of technology of cultivation of mustard white, which provide maximum yield in the conditions of the northern forest-steppe of Ukraine, are established.As a result of the research, it was found that the highest seed yield of white mustard seed (2,58 t/ha) with oil content (43,29 %) was provided by the application of fertilizer with fertilizer at a dose of N45P60K90 and foliar feeding with Tropicel. The significance of the influence of the investigated factors on the crop yield is estimated. It was established that in 2016–2018. factors in terms of the degree of influence on the yield of the white mustard variety Belaya Princess in terms of importance can be arranged as follows: mineral fertilizers – 14.3 %, treatment of crops with micronutrient fertilizer Tropikel – 52.2 %. Cost-effec-tiveness analysis showed that profitability (225 %) and profit (UAH 32158) reached the highest values by growing white mustard using technology that involves the introduction of N45P60K90 and foliar fertilization of Tropikel microfertilizers.
Keywords:mustard white, mineral fertilizers, micro fertilizers, yield, seed quality, cost-effectiveness, Tropicel.
|The influence of direct sowing methods on the growth and productivity of spring barley in the conditions of the north-eastern part of Ukraine||Annotation|
The influence of direct sowing methods on the growth and productivity of spring barley in the conditions of the north-eastern part of Ukraine
UDC 631.547.3:631.331 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0138
Syromyatnikov Yu. N.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (1). 296–304.
Kharkiv National Technical University of Agriculture. P. Vasilenko, 44, Alchevskikh str., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine
The article presents the results of studies to determine the efficiency of growing spring barley depending on the methods of direct sowing in technology, which is based on the use of combined machines. It is proved that due to the use of a direct sowing seeder, the sections of which consist of modules for local loosening of the soil, in front of the openers of which wavy discs are installed, the grain yield increases on average by 20 % compared to the control. Moving at high speed, the wavy discs loosen relatively narrow soil strips into which the seeds are laid by the openers, this makes it possible to more efficiently retain moisture, which subsequently significantly affects the dynamics of seedlings and the yield level of spring barley grain.
The smallest weed infestation of crops was in the case of sowing with a seeder with combined cutting-type working bodies and disc coulter systems with support-press wheels. Weeds were counted after the emergence of barley seedlings.
The greatest soil hardness was observed when using a seeder with disc working bodies, the sections of which consist of modules for local loosening of the soil. Statistical processing of the data indicates that depth has the greatest effect on soil hardness, its influence accounted for 96 %. The force of impact on soil hardness of sowing methods was 0.76 %. The density of the soil in the zone of development of the root system of plants in all variants of the experiment did not go beyond the optimum. Before harvesting, the moisture content of the upper soil layers in variants with direct sowing was 3–5 % higher, and the moisture content of the lower layers was less by 1–2 % than in the control (the reliability of the data was determined using Fisher's criterion and was 95 %, and the difference between experimental options was significant).
Key words: yield of barley, sowing, method, technologies, seeders, quality, local loosening.
|Growing miscanthus in the conditions of Western Polesie||Annotation|
Growing miscanthus in the conditions of Western Polesie
UDC 504:620.9 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0139
Furmanetc Y. S., Furmanetc M. H.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 305–312.
Institute of Agriculture of Western Polissyaof NAAS, 5, Rivnenska str., Shubkiv, Rivne district, Rivne region, 35325,Ukraine
The results of studies on the effect of density, fertilizer and soil type on miscanthus productivity in Western Polesie are presented. It was found that the average yield of dry biomass of 15.5 t/ha was obtained on a dark gray loamy soil for a planting density of 20 pc/ha., and fertilizer application at the rate of N60Р200К200.
The application of mineral fertilizers (N60Р200К200) on dark gray light-loamy and sod-podzolic sandy-sandy soil provided the highest increase in dry mass yield (up to control) of 2.9–3.4 t/ha.
As the results of research have shown, the dry matter yield varies significantly under the influence of certain factors.
Thus, in four years on average the highest dry matter yield was obtained on condition of planting density of 20 thousand pcs./ha and application of N60P200K200 on both dark gray light loamy soil and sod-podzolic sandy soil, 15.5 and 13.1 t/ha respectively.
The lowest yields on two types of soils were obtained on condition of planting density of 10 thousand pcs./ha in the trial field without fertilizers (check) – 12.0 t/ha and 9.1 t/ha on dark gray loamy and sod-podzolic light sandy soils, respectively. The application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N60P100K100 ensured increase in the yield by 1.8 and 2.2 t/ha of dry mass on two types of soils. Increasing the dose of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers up to 200 kg. d.r./ha contributed to an increase in the amount of dry mass to 15.0 and 10.1 t/ha compared to the trial field without fertilizers.
The results of the research confirm the fact that with the increase in grain planting density and application of mineral fertilizers, the yield of miscanthus biomass increases, thus, the yield of solid fuel and energy increases as well.
Consequently, the highest fuel yield of 17.1 t/ha with the energy yield of 271 GJ/ha was ensured by the application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N60P200K200 and an increase in planting density to 20 thousand pcs./ha on dark gray light loamy soil.
The lowest productivity at this density was characterized by the option without fertilizers (check) - 12.2 t/ha of dry biofuel and 194 GJ/ha of energy.
Planting miscanthus plantations with the density of 15 thousand pcs./ha for four years on average reduced the yield of biofuel to 11.0 t/ha and energy to 175 GJ/ha in the trial field without fertilizers (check). However, the lowest amount of biofuel of 10.1 t/ha and energy yield of 159 GJ/ha was obtained in the trial field without fertilizers at the planting density of miscanthus of 10 thousand pcs./ha. The application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N60P100K100 and N60P200K200 contributed to the increase of the above indices to 13.5 and 14.7 t/ha of dry biofuel and 215 and 235 GJ/ha of energy, respectively.
Keywords: miscanthus, dry biomass, solid biofuels, energy, soil.
|Agro-economic efficiency of maize grain growing depending on the background of fertilization and foliar top dressing||Annotation|
Agro-economic efficiency of maize grain growing depending on the background of fertilization and foliar top dressing
UDK 633.15.631.5 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0140
DudkaM.I., YakuninO.P., PustovyiS.I.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 313–318.
State Institution Institute of Grain Crops NAAS, 14, VolodymyraVernadskoho Str.,Dnipo, 49027, Ukraine
The influence of foliar top dressings on the background of mineral fertilizers N30P30K30 and N60P45K45 on the leaf surface area, grain yielding capacity and economic indices for the griowing of maize hybrids after sunflower was studied. It is found that against the background of fertilizer N60P45K45 compared to N30P30K30 leaf area of one plant was greater by 7.0 %. Under the influence of foliar top dressing, this indicator increased by 7.7–25.6 %. The middle-early ripening hybrid had advantage in terms of leaf surface area. The yielding capacity of maize on the background of mineral fertilizers N30P30K30 was 4.76 t/ha, on the background of N60P45K45 – 5.20 t/ha.
In the case of foliar top dressing with Carbamide at a dose of 10 kg/ha, grain yielding capacity increased compared to the control (without dressing) by 0.20 t/ha, at the dose of 20 kg/ha – by 0.24 t/ha. The addition of Zinc chelate, 1.5 l/ha, to 10 kg/ha of Carbamide, provided an increase in grain yielding capacity compared to the control by 0.30 t/ha, and up to 20 kg/ha of with Carbamide of Quantum-corn, 3.0 l/ha – by 0.34 t/ha. In the case of two foliar top dressings: with Carbamide and Zinc chelate in the phase of 5–6 leaves, Carbamide and the preparation of Quantum-corn in the phase of 8–9 leaves, the grain yielding capacity was higher than in the control by 0.41 t/ha. According to this indicator, the middle-early ripening hybrid DB Khotyn exceeded the early-ripening hybrid DN Pyvykha by 0.50 t/ha.
The cost figures of 1 ton of grain was lower for growing middle-early hybrid with a single spraying of crops with Сarbamide or Carbamide with the addition of microelements on the background of fertilizer N30P30K30 (2159–2259 UAH) and slightly higher (2212–2301 UAH) – on the background of N60P45K45 medium-early hybrid on the background of N60P45K45. The conditional net income with a single spraying of Carbamide (10214–10327 UAH/ha) and slightly less (10095–10164 UAH/ha) –Carbamide with the addition of Zinc chelate or Quantum corn. The level of profitability was highest (89.9 %) at growing of medium-early hybrid on the background of N30P30K30 and spraying crops with Carbamide, 10 kg/ha (5 % solution).
Key words: maize, fertilizer, foliar top dressing, hybrids, yielding capacity, economic efficiency.
|Modern systems of agriculture and a new interpretation of cultivated value of agricultural crops||Annotation|
Modern systems of agriculture and a new interpretation of cultivated value of agricultural crops
Shevchenko, M. S., Decyatnik L. M., Derevenets-Shevchenko K. A., Shvets N. V.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 319–329.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyra Vernadskoho Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
Based on a broad experimental study of crop rotation productivity in different locations of the steppe zone, a correlative model for estimating the role of predecessors in the formation of post-crop yields has been developed. The connection between quality of agrotechnologies and change of degree of crop rotation competitiveness of culture is presented.
A retrospective analysis of the efficiency of farming and crop rotation systems showed that the constant improvement of varieties and hybrids of crops and technologies for their cultivation created objective agrobiological grounds for reassessment of predecessors in crop rotation. The main motive for this transformation was that in modern agricultural systems, high-potential biotechnological resources allow to obtain higher crop yields on the worst predecessors than on the best in the past.
In order to universalize the evaluation of crop rotation efficiency and model their productivity, it is proposed to introduce a crop rotation depression coefficient, which shows the share of yield remaining after individual predecessors compared to its baseline level after black pair. The most favorable conditions developed after crops with a coefficient above 0,80 – winter wheat, barley, rape, rye, spring barley, oats. At the same time, the development of post-rotational crops was significantly inhibited by sunflower, corn for grain and silage, beets, sorghum and soybeans, the coefficient of which was 0,66–0,78.
The proposed methodology of system analysis for the assessment of predecessors opens wider opportunities for the formation of adapted crop rotations, optimize the set of crops to market requirements, make important adjustments to crop rotations in extreme conditions, regulate crop rotation productivity taking into account agrotechnological modernization.
Keywords: crop rotation, tillage, fertilizers, crops, grain, predecessors, harvest, minimization.
|The state of heat resources and yield dynamics of the field crops in the conditions of the northern Steps of Ukraine||Annotation|
The state of heat resources and yield dynamics of the field crops in the conditions of the northern Steps of Ukraine
UDC 633:551.524 (292.486) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0142
Chaban V. I.,KliavzoS. P., Podobed O. U.,HorbatenkoA. І.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 330–338.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS, 14, Volodymyra Vernadakyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainy
The most important environmental factors for the environment and habitat of plants include temperature. Agro-industrial production requires up-to-date information on the state of thermal resources and the response of plants to global warming within each region.
The purpose of the research is to evaluate the state of thermal resources and the dynamics of crop yields in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine. Material for the research was the results of observations of the temperature regime of the AISW Dnipro (1961–1990 and 1991–2018) and data of winter wheat, spring barley, corn, sunflower in stationary experiments on control variants (DPDG “Dnipro”). Statistical data were used to evaluate the data by period: arithmetic mean (M); standard deviation (S); confidence interval (CL0.05) probability (P); repeatability (P × 100 %). Statistical processing was performed using applications in Excel 2003 and Statistica (version 6).
Analysis of the thermal regime data showed that in 1991–2018, the average temperature for the year increased by 1.0 °C compared to the climatic norm (1961–1990), by 0.9 °C during the warm and cold periods. vegetation period of early cereals and late crops – by 0.8–1.0 °С. The average rate of increase in the average annual temperature in 1961–2018 was 0.31 ° C/10 years. Between 1991 and 2018, there were 15 cases with temperatures above 9.5 °C, with a recurrence rate of up to 53 %. The last decade (2009–2018) is characterized by a further increase in temperature during the year – by 1.5 ° C, the vegetation of early cere-als – by 1.6 °C, and late crops – by 2.0 °C. It is established that the warming is due to the temperature increase in the cold season – in January, February and March by 1.1,71.7 °C. Positive anomalies occur in July and August (+1.5 ° C).
For estimating thermal resources, the important characteristics are the average temperature of the coldest and warmest months of the year. January 10-year average temperatures steadily increased from (-6.5) °C in 1961–1970, to (-4.0) °C in 2011–2018. Their annual variability decreased. The recurrence of high temperature (> -5 °C) in January increased from 34–35 % in 1961–1980 to 73 % in 2011–2018.
The average values of July temperatures for 10 annual cycles have steadily increased from 20.8 to 23.0 °C since 1970. The recurrence of temperature> 23.0 °C for 1961–1970 was 2 cases and has increased 2.5 times in recent years. This increases the likelihood of sleepless periods. The positive trend leads to a shift in the dates of the steady transition of the average daily air temperature through 5 °C and the duration of the growing season. Over the last 18 years (2001–2018), it increased by 11–16 days (225 and 209–214). The incidence of such cases increased from 22 % to 44–50 %. At the same time, the increase in the duration of the period with an average daily temperature of ≥10 °C is not statistically significant.
The average sums of effective temperatures ≥5 °C over the 10-year cycles in 2011–2018 were 2711 °C, which is 347 °C higher than the base period (1961–1990). Temperature totals increase linearly from 1971 to 2018. However, their recurrence (≥2711) in 2011–2018 sharply increases to 50%. A close correlation (R2 = 0.75) was established between the duration of the period at ≥5 °C and the sum of effective heat ≥5 °C. A similar trend is typical for effective temperatures at ≥10 °C.
The results of the accounting of crops show that for the whole period of observations their average values were: winter wheat (steam) – 4.44 t/ha; spring barley – 2.40 t/ha; corn – 4.32 t/ha; sunflower – 2.15 t/ha. Their distribution was characterized by significant fluctuations due to the variability of weather conditions. However, its maximum levels were noted in the post base period.
Against the background of increasing supply of thermal resources in the region, there is an increase in their average yield: steam of winter – by 36 % (3.76 and 5.12 t/ha); spring barley – 24 % (2.14 and 2.65 t/ha ), corn – 11 % (4.14 and 4.59 t/ha), sunflower – 30 % (1.86 and 2.42 t/ha). The probability of forming the optimal yield level of steam winter, spring barley, corn and sunflower (≥4,44; ≥2,40; ≥4,32; ≥2,15 t/ha, respectively, for crops) in the post base period reaches 56–76% whereas in 1961–1990 it was 25–43%.
Keywords: thermal resources, sum of temperatures,field crops, yield dynamics, adaptive properties.
|Influence of methods of basic tillage on the dynamics of productive moisture reserves in spring barley crops in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine||Annotation|
Influence of methods of basic tillage on the dynamics of productive moisture reserves in spring barley crops in the conditions of the northern Steppe of Ukraine
UDC 631.51: 633.16 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0143
Tsyliuryk O. I.1, Chorna V. I.1, Desyatnyk L. M.2, Horshchar V. I.1
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 339–352.
1Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Yefremova str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
2 SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The yield of spring barley significantly depends on the reserves of soil moisture, which ensures the implementation of all important life processes, including seed germination and rooting of seedlings, transpiration, thermoregulation and supply of nutrients to the plant. The productivity of spring barley is directly proportional to its moisture content. With sufficient soil moisture, favorable conditions for the growth and development of field crops, and ultimately increases their yield. In the northern steppe, high productivity of spring barley, provided timely and full germination, is formed due to moisture reserves accumulated in the deep layers of the soil during the autumn-winter period of the year.
The purpose of the study was to study the influence of the methods of basic tillage on the accumulation and dynamics of soil moisture in spring barley crops and the level of its yield.
Experimental studies were performed during 2004–2015 in a stationary field experiment at the Institute of Grain Crops of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
The presence of wavy nanorelief during chiselling, as well as plant remains on the ridges contributed to a significant reduction in wind speed in the aboveground layer. Snowfall was concentrated in the depressions and was reliably protected from blowing. Due to this, the height of the snow cover here, according to our data, was the highest and amounted to – 14.3 cm, and as a result faster thawing of the soil and better accumulation of water. At the same time, the intensity of wet accumulation during the autumn-winter period when treated with chisel tools outweighed the options of shelf plowing by an average of 17.9 mm, and disking – 9.2 mm. The increased assimilation of cold precipitation during chiselling can also be associated with strip loosening of the soil in the furrows, which is typical for chisel units.
It is established that in the northern steppe the use of canning (chisel) with a differentiated tillage system for spring barley increases the accumulation of moisture by 91.0–179.0 m2/ha in the autumn-winter period due to plant residues that retain more snow, especially in warm snowless winters.
It is proved that the use of a fine mulching system of tillage, despite the reduction of grain yield, contributes to a more economical consumption of moisture per unit of crop in 1.1–1.2 times when growing spring barley.
It was found that the use of annual shelf and differentiated tillage on average over the years of research provides the maximum level of yield, and the minimization of tillage in most years led to its reduction by 0.22–0.55 t/ha. The use of chiseling in a differentiated tillage system is most effective in dry years and even outweighs plowing due to the greater accumulation of productive moisture due to the presence of a significant portion of post-harvest residues of the predecessor that retain moisture under the mulch.
Key words: spring barley, tillage, soil moisture, fertilizers, disking, yield.
|Dynamics of soil fertility parameters in the Zaporizhzhya region and the ways of its restoration||Annotation|
Dynamics of soil fertility parameters in the Zaporizhzhya region and the ways of its restoration
UDC 631.452. https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0144
RomanenkoO. L., KushchI. S., AgafonovaA. V., TenyukhYu. O., SolodushkoM. M., UsovaN. M.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 353–362.
1Zaporizhzhya Branch of SE “Soils Protection Instituteof Ukraine”, 94, Doslidnastansia Str., Zaporizhzhya, 69031, Ukraine
2SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, VolodymyrVernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
3 Institute of Oil crops of Ukraine, 1, Institutskaya Str., Zaporozhye district, Zaporozhye region, 70417, Ukraine
During 2000–2018, the results of the application of organic and mineral fertilizers in dynamics and their effect on the content of humus and nutrients in the soils of the Zaporizhzhya region were reviewed. To control the state of soil fertility use the calculation of the balance of humus and nutrients. This makes it possible to determine the extent to which the application of nutrients with fertilizers covers their removal by crop yields.
Negative tendencies have been identified, which have led to the deterioration of soil fertility in the Zaporizhia region. Measures are proposed to achieve a deficit-free balance of humus and nutrients.
On average, in 2000–2018, the level of mineral fertilizer application in the Zaporizhia region remained low – 38 kg/ha (nitrogen – 28 kg, phosphorus – 7, potassium – 3 kg), and manure – only 0.2 t/ha.
According to the results of agrochemical certification of agricultural lands, the dynamics of changes in the content of humus, easily hydrolyzed nitrogen, mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium over the past 18 years has been determined. The average weighted content of humus in the soils in the VIII round was 3.44 %, IX – 3.52, X – 3.40, XI (2016–2018) – 3.57 %, which indicates the stability of this indicator. The weighted average nitrogen content, which is easily hydrolyzed during all rounds, has close values (83.6–90.3 mg/kg) and corresponds to a low level of its supply. The content of mobile phosphorus compounds during the VIII – IX rounds was quite stable (97.1–101.6 mg/kg), and in the X–XI rounds there was even an increase to 123.3–123.4 mg/kg. The phosphorus regime of soils is stable and corresponds to the increased level of security, except for the ninth round (average). Potassium regime of the soil for eighteen years also remains stable and refers to a high level of security (159.6–176.8 mg/kg).
The balance of humus and nutrients in the soils of the region remains negative. There is a tendency of positive changes if we compare the results for the first (2003–2014) and second (2003–2018) periods. Thus, to achieve a positive balance of humus it is necessary to apply 2 t/ha of straw (+400 kg/ha), 20 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizers and 6.4 t/ha of manure, and in 2003–2018 – respectively 2 t / ha straw (+400 kg/ha), 20 kg/ha of nitrogen, 5.8 t/ha of manure.
Key words: soil, balance, dynamics, humus, fertility, organic and mineral fertilizers.
|The effectiveness of applying herbicides incorn growing technology||Annotation|
The effectiveness of applying herbicides incorn growing technology
UDC 633.15 : 632. 954 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0145
SudakV. M., Horbatenko А. І., MatiukhaV. L., Kulyk А. О.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 363–371.
State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS, 14, VolodymyrVernadsky str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine.
Studies conducted on the chernozems of the steppe zone of Ukraine have revealed a direct relationship between thephytosanitary condition of an agricultural ecosystem and the amount of productive moisture used by corn plants from the 0 to 150 cmsoil layer during the period from sowing to harvest. In absolutely cleancrops, corn plants used soil water to the 156 mm depth, while in the plotsfrom which the weeds were not removedsoil water was used to 203 mm and on theherbicide-treated soilto 168–171 mm depth. Full or partial control of weediness of crops makes it possible to save 320–470 m3/ha moisture reserves, which is equal to the average monthly precipitation that fell during the growing season (2018–2019).
Effectiveness of the tested crop chemical protection systems was to a large extend determined by the hydrothermal conditions in April-May. High air temperature, lack of agronomically useful rains and dry winds caused drying out of the upper soil layer and decreasedphytotoxicity of pre-emergence herbicides. In this case (2018), the largest percentage of the first wave weeds (89.1%) was destroyed by a tank mixture of crop protectionagents contained in Frontier Optima(0.8 l/ha + Stellar (0.8 l/ha) + Metolat(0.8 l/ha). In favorable weather, to ensure manifestation of toxicological properties of soil herbicides (2019), the following combined technological schemes for harmful species control in the first stages of corn organogenesis had an advantage: Dual Gold (1.5 l/ha) (before sowing), Stellar (1.25 l/ha) +Metolat(1.25 l/ha) (after emergence of seedlings) and Acris(3 l/ha) (before sowing), Kelvin Plus (0.35 kg/ha) + Hasten (1 l/ha) (after emergence of seedlings). The technical efficiency of the herbicide application reached 98–100%.
In 2018, the highest yield of corn grain (7.85 t/ha) in the protected plots was obtained after application (in the phase of development of 3–5 corn leaves) of the following tank mixture: Frontier Optima (0.8 l/ha) + Stellar (0.8 l/ha) + Metolat(0.8 l/ha). This combination turned out to be the most effective in terms of cost effectiveness of grain production, providing a profitability of 213%. In 2019, we managed to increase the yields by combining soil and crop protection herbicides. Given the cost and consumption rate of the herbicides used per 1 ha, a combination of synthetic agrochemicals Avatar (2.5 l/ha) (before sowing) + Prima (0.5 l/ha) (after emergence of seedlings)was the best in terms of the main product cost (1579 UAH/t) and profitability (134%).
Key words: weeds, herbicidal system, technical efficiency, productivity, profitability of production.
|Physico-chemical properties of muscle tissue of young pigs and their relationship with certain biochemical indicators of blood serum||Annotation|
Physico-chemical properties of muscle tissue of young pigs and their relationship with certain biochemical indicators of blood serum
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 372–377
V. I. Khalak, S.Ye. Cherniavs’kiy, P. T. Chegorka
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukrainе
The article presents the results of studies of the physicochemical properties of the muscle tissue of young pigs of the large white breed, taking into account their intrabreed differentiation by some biochemical parameters of blood serum, and the correlation links between the signs are determined.
The control fattening of young pigs of large white breed was carried out in the conditions of the farm according to the "Methodology for assessing boars and sows for the yield of offspring in the minds of breeding plants and breeding reproducers". In the blood serum of 5-month-old animals, the cholesterol content (mmol/l) and the concentration of total lipoproteins (mg%) were determined. The physicochemical properties of the longest back muscle (m. Longissimus dorsi) were studied taking into account the following indicators: "water-holding capacity, %", "active acidity 24 hours after slaughter (pH), acidity units", "color intensity, units extract х 1000","tenderness, s "and" losses during heat treatment, %". Biometric processing of the obtained data was carried out according to generally accepted methods using the Data Analysis software module in Microsoft Excel.
It was found that the biochemical parameters of blood serum (cholesterol content (mmol/l) and the concentration of total lipoproteins (mg%) in young pigs of the Large White breed correspond to the physiological norm of clinically healthy animals. The number of samples of the longissimus dorsi muscle (m. Longissimus dorsi) of the category "high quality "according to the indicators" tenderness, s "and" water-holding capacity, % "is 9.09%, according to the" color intensity, units. х 1000" – 18.18%. Reliable coef-ficients of pair correlation are established between the following pairs of signs: concentration of total lipoproteins х active acidity 24 hours after slaughter (pH) (+0.618), concentration of total lipoproteins х water-holding capacity (+0.712), cholesterol content х tenderness (+0.726), cholesterol content х losses during heat treatment (+0.784).
Key words:muscle, tissue,young pigs, blood,biochemical parameters, serum.
|State and ways of purposeful conservation of gray Ukrainian breed and its use in the future breed formation process||Annotation|
State and ways of purposeful conservation of gray Ukrainian breed and its use in the future breed formation process
UDC 636.2.082.13 (06) https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0147
Kozyr V.S., Denisyuk O. V., Dimchia G. G., Maystrenko A. N.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 378–386.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The study of the gene pool of gray Ukrainian cattle on the basis of the State Enterprise “Polivanovka” was carried out in 2018–2020. They relied on retrospective and modern analysis of the population, using genetic, immunogenetic, breeding, zootechnical, statistical and biometric methods. The animals of this herd belong to two lines: Petushok 191U (62 %) and Shamrin XU-41 (38 %) and 20 families. They have a sturdy, dense and rough type of constitution. Average somatometric indicators correspond to the standard. The breed has good slaughter performance and beef properties. Slaughter yield in bulls reaches 58–59 %, fat – 2.5–3 %, protein: fat ratio – 1: 1.5, pulp in the carcass – 72–73 %, bones – 16–17 %, meat index – 4, 4–4.5.
Animals with a high coefficient of inheritance pass on to their descendants specific breed characteristics (color, shape of horns, physique, acclimatization to various natural zones, adaptation to feeding conditions, increased resistance, small fruit size, long growth, stress resistance).
The use of modern techniques made it possible to test erythrocyte antigens, serum proteins, isozyme erythrocytes and tissues, as well as polymorphism, the length of restriction DNA fragments. Of the 49 antigens of blood groups, 48 were found. There was a high frequency of them (45–92 %) A, G3, C1, C2, R2, W, X1, X2, E, F, Y, J, H1, Z and much lower ( 2–10 %) P1, P2, B1, J2, P1, R, C1, L, H2.
Over the past 30 years, the number of alleles of the most informational system B has decreased from 41 to 14, among them breed-specific B, B2, G3, J1, Q, T1, G2, K, V, E, O. The narrowing of the allelic pool to this level indicates that the breed is on the verge of extinction.
Analysis of biochemical markers of blood serum proteins albumin and post-albumin was found in three phenotypes AA, BB, and AB, post-transformation – also in three phenotypes FF, FS, and SS. In terms of hemoglobin, all studied animals of the herd are of type A. Restriction analysis of mitochondrial DNA revealed polymorphism only for endonuclease Eco 471.
Modern selection and genetic methods are able to maintain and preserve the specific properties of the breed, its structure, and genetic variability. Their use in combination with technological methods helps to prevent the disappearance of livestock and provide it with a worthy place in the world heritage of genetic resources. Our proposals are summarized in the "Concept of purposeful conservation of gray Ukrainian cattle and their use in the further breed-forming process."
Key words: cattle, gray Ukrainian breed, condition, direction of use, offers.
|Reproductive ability of holstina cows in different status of the reproductive system in the postpartum period||Annotation|
Reproductive ability of holstina cows in different status of the reproductive system in the postpartum period
UDC 636.22/28.082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0148
Gonchar A. O., Pishchan I. S., Litvishchenko L. O., Pishchan S. G.
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 387–395.
Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25, Sergiya Efremova str., Dnipro, 46000, Ukraine
In the article are considered the effect of postpartum course and periodicity of manifestation of dystocia and reproductive capacity of Holstein cows of different age.
The experimental part of the research was performed at the industrial complex for milk production of cows of Holstein breed of “Agro-Soyuz”. Assessment of ease of calving in cows of different age was determined in points (V. Berglund, J. Phillipson et al., 1987): 1 – easy calving; 2 – normal calving, only some help is required (slight dystocia); 3 – heavy calving, full intervention is required (dystocia). And was determined the live weight of the calves (kg).
It is found that about 83 % of cows the calving pass easily enough. At the same time, more than 10 % of the calving, operators had to spend only the final help of the calves release from the animal's birth canal. However, almost 7 % of calving animals care required sufficiently substantial assistance, which included several operators.
It is proved that the age of the cows is not crucial, which determines the dystocia. In this case, a direct relationship was established between the live weight of calves at birth and the display of dystocia during calving of cows. The live weight of the newborn at 37 kg causes a slight dystocia, and weighs about 39 kg – a dystocia. The live weight of the calves at birth at the level of 34 kg provides a normal course of calving. In 74.4 % of first-heifers there is a complication of recovery of the reproduction system after calving. The rate of cows in fourth lactation is quite high – 72.5 %. Close to this indicator are characterized by cows of the second lactation, in which symptomatic infertility is 69.6 %.
The average index of insemination is 1.9 units is typical for cows with a normal postpartum period. Symptomatic infertility leads to a lengthening of the service period by almost a month, compared to calving cows and the postpartum period proceeded normally. Heavy dystocia during calving is characteristic of 12 % of the animals, which were predominantly cows of the first calving.
Keywords: holstein breed, service period, calving, index of insemination, dystocia, symptomatic infertility.
|New methods of integrated assessment of sows by indicators of reproductive qualities||Annotation|
New methods of integrated assessment of sows by indicators of reproductive qualities
UDC 636.4:082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0149
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 396–403.
SE Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 14, Volodymyr Vernadskyi Str., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The article presents the results of studies of indicators of reproductive qualities of sows of large white breed of various intrabreed differentiation according to some evaluation indices, the criteria for selecting highly productive animals and the economic efficiency of their use are determined. On the basis of experimental data, аppendix 10 to the Instruction on the grading of pigs (correction factor for correcting the weight of the piglet nest at weaning at 60 days of age) has been modified and a new method has been developed for assessing sows according to the indicator "uniformity (uniformity) of a sow's nest in terms of live weight of piglets at weaning time" (IVG60).
The studies were carried out in the «Druzhba - Kaznacheevka» JLLC in the Dnepropetrovsk region and the animal husbandry laboratory of the State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of the NAAS. The work was carried out in accordance with PSR NAAS No. 30 “Innovative technologies for pedigree, industrial and organic production of pig products (“Pigbreeding”). The assessment of sows in terms of reproductive qualities was carried out taking into account the following characteristics: multiple fertility, head, large fertility, kg, number of piglets at weaning time, head, nest weight at weaning time, kg (actual), nest weight at weaning time of 60 days, kg (calculated), safety, %. A comprehensive assessment of sows in terms of reproducti-ve qualities was carried out according to breeding indices of reproductive qualities of sows (SIVKS) (A. N. Tserenyuk et al., 2010), the index of N.D. Berezovsky (cited by P. A. Vashchenko, 2019), biometric processing of research results – according to the methods of G. F. Lakin (1990).
It was found that 26.4 7 % of sows of the controlled herd, according to the characteristics of reproductive qualities (abundance, head, nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 60 days (calculated), kg) belong to the elite class, 65.44 – I class, 7.35 – II class. The number of animals, according to the average score, are categorized as "out of class" is 0.73 %. The multiplicity of sows is 11.1 ± 0.15 heads. (Cv = 15.76 %), large fruit – 1.41 ± 0.009 kg (Cv = 7.88 %), the number of piglets at weaning time – 9.7 ± 0.13 head (Cv = 16.60 %), weight nests at the time of weaning, kg (actual) – 74.3 ± 0.85 kg (Cv = 13.48 %), weight of the nest at the time of weaning in 60 days, kg (calculated) – 175.9 ± 2.160 kg (Cv = 13.43 %), safety – 87.9 ± 0.49 % (Cv = 6.84 %). The index of uniformity (uniformity) of a sow's nest in terms of live weight of piglets at the time of birth is 5.21 ± 0.076 points (Cv = 17.11 %), at the time of weaning – 8.32 ± 0.156 points (Cv = 21.98 %), selection sow reproductive qualities index (SIVKS) – 88.31 ± 1.118 points (Cv = 14.77 %). Coefficients of pair correlation between the estimated indices IVG0, IVG60, SIVKS and signs of reproductive qualities range from -0.438 (index of uniformity (uniformity) of the nest of a sow in terms of live weight of piglets at the time of weaning, point (IVG60) × large fruit) to + 0.988 ± 0, 0020 (breeding index of reproductive qualities of a sow (SIVKS) × multiple pregnancy). The maximum increase in additional products received from animals of class M+ – 27.60 %, and its cost is equal to 685.33 UAH/head.
Key words: sow, reproductive qualities, integrated assessment, evenness (uniformity) of the nest, variability, correlation, economic efficiency.
|The influence of sows age on multiple pregnancy and nest weight during weaning||Annotation|
The influence of sows age on multiple pregnancy and nest weight during weaning
UDC 636.4.082 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0150
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 404–409.
Institute of Agriculture Steppes NAAN, 2, CentralStr,Sozonovka villege,Kropyvnytskyi district, Kirovograd region, 27602, Ukraine
The results of the study of the indices of the own productivity of sows of Large White breed of different reproductive ages and the influence of this trait on the multiple pregnancy and the weight of the nest when weaning piglets are presented on the basis of using the documentation of the pedigree registration of pigs of the State Enterprise "Experimental farm" Elite "of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe NAAN" for the last three years.
Based on the results of our research, it was found that the multiple births of sows of group I (18–24 months) is 10.4 heads, the weight of the nest at weaning at the age of 60 days is 181.8 kg, the safety of piglets at weaning is 91 %. Similar indicators in animals of the II and III groups (25–36 and 36 months and older) were 11.1–10.2 heads, 193.8 and 174.2 kg, 96 and 93 %, respectively. The variability of quantitative traits, which were the subject of our research, ranges from 9.3 to 17.5 %, that is, it corresponds to low and medium risk.
When determining the influence of the age of mothers on their multiple births and the weight of the nest during weaning of piglets, it was found that the highest correlative relationship – r = 0.44 is observed between the age of the queens 18–24 months and multiple births and weak – r = 0.10 between the age of the uterus 25–36 months and multiple pregnancy. In queens older than 36 months, the correlation between age and productivity is weak and negative, which confirms that with an increase in their age, the reproductive and productive qualities of animals decrease.
Improving selection work depending on age is an important and urgent issue in increasing the efficiency of pig breeding, since the volume of pork production depends on it. The age of sows is one of the key factors that affects the reproductive qualities of animals and determines the terms of the economic use of the broodstock, which, in turn, predetermines the need to study this aspect.
Key words: pigs, age, sows, productivity, multiple pregnancy, influence, correlation, nest mass.
|Contextual advertising is an effective tool of digital marketing||Annotation|
Contextual advertising is an effective tool of digital marketing
UDC 339.138 https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0151
Nosenko Yu.М. 1, Lukyanchuk L. V.1 Sinelnik L. M.2
Grain Crops. 2020. 4 (2). 410–418.
1 The national Academy of agrarian Sciences, 9, Mykhailo Omelyanovych-Pavlenko str., Kyiv, 01010, Ukraine
2 NSC "Institute of agriculture NAAN",2-b, Machine builders str., smt Chabany, Kiev-Svyatoshinsky district,
Kiev region, 08162, Ukraine
The concept of contextual advertising, its strengths, main types are defined. Types of advertising campaigns are defined. Highlighted the basic settings in Google Ads, in particular the rules of keyword selection.
The effectiveness of using contextual advertising as an Internet marketing tool has been established, given that it:
acts selectively and is displayed to visitors of the website whose sphere of interests potentially coincides / intersects with the subject of the advertised product or service;
meets the requirements of the target audience, which increases the likelihood of its response to advertising and makes it more attractive than other types of advertising;
helps to improve the company's image, disseminate information about products and sell goods over the Internet;
is an effective element of digital marketing, which with a high-quality setting can increase company revenues.
Contextual advertising has prospects, given:
When setting up contextual advertising, the following are important: choosing the type of advertising campaign (image, product, trade), searching for keywords and choosing the type of correspondence (general matching, broad match modifier, phrase matching, exact matching).
Effective contextual advertising is a chain of "request -> keyword -> advertisement -> landing page of the site-> purchase of goods".
Keywords:digitalmarketing, searchengine, contextualadvertising, advertisingcampaign, demand, keywords.